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Pulmonary functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897352/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-in-vivo-quantification-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-sugen-5416-hypoxia-mouse
#1
Ellen C Breen, Miriam Scadeng, N Chin Lai, Fiona Murray, Timothy D Bigby
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressures and right heart failure. PAH mouse models are instrumental in understanding disease pathophysiology. However, few methods are available to evaluate right cardiac function in small animals. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure in vivo cardiac dimensions in the Sugen 5416/hypoxia mouse model. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by three weeks of exposure to 10% oxygen and VEGF receptor inhibition (20 mg kg(-1) SU5416)...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863742/nanoparticle-transport-and-delivery-in-a-heterogeneous-pulmonary-vasculature
#2
Salman Sohrabi, Shunqiang Wang, Jifu Tan, Jiang Xu, Jie Yang, Yaling Liu
Quantitative understanding of nanoparticles delivery in a complex vascular networks is very challenging because it involves interplay of transport, hydrodynamic force, and multivalent interactions across different scales. Heterogeneous pulmonary network includes up to 16 generations of vessels in its arterial tree. Modeling the complete pulmonary vascular system in 3D is computationally unrealistic. To save computational cost, a model reconstructed from MRI scanned images is cut into an arbitrary pathway consisting of the upper 4-generations...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809405/pulmonary-perfusion-quantification-with-flow-sensitive-inversion-recovery-fair-ute-mri-in-small-animal-imaging
#3
Marta Tibiletti, Andrea Bianchi, Detlef Stiller, Volker Rasche
Blood perfusion in lung parenchyma is an important property for assessing lung function. In small animals, its quantitation is limited even with radioactive isotopes or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI techniques. In this study, the feasibility flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) for the quantification of blood flow in lung parenchyma in free breathing rats at 7 T has been investigated. In order to obtain sufficient signal from the short T2 * lung parenchyma, a 2D ultra-short echo time (UTE) Look-Locker read-out has been implemented...
November 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800660/treatment-of-severe-adult-traumatic-brain-injury-using-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells
#4
Charles S Cox, Robert A Hetz, George P Liao, Benjamin M Aertker, Linda Ewing-Cobbs, Jenifer Juranek, Sean I Savitz, Margaret L Jackson, Anna M Romanowska-Pawliczek, Fabio Triolo, Pramod K Dash, Claudia Pedroza, Dean A Lee, Laura Worth, Imoigele P Aisiku, Huimahn A Choi, John B Holcomb, Ryan S Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Numerous pre-clinical studies using bone marrow derived cells for the treatment of traumatic brain injury and stroke have demonstrated efficacy in terms of blood-brain barrier preservation, neurogenesis, and other functional outcomes. Phase 1 clinical trials using bone marrow mononuclear cells infused intravenously in children with severe TBI demonstrated safety and potentially a CNS structural preservation treatment effect. This study sought to confirm the safety, logistic feasibility, and potential treatment effect size of structural preservation/inflammatory biomarker mitigation in adults to guide Phase 2 clinical trial design...
November 1, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774645/rapid-3d-in-vivo-1h-human-lung-respiratory-imaging-at-1-5%C3%A2-t-using-ultra-fast-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#5
Orso Pusterla, Grzegorz Bauman, Mark O Wielpütz, Sylvia Nyilas, Philipp Latzin, Claus P Heussel, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To introduce a reproducible, nonenhanced 1H MRI method for rapid in vivo functional assessment of the whole lung at 1.5 Tesla (T). METHODS: At different respiratory volumes, the pulmonary signal of ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) follows an adapted sponge model, characterized by a respiratory index α. From the model, α reflects local ventilation-related information, is virtually independent from the lung density and thus from the inspiratory phase and breathing amplitude...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753873/ish-aha-2-a-case-of-chronic-indolent-pheochromocytoma-which-caused-medically-controlled-hypertension-but-treatment-resistant-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734519/a-hybrid-multibreath-wash-in-wash-out-lung-function-quantification-scheme-in-human-subjects-using-hyperpolarized-3-he-mri-for-simultaneous-assessment-of-specific-ventilation-alveolar-oxygen-tension-oxygen-uptake-and-air-trapping
#7
Hooman Hamedani, Stephen Kadlecek, Yi Xin, Sarmad Siddiqui, Heather Gatens, Joseph Naji, Masaru Ishii, Maurizio Cereda, Milton Rossman, Rahim Rizi
PURPOSE: To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (PA O2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the PA O2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). METHOD: An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, PA O2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters...
October 13, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731948/ultrashort-echo-time-mri-biomarkers-of-asthma
#8
Khadija Sheikh, Fumin Guo, Dante P I Capaldi, Alexei Ouriadov, Rachel L Eddy, Sarah Svenningsen, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: To develop and assess ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers of lung function in asthma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty participants including 13 healthy volunteers and 17 asthmatics provided written informed consent to UTE and pulmonary function tests in addition to hyperpolarized-noble-gas 3T MRI and computed tomography (CT) for asthmatics only. The difference in MRI signal-intensity (SI) across four lung volumes (full-expiration, functional-residual-capacity [FRC], FRC+1L, and full-inspiration) was determined on a voxel-by-voxel basis to generate dynamic proton-density (DPD) maps...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717759/noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-regional-abnormalities-and-response-to-airway-clearance-therapy-using-pulmonary-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707585/the-role-of-hyperpolarized-129-xenon-in-mr-imaging-of-pulmonary-function
#10
Lukas Ebner, Jeff Kammerman, Bastiaan Driehuys, Mark L Schiebler, Robert V Cadman, Sean B Fain
In the last two decades, functional imaging of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble gases has entered the clinical stage. Both helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) gas have been thoroughly investigated for their ability to assess both the global and regional patterns of lung ventilation. With advances in polarizer technology and the current transition towards the widely available (129)Xe gas, this method is ready for translation to the clinic. Currently, hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas lung MRI is limited to selected academic institutions; yet, the promising results from initial clinical trials have drawn the attention of the pulmonary medicine community...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702930/triple-threat-in-pregnancy
#11
Swati Vishwanathan, Michael Lucke, Indu G Poornima
A woman aged 22 years with a history of lupus presented in the 18th week of pregnancy with hypertensive emergency and flash pulmonary oedema. Bedside echocardiogram revealed severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with an ejection fraction (EF) of 25% and pericardial effusion. Laboratories revealed hypocomplementemia, proteinuria, elevated C reactive protein and anti-DS-DNA, raising concern for a lupus flare. Cardiac MRI showed an acute intramyocardial oedematous process, consistent with lupus carditis, and further worsening of LVEF to 13%...
October 4, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693089/contribution-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-lung-cancer-imaging
#12
A Khalil, M Majlath, V Gounant, A Hess, J P Laissy, M P Debray
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prognosis and treatment outcomes are known to be related to the disease stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the extent of disease is critical to determine the most appropriate therapy. Currently available imaging modalities for diagnosis and follow-up consist of morphological and functional imaging. Morphological investigations are mainly performed with CT-scan and in some cases with MRI. In this review, we describe the contribution of MRI in lung cancer staging focusing on solid pulmonary nodule characterization and TNM staging assessment using chest and whole-body MRI examinations, detailing in each chapter current recommendations and future developments...
October 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689918/treatment-response-of-ethyl-pyruvate-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-studied-by-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri
#13
Atsuomi Kimura, Yukiko Yamauchi, Shota Hodono, Neil James Stewart, Osamu Hosokawa, Yu Hagiwara, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate disease progression and treatment response in a murine model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using a preclinical hyperpolarized (129) Xe (HPXe) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strategy. METHODS: COPD phenotypes were induced in 32 mice by 10 weeks of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Efficacy of ethyl pyruvate (EP), an anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated by administering EP to 16 of the 32 mice after 6 weeks of CS and LPS exposure...
September 30, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672065/balloon-pulmonary-angioplasty-improves-interventricular-dyssynchrony-in-patients-with-inoperable-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-a-cardiac-mr-imaging-study
#14
Yuzo Yamasaki, Michinobu Nagao, Kohtaro Abe, Kazuya Hosokawa, Satoshi Kawanami, Takeshi Kamitani, Torahiko Yamanouchi, Koshin Horimoto, Hidetake Yabuuchi, Hiroshi Honda
To use cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the effect of balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) on interventricular dyssynchrony and its associations with ventricular interaction, which impairs LV function in patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). This prospective observational study was approved by our institutional review board. Cardiac MRI and right heart catheterization were conducted before BPA sessions and at the follow up after BPA in 20 patients with CTEPH...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662575/hyperpolarized-129xenon-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-quantify-regional-ventilation-differences-in-mild-to-moderate-asthma-a-prospective-comparison-between-semiautomated-ventilation-defect-percentage-calculation-and-pulmonary-function-tests
#15
Lukas Ebner, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Timothy Heacock, Suryanarayanan S Kaushik, Matthew S Freemann, H Page McAdams, Monica Kraft, Bastiaan Driehuys
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate ventilation in mild to moderate asthmatic patients and age-matched controls using hyperpolarized (HP) Xenon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlate findings with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Thirty subjects (10 young asthmatic patients, 26 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 older asthmatic patients, 64 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 healthy controls) were enrolled...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643110/ish-aha-2-a-case-of-chronic-indolent-pheochromocytoma-which-caused-medically-controlled-hypertension-but-treatment-resistant-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629759/evaluation-of-right-ventricular-systolic-function-in-patients-with-chronic-pulmonary-heart-disease-by-2-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#17
Yingfeng Liu, Dawei Wang, Qigen Du, Guoying Che, Jiawei Tian, Yanxin Su
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of 2-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography for assessing right ventricular (RV) systolic function in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease (CPHD) and the correlation of its parameters with the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: According to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, 80 patients with CPHD and tricuspid regurgitation were divided into 2 groups: 42 with mild pulmonary hypertension (PH; 30-50 mm Hg) and 38 with moderate or severe PH (≥50 mm Hg); 41 control participants were recruited...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619954/expanding-treatment-for-existing-neurological-disease-extend-an-open-label-phase-ii-clinical-trial-of-hydroxyurea-treatment-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#18
Angela E Rankine-Mullings, Courtney R Little, Marvin E Reid, Deanne P Soares, Carolyn Taylor-Bryan, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Susan E Stuber, Asha V Badaloo, Karen Aldred, Margaret E Wisdom-Phipps, Teresa Latham, Russell E Ware
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown...
September 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617823/using-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri-to-quantify-the-pulmonary-ventilation-distribution
#19
Mu He, Bastiaan Driehuys, Loretta G Que, Yuh-Chin T Huang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Ventilation heterogeneity is impossible to detect with spirometry. Alternatively, pulmonary ventilation can be imaged three-dimensionally using inhaled (129)Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To date, such images have been quantified primarily based on ventilation defects. Here, we introduce a robust means to transform (129)Xe MRI scans such that the underlying ventilation distribution and its heterogeneity can be quantified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative (129)Xe ventilation MRI was conducted in 12 younger (24...
September 8, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581040/activation-of-the-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-nnmt-1-methylnicotinamide-mna-pathway-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
Andrzej Fedorowicz, Łukasz Mateuszuk, Grzegorz Kopec, Tomasz Skórka, Barbara Kutryb-Zając, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Maria Walczak, Andrzej Jakubowski, Magdalena Łomnicka, Ewa Słomińska, Stefan Chlopicki
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with inflammatory response but it is unknown whether it is associated with alterations in NNMT activity and MNA plasma concentration. Here we examined changes in NNMT-MNA pathway in PAH in rats and humans. METHODS: PAH in rats was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60 mg/kg). Changes in NNMT activity in the lungs and liver (assessed as the rate of conversion of nicotinamide (NA) to MNA), changes in plasma concentration of MNA and its metabolites (analyzed by LC/MS) were analyzed in relation to PAH progression...
2016: Respiratory Research
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