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Allosteric disulfide

Panchada Ch V Govindu, Athul Mohanan, Ashwini Dolle, Konkallu Hanumae Gowd
Conformations of cysteine disulfides were analyzed in X-ray, NMR, and co-crystal structures of peptide toxins retrieved from Protein Data Bank. The parameters side chain torsional angles, disulfide strain energy, inter-atomic Cα/Cβ distances, and Ramachandran angles were used as probes to derive conformational features of cysteine disulfides. Schmidt, 2006 scheme was adapted to classify the disulfide conformations of peptide toxins (Schmidt, B., Ho, L., & Hogg, P. J. (2006). Allosteric disulfide bonds...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Matthew Blahut, Stephen Dzul, Suning Wang, Ashoka Kandegedara, Nicholas E Grossoehme, Timothy Stemmler, F Wayne Outten
Transition metal homeostasis is necessary to sustain life. First row transition metals act as cofactors within the cell, performing vital functions ranging from DNA repair to respiration. However, intracellular metal concentrations exceeding physiological requirements may be toxic. In E. coli, the YqjH flavoprotein is thought to play a role in iron homeostasis. YqjH is transcriptionally regulated by the ferric uptake regulator and a newly discovered regulator encoded by yqjI. The apo-form of YqjI is a transcriptional repressor of both the yqjH and yqjI genes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Conan K Wang, Hafiza Abdul Ghani, Anna Bundock, Joachim Weidmann, Peta J Harvey, Ingrid A Edwards, Christina I Schroeder, Joakim E Swedberg, David J Craik
The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain is one of the most abundant disulfide-containing domains in nature and is involved in many cellular processes critical to life. Although many EGF-like domains participate in calcium-dependent functions by responding to the local calcium concentration, little is known about how this responsiveness is programmed at the molecular level. Here, we reveal the structural and environmental determinants underpinning the folding of a synthetic analogue of the EGF-A domain (from the low-density lipoprotein receptor)...
May 1, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Juan P Zubimendi, Andrea Martinatto, Maria P Valacco, Silvia Moreno, Carlos S Andreo, María F Drincovich, Marcos A Tronconi
Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two fumarase genes (FUM), AtFUM1 (At2g47510) encoding for the mitochondrial Krebs cycle-associated enzyme and AtFUM2 (At5g50950) for the cytosolic isoform required for fumarate massive accumulation. Here, the comprehensive biochemical studies of AtFUM1 and AtFUM2 shows that they are active enzymes with similar kinetic parameters but differential regulation. For both enzymes, fumarate hydratase (FH) activity is favored over the malate dehydratase (MD) activity; however, MD is the most regulated activity with several allosteric activators...
April 24, 2018: FEBS Journal
Henry R Maun, Peter S Liu, Yvonne Franke, Charles Eigenbrot, William F Forrest, Lawrence B Schwartz, Robert A Lazarus
Human β-tryptase, a tetrameric trypsin-like serine protease, is an important mediator of the allergic inflammatory responses in asthma. During acute hypersensitivity reactions, mast cells degranulate, releasing active tetramer as a complex with proteoglycans. Extensive efforts have focused on developing therapeutic β-tryptase inhibitors, but its unique activation mechanism is less well explored. Tryptase is active only after proteolytic removal of the pro-domain followed by tetramer formation via two distinct symmetry-related interfaces...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Brad A Palanski, Chaitan Khosla
The catalytic activity of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a ubiquitously expressed mammalian enzyme, is regulated by multiple post-translational mechanisms. Because elevated activity of TG2 in the extracellular matrix is associated with organ-specific diseases such as celiac disease and renal fibrosis, there is growing therapeutic interest in inhibitors of this enzyme. Cystamine, a symmetric disulfide compound, is one of the earliest reported TG2 inhibitors. Despite its widespread use as a tool compound to block TG2 activity in vitro and in vivo, its mechanism of action has remained unclear...
March 28, 2018: Biochemistry
Prem Prakash, Narayan S Punekar, Prasenjit Bhaumik
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme connecting carbon and nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. Despite extensive studies on GDHs from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the last 40 years, the structural basis of the catalytic features of this enzyme remains incomplete. This study reports the structural basis of the GDH catalytic mechanism and allosteric behavior. We determined the first high-resolution crystal structures of glutamate dehydrogenase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnGDH), a unique NADP+ -dependent allosteric enzyme that is forward-inhibited by the formation of mixed disulfide...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aster E Pijning, Joyce Chiu, Reichelle X Yeo, Jason W H Wong, Philip J Hogg
Protein disulfide bonds link pairs of cysteine sulfur atoms and are either structural or functional motifs. The allosteric disulfides control the function of the protein in which they reside when cleaved or formed. Here, we identify potential allosteric disulfides in all Protein Data Bank X-ray structures from bonds that are present in some molecules of a protein crystal but absent in others, or present in some structures of a protein but absent in others. We reasoned that the labile nature of these disulfides signifies a propensity for cleavage and so possible allosteric regulation of the protein in which the bond resides...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Diego Butera, Freda Passam, Lining Ju, Kristina M Cook, Heng Woon, Camilo Aponte-Santamaría, Elizabeth Gardiner, Amanda K Davis, Deirdre A Murphy, Agnieszka Bronowska, Brenda M Luken, Carsten Baldauf, Shaun Jackson, Robert Andrews, Frauke Gräter, Philip J Hogg
Force-dependent binding of platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) receptors to plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Previous studies have suggested that VWF activation requires force-induced exposure of the GPIb binding site in the A1 domain that is autoinhibited by the neighboring A2 domain. However, the biochemical basis of this "mechanopresentation" remains elusive. From a combination of protein chemical, biophysical, and functional studies, we find that the autoinhibition is controlled by the redox state of an unusual disulfide bond near the carboxyl terminus of the A2 domain that links adjacent cysteine residues to form an eight-membered ring...
February 2018: Science Advances
Gustavo Salinas
The activity of human transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which forms protein cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues, is controlled by an allosteric disulfide bond. However, the mechanism by which this bond is formed, like many systems regulated by oxidative cysteine modifications, was not clear. A new study from Khosla and colleagues shows that TG2 is oxidatively inactivated by the protein disulfide isomerase ERp57, providing the first example of a defined and reversible protein-controlled redox switch and pointing to new strategies to inhibit undesirable TG2 activity in pathological states...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gavin R Owen, Doris Le, Stoyan Stoychev, Nichole M Cerutti, Maria Papathanasopoulos
CD4, a membrane glycoprotein expressed by specific leukocytes, plays a vital role in the human immune response and acts as a primary receptor for HIV entry. Of its four ecto-domains (D1-D4), D1, D2, and D4 each contain a distinctive disulfide bond. Whereas the disulfides of D1 and D4 are more traditional in nature, providing structural functions, that of D2 is referred to as an "allosteric" disulfide due to its high dihedral strain energy and relative ease of reduction that is thought to regulate CD4 structure and function by shuffling its redox state...
March 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mathivanan Chinnaraj, Zhiwei Chen, Leslie A Pelc, Zachary Grese, Dominika Bystranowska, Enrico Di Cera, Nicola Pozzi
The clotting factor prothrombin exists in equilibrium between closed and open conformations, but the physiological role of these forms remains unclear. As for other allosteric proteins, elucidation of the linkage between molecular transitions and function is facilitated by reagents stabilized in each of the alternative conformations. The open form of prothrombin has been characterized structurally, but little is known about the architecture of the closed form that predominates in solution under physiological conditions...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher John Schlicksup, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Samson Francis, Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan, William W Turner, Michael VanNieuwenhze, Adam Zlotnick
Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks...
January 29, 2018: ELife
Michael C Yi, Arek V Melkonian, James A Ousey, Chaitan Khosla
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed, intracellular as well as extracellular protein with multiple modes of post-translational regulation, including an allosteric disulfide bond between Cys-370-Cys-371 that renders the enzyme inactive in the extracellular matrix. Although recent studies have established that extracellular TG2 is switched "on" by the redox cofactor protein thioredoxin-1 (TRX), it is unclear how TG2 is switched "off." Here, we demonstrate that TG2 oxidation by small-molecule biological oxidants, including glutathione, cystine, and hydrogen peroxide, is unlikely to be the inactivation mechanism...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Weining Niu, Jun Wang, Jing Qian, Mengying Wang, Ping Wu, Fei Chen, Shasha Yan
Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is the central enzyme in the trans-sulfuration pathway that converts homocysteine to cysteine. It is also one of the three major enzymes involved in the biogenesis of H2 S. CBS is a complex protein with a modular three-domain architecture, the central domain of which contains a272 C XX C275 motif whose function has yet to be determined. In the present study, we demonstrated that the C XX C motif exists in oxidized and reduced states in the recombinant enzyme by mass spectroscopic analysis and a thiol labeling assay...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tuoyi Li, Bing Yu, Zhixin Liu, Jingyuan Li, Mingliang Ma, Yingbao Wang, Mingjiang Zhu, Huiyong Yin, Xiaofeng Wang, Yi Fu, Fang Yu, Xian Wang, Xiaohong Fang, Jinpeng Sun, Wei Kong
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism underlying HHcy-aggravated vascular injury remains unclear. Here we show that the aggravation of abdominal aortic aneurysm by HHcy is abolished in mice with genetic deletion of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor and in mice treated with an AT1 blocker. We find that homocysteine directly activates AT1 receptor signalling. Homocysteine displaces angiotensin II and limits its binding to AT1 receptor. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analysis reveals distinct conformational changes of AT1 receptor upon binding to angiotensin II and homocysteine...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Bianca van Lierop, Shee Chee Ong, Alessia Belgi, Carlie Delaine, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Naomi L Haworth, John G Menting, Michael C Lawrence, Andrea J Robinson, Briony E Forbes
The structural transitions required for insulin to activate its receptor and initiate regulation of glucose homeostasis are only partly understood. Here, using ring-closing metathesis, we substitute the A6-A11 disulfide bond of insulin with a rigid, non-reducible dicarba linkage, yielding two distinct stereo-isomers (cis and trans). Remarkably, only the cis isomer displays full insulin potency, rapidly lowering blood glucose in mice (even under insulin-resistant conditions). It also posseses reduced mitogenic activity in vitro...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Reid V Wilkening, Glenn C Capodagli, Atul Khataokar, Kaitlyn M Tylor, Matthew B Neiditch, Michael J Federle
Rap/Rgg/NprR/PlcR/PrgX (RRNPP) quorum-sensing systems use extracellular peptide pheromones that are detected by cytoplasmic receptors to regulate gene expression in firmicute bacteria. Rgg-type receptors are allosterically regulated through direct pheromone binding to control transcriptional activity; however, the receptor activation mechanism remains poorly understood. Previous work has identified a disulfide bond between Cys-45 residues within the homodimer interface of Rgg2 from Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Rgg2Sd )...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lingyun Qin, Huili Liu, Rong Chen, Jingjing Zhou, Xiyao Cheng, Yao Chen, Yongqi Huang, Zhengding Su
The oncoprotein MdmX (mouse double minute X) is highly homologous to Mdm2 (mouse double minute 2) in terms of their amino acid sequences and three-dimensional conformations, but Mdm2 inhibitors exhibit very weak affinity for MdmX, providing an excellent model for exploring how protein conformation distinguishes and alters inhibitor binding. The intrinsic conformation flexibility of proteins plays pivotal roles in determining and predicting the binding properties and the design of inhibitors. Although the molecular dynamics simulation approach enables us to understand protein-ligand interactions, the mechanism underlying how a flexible binding pocket adapts an inhibitor has been less explored experimentally...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
Alba Iglesias, Marta Cimadevila, Rocío Ailim de la Fuente, María Martí-Solano, María Isabel Cadavid, Marián Castro, Jana Selent, María Isabel Loza, José Brea
The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A ) receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with a conserved disulfide bridge formed by Cys148 (transmembrane helix 3, TM3) and Cys227 (extracellular loop 2, ECL-2). We hypothesized that disulfide bridges may determine serotonin 5-HT2A receptor functions such as receptor activation, functional selectivity and ligand recognition. We used the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) to determine how the reduction of disulfide bridges affects radioligand binding, second messenger mobilization and receptor dimerization...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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