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Pulmonary functional MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516043/quantification-of-regional-deformation-of-the-lungs-by-non-rigid-registration-of-three-dimensional-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#1
Jiaxin Shao, Peng Hu
BACKGROUND: Assessment of lung function is vital for the diagnosis of a variety of pathological conditions. Research has been proposed to study pulmonary mechanics and kinematics using two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This allows estimation of regional lung tissue mechanics but is limited to 2D information. An approach based on three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced MR angiogram of pulmonary blood vessels and a non-rigid image registration technique is proposed for quantification of lung regional deformations, which can potentially be used for assessment of pulmonary parenchymal mechanics and regional ventilation for disease diagnosis without ionizing radiation...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514950/lung-function-imaging-methods-in-cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-disease
#2
REVIEW
Magdalena Kołodziej, Michael J de Veer, Marian Cholewa, Gary F Egan, Bruce R Thompson
Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis...
May 17, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508450/simultaneous-assessment-of-both-lung-morphometry-and-gas-exchange-function-within-a-single-breath-hold-by-hyperpolarized-129-xe-mri
#3
Jianping Zhong, Huiting Zhang, Weiwei Ruan, Junshuai Xie, Haidong Li, He Deng, Yeqing Han, Xianping Sun, Chaohui Ye, Xin Zhou
During the measurement of hyperpolarized (129) Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) technique provides valuable information for the assessment of lung morphometry at the alveolar level, whereas the chemical shift saturation recovery (CSSR) technique can evaluate the gas exchange function of the lungs. To date, the two techniques have only been performed during separate breaths. However, the request for multiple breaths increases the cost and scanning time, limiting clinical application...
May 16, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502520/-exploring-the-diaphragm-ultrasound-is-essential
#4
REVIEW
P Richard
The diaphragm is the muscle most implicated in breathing. Its morphological exploration usually depends on pulmonary radiography, fluoroscopy, CT-scanning and MRI. Its function is evaluated by the classical respiratory functional tests, the measurement of maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures, the transdiaphragmatic pressure and even an electromyogram. Ultrasound is a technique still insufficiently used in respiratory medicine. It offers, however, many advantages: it is easy to implement, there is no irradiation, it is usable at the bedside, particularly when the patient is immobile or in intensive care...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494006/the-change-of-longitudinal-relaxation-rate-in-oxygen-enhanced-pulmonary-mri-depends-on-age-and-bmi-but-not-diffusing-capacity-of-carbon-monoxide-in-healthy-never-smokers
#5
Simon Sven Ivan Kindvall, Sandra Diaz, Jonas Svensson, Per Wollmer, Lars E Olsson
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen enhanced pulmonary MRI is a promising modality for functional lung studies and has been applied to a wide range of pulmonary conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oxygen enhancement effect in the lungs of healthy, never-smokers, in light of a previously established relationship between oxygen enhancement and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide in the lung (DL,CO) in patients with lung disease. METHODS: In 30 healthy never-smoking volunteers, an inversion recovery with gradient echo read-out (Snapshot-FLASH) was used to quantify the difference in longitudinal relaxation rate, while breathing air and 100% oxygen, ΔR1, at 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488348/pulmonary-artery-stiffness-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-emphysema-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa-copd-study
#6
Chia-Ying Liu, Megha Parikh, David A Bluemke, Pallavi Balte, James Carr, Stephen Dashnaw, Hooman D Poor, Antoinette S Gomes, Eric A Hoffman, Steven M Kawut, Joao A C Lima, David A McAllister, Martin A Prince, Jens Vogel-Claussen, R Graham Barr
PURPOSE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and particularly emphysema are characterized by stiffness of the aorta, due in part to accelerated elastin degradation in the lungs and aorta. Stiffness of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) may also be increased in COPD and emphysema, but data are lacking. We assessed PA stiffness using MRI in patients with COPD and related these measurements to COPD severity and percent emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study recruited 290 participants, age 50-79 years with 10 or more packyears and free of clinical cardiovascular disease...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463971/pulmonary-hyperinflation-due-to-gas-trapping-and-pulmonary-artery-size-the-mesa-copd-study
#7
Hooman D Poor, Steven M Kawut, Chia-Ying Liu, Benjamin M Smith, Eric A Hoffman, João A Lima, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Erin D Michos, Martin R Prince, R Graham Barr
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Since pulmonary artery (PA) size increases in pulmonary hypertension, we measured PA cross-sectional area using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the hypothesis that pulmonary hyperinflation due to gas trapping is associated with PA cross-sectional area in COPD. METHODS: The MESA COPD Study recruited participants with COPD and controls from two population-based cohort studies ages 50-79 years with 10 or more pack-years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426728/pulmonary-vascular-volume-impaired-left-ventricular-filling-and-dyspnea-the-mesa-lung-study
#8
Carrie P Aaron, Eric A Hoffman, Joao A C Lima, Steven M Kawut, Alain G Bertoni, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Mohammadali Habibi, Katja Hueper, David R Jacobs, Ravi Kalhan, Erin D Michos, Wendy S Post, Martin R Prince, Benjamin M Smith, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Chia-Ying Liu, Filip Zemrak, Karol E Watson, Matthew Budoff, David A Bluemke, R Graham Barr
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of impaired left ventricular (LV) filling has focused on intrinsic causes of LV dysfunction; however, pulmonary vascular changes may contribute to reduced LV filling and dyspnea. We hypothesized that lower total pulmonary vascular volume (TPVV) on computed tomography (CT) would be associated with dyspnea and decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, particularly among ever-smokers. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in 2000-02...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424613/the-relationship-between-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-hippocampal-volume-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-copd-an-mri-study
#9
Fiona A H M Cleutjens, Rudolf W H M Ponds, Martijn A Spruit, Saartje Burgmans, Heidi I L Jacobs, Ed H B M Gronenschild, Julie Staals, Frits M E Franssen, Jeanette B Dijkstra, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Paul A Hofman, Emiel F M Wouters, Daisy J A Janssen
The neural correlates of cognitive impairment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not yet understood. Structural brain abnormalities could possibly be associated with the presence of cognitive impairment through cigarette smoke, inflammation, vascular disease, or hypoxemia in these patients. This study aimed to investigate whether macrostructural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and hippocampal volume (HCV) are related to cognitive performance in patients with COPD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414679/misses-opportunity-tof-diagnoses-in-4th-decade-of-life
#10
O Baniahmad, T Jarreau, A Johnson
CASE: A 40 year old woman with a history of HIV, congestive heart failure secondary to an unknown congenital heart defect, and hypertension presented to our emergency department with worsening edema. On room air, oxygen saturation was 55 percent . On 5L of oxygen via nasal cannula, oxygen saturation was 88 percent . Physical examination was notable for central cyanosis, facial and lid edema, a II/VI holosystolic murmur across right chest radiating to entire right back hemithorax, decreased breath sounds at bases with pulmonary crackles, clubbing of fingers and edema of bilateral lower extremities...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409073/facial-paralysis-and-hearing-loss-a-rare-manifestation-of-prostate-cancer-metastases
#11
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Muhammad R Raza, Nikhil Nalluri, Frank Forte
Dural prostate metastases (DPM) are a rare manifestation of metastatic prostate cancer seen in approximately one to six percent of cases. Presenting symptoms may include signs of elevated intracranial pressure, headache, altered mental status, or cranial nerve palsies. Hearing loss, sensory changes, dysarthria, and dysphagia are rare symptoms in DPM that were present in our patient. We present a case of a 58-year-old male with a known diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate presenting with symptoms of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sub-acute right-sided hearing loss, and right-sided facial paralysis...
March 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403885/lung-structure-and-function-similarities-between-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-and-mild-cystic-fibrosis-a-pilot-study
#12
Marco Maglione, Silvia Montella, Carmine Mollica, Vincenzo Carnovale, Paola Iacotucci, Fabiola De Gregorio, Antonella Tosco, Mariarosaria Cervasio, Valeria Raia, Francesca Santamaria
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. METHODS: Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable...
April 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398019/epidemiology-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-clinical-evaluation-of-functional-tricuspid-regurgitation
#13
Yee-Ping Sun, Patrick T O' Gara
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is commonly encountered in the management of patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Primary TR is the result of structural abnormalities of the valve or chordal attachments whereas functional TR results from alterations in right ventricular (RV) or right atrial (RA) size, shape or function. The vast majority of TR cases seen in practice are functional in nature and usually results from left-sided heart disease (e.g., mitral valve disease, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction) and/or pulmonary vascular disease, though it also manifests in the presence of isolated chronic atrial fibrillation (AF)...
April 10, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384123/magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-hyperpolarized-agents-methods-and-applications
#14
Erin Adamson, Kai Ludwig, David Mummy, Sean B Fain
In the past decade, hyperpolarized (HP) contrast agents have been under active development for MRI applications to address the twin challenges of functional and quantitative imaging. Both HP helium (<sup>3</sup>He) and xenon (<sup>129</sup>Xe) gases have reached the stage where they are under study in clinical research. HP <sup>129</sup>Xe, in particular, is poised for larger scale clinical research to investigate asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrotic lung diseases...
April 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291826/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-emphysema
#15
Margaret F Doyle, Russell P Tracy, Megha A Parikh, Eric A Hoffman, Daichi Shimbo, John H M Austin, Benjamin M Smith, Katja Hueper, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Joao Lima, Antoinette Gomes, Karol Watson, Steven Kawut, R Graham Barr
Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50-79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280107/ventilation-heterogeneity-measured-by-multiple-breath-inert-gas-testing-is-not-affected-by-inspired-oxygen-concentration-in-healthy-humans
#16
Susan Roberta Hopkins, Ann R Elliott, Gordon Kim Prisk, Chantal Darquenne
Multiple breath washout (MBW) and oxygen-enhanced MRI techniques use acute exposure to 100% oxygen to measure ventilation heterogeneity. Implicit is the assumption that breathing 100% oxygen does not induce changes in ventilation heterogeneity, however, this is untested. We hypothesized that ventilation heterogeneity decreases with increasing inspired oxygen concentration in healthy subjects. We performed MBW in 8 healthy subjects (4 female, 4 male, Age=43±15y) with normal pulmonary function (FEV1=98±6% predicted) using 10% Argon as a tracer gas and oxygen concentrations of 12...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277913/observed-to-expected-mri-fetal-lung-volume-can-predict-long-term-lung-morbidity-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#17
Hiroyuki Tsuda, Tomomi Kotani, Mayo Miura, Yumiko Ito, Shima Hirako, Tomoko Nakano, Kenji Imai, Fumitaka Kikkawa
OBJECTIVE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) causes pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension, which are associated with long-term respiratory problems in infants. The aim of this study was to establish a marker for predicting lung function at 1 year of age in infants with CDH. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infants with isolated CDH who were delivered after 35 weeks of gestation from April 2008 to June 2016 at Nagoya University Hospital were registered. Regarding alive infants with CDH, only those who underwent follow-up for at least 1 year were registered...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214964/speckle-tracking-in-alcapa-patients-after-surgical-repair-as-predictor-of-residual-coronary-disease
#18
Biagio Castaldi, Vladimiro Vida, Elena Reffo, Massimo Padalino, Queenette Daniels, Giovanni Stellin, Ornella Milanesi
Surgical re-implantation of the left coronary artery (LCA) is the treatment of choice in anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). Despite normalization of left ventricular function after surgery, residual coronary lesions or myocardial fibrosis may be found. The aim of this study was to detect regional left ventricular dysfunction predictive of coronary lesions or residual myocardial fibrosis using speckle tracking. We enrolled ten patients treated with surgical re-implantation of LCA for ALCAPA...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207845/reproducibility-and-comparison-of-oxygen-enhanced-t1-quantification-in-copd-and-asthma-patients
#19
Simon M F Triphan, Bertram J Jobst, Angela Anjorin, Oliver Sedlaczek, Ursula Wolf, Maxim Terekhov, Christian Hoffmann, Sebastian Ley, Christoph Düber, Jürgen Biederer, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Peter M Jakob, Mark O Wielpütz
T1 maps have been shown to yield useful diagnostic information on lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, both for native T1 and ΔT1, the relative reduction while breathing pure oxygen. As parameter quantification is particularly interesting for longitudinal studies, the purpose of this work was both to examine the reproducibility of lung T1 mapping and to compare T1 found in COPD and asthma patients using IRSnapShotFLASH embedded in a full MRI protocol. 12 asthma and 12 COPD patients (site 1) and further 15 COPD patients (site 2) were examined on two consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206676/thoracic-ct-mri-coregistration-for-regional-pulmonary-structure-function-measurements-of-obstructive-lung-disease
#20
Fumin Guo, Sarah Svenningsen, Miranda Kirby, Dante Pi Capaldi, Khadija Sheikh, Aaron Fenster, Grace Parraga
PURPOSE: Recent pulmonary imaging research has revealed that in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, structural and functional abnormalities are spatially heterogeneous. This novel information may help optimize treatment in individual patients, monitor interventional efficacy, and develop new treatments. Moreover, by automating the measurement of regional biomarkers for the 19 different anatomical lung segments, there is an opportunity to embed imaging biomarkers into clinically acceptable clinical workflows and improve lung disease clinical care...
February 16, 2017: Medical Physics
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