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Chronic antibody rejection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914091/toward-clinical-use-of-the-igg-specific-enzymes-ides-and-endos-against-antibody-mediated-diseases
#1
Mattias Collin, Lars Björck
The endoglycosidase EndoS and the protease IdeS from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are immunomodulating enzymes hydrolyzing human IgG. IdeS cleaves IgG in the lower hinge region, while EndoS hydrolyzes the conserved N-linked glycan in the Fc region. Both enzymes are remarkably specific for human IgG that after hydrolysis loses most of its effector functions, such as binding to leukocytes and complement activation, all contributing to bacterial evasion of adaptive immunity. However, taken out of their infectious context, we and others have shown that IdeS and EndoS can alleviate autoimmune disease in a number of animal models of antibody-mediated disorders...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909648/fc%C3%AE-receptors-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Menna R Clatworthy
In the current era, one of the major factors limiting graft survival is chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), whilst patient survival is impacted by the effects of immunosuppression on susceptibility to infection, malignancy and atherosclerosis. IgG antibodies play a role in all of these processes, and many of their cellular effects are mediated by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs). These surface receptors are expressed by most immune cells, including B cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898462/recent-advances-in-allograft-vasculopathy
#3
Jonathan Merola, Daniel D Jane-Wit, Jordan S Pober
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite considerable advances in controlling acute rejection, the longevity of cardiac and renal allografts remains significantly limited by chronic rejection in the form of allograft vasculopathy. This review discusses recently reported mechanistic insights of allograft vasculopathy pathogenesis as well as recent clinical evaluations of new therapeutic approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Although adaptive immunity is the major driver of allograft vasculopathy, natural killer cells mediate vasculopathic changes in a transplanted mouse heart following treatment with donor-specific antibody (DSA)...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893614/the-presence-of-pretransplant-hla-antibodies-does-not-impact-the-development-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-or-clad-related-death
#4
Oscar E Zazueta, Sara E Preston, Anna Moniodis, Sabrina Fried, Miae Kim, Keri Townsend, Isabelle Wood, Steve Boukedes, Indira Guleria, Phillip Camp, Souheil El-Chemaly, Ivan O Rosas, Anil Chandraker, Edgar Milford, Hilary J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Development of Donor-specific Antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is associated with antibody mediated rejection (AMR), acute cellular rejection, and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS); however, the significance of circulating antibodies before transplant remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study including recipients of primary lung transplants between 2008 and 2012.We assessed the impact of circulating human leukocyte (HLA) and noncytotoxic Donor Specific antibodies (DSA) detected before transplant on development of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction (CLAD) or CLAD related death...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873464/hyalinosis-lesions-in-renal-transplant-biopsies-time-dependent-complexity-of-interpretation
#5
Gunilla Einecke, Jeff Reeve, Philip F Halloran
Because calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive drugs (CNIs) induce arteriolar hyalinosis (ah) in kidney transplants, ah lesions can potentially provide information about drug exposure. We studied the relationship of ah lesions to findings and outcomes in 562 indication biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant. Prevalence of ah lesions increased with time post-transplant (TxBx). Ah-scores correlated with arterial intimal thickening and atrophy-fibrosis but, unlike atrophy-fibrosis, did not increase until after 500 days because of a background of ah1 lesions in early biopsies reflecting donor aging...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862883/the-banff-2015-kidney-meeting-report-current-challenges-in-rejection-classification-and-prospects-for-adopting-molecular-pathology
#6
A Loupy, M Haas, K Solez, L Racusen, D Glotz, D Seron, B J Nankivell, R B Colvin, M Afrouzian, E Akalin, N Alachkar, S Bagnasco, J U Becker, L Cornell, C Drachenberg, D Dragun, H De Kort, I W Gibson, E S Kraus, C Lefaucheur, C Legendre, H Liapis, T Muthukumar, V Nickeleit, B Orandi, W Park, M Rabant, P Randhawa, E F Reed, C Roufosse, S V Seshan, B Sis, H K Singh, C Schinstock, A Tambur, A Zeevi, M Mengel
The XIII. Banff meeting, held in conjunction the Canadian Society of Transplantation in Vancouver, Canada, reviewed the clinical impact of updates of C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) from the 2013 meeting, reports from active Banff Working Groups, the relationships of donor specific antibody tests (anti-HLA and non-HLA) with transplant histopathology, and questions of molecular transplant diagnostics. The use of transcriptome gene sets, their resultant diagnostic classifiers, or common key genes to supplement the diagnosis and classification of rejection, requires further consensus agreement and validation in biopsies...
November 10, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858192/rethinking-peritubular-capillary-basement-membrane-multilayering-in-renal-transplant-pathology-a-case-report
#7
Diana Maria Lopategui, Evelyne Lerut, Maarten Naesens, Rita Van Damme-Lombaerts, Elena Levtchenko, Noël Knops
BACKGROUND: Severe multilayering (ML) of the peritubular capillary basement membranes in kidney allografts is considered to be an ultrastructural hallmark of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR). We describe here the unexpected findings in a young male adolescent with underlying focal segmental glomerulosclerosis who underwent a living-related donor transplant procedure, a case which brought into question the specificity of ML. METHODS: The patient received a kidney from his mother, whose donor screening was unremarkable...
November 17, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848058/current-pathological-perspectives-on-chronic-rejection-in-renal-allografts
#8
REVIEW
Shigeo Hara
Chronic rejection in renal transplantation clinically manifests as slow deterioration in allograft function and is a major contributor of late renal graft loss. Most cases of chronic rejection involve chronic antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) triggered by the interaction of donor-specific alloantibodies with endothelial cells of the microcirculation. The evolution of the Banff classification involved a major revision of the ABMR criteria during the 2000s and led to the inclusion of detailed pathological characteristics of chronic ABMR in the 2013 Banff scheme, including microcirculation damage observed as newly formed basement membranes and arterial fibrous intimal proliferation...
November 16, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819763/diagnosis-of-acute-cellular-rejection-and-antibody-mediated-rejection-on-lung-transplant-biopsies-a-perspective-from-members-of-the-pulmonary-pathology-society
#9
Anja C Roden, Dara L Aisner, Timothy C Allen, Marie Christine Aubry, Roberto J Barrios, Mary B Beasley, Philip T Cagle, Vera L Capelozzi, Sanja Dacic, Yimin Ge, Lida P Hariri, Sylvie Lantuejoul, Ross A Miller, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Andre L Moreira, Kirtee Raparia, Natasha Rekhtman, Lynette Sholl, Maxwell L Smith, Ming S Tsao, Marina Vivero, Yasushi Yatabe, Eunhee S Yi
CONTEXT: - The diagnosis and grading of acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in lung allograft biopsies is important because rejection can lead to acute graft dysfunction and/or failure and may contribute to chronic graft failure. While acute cellular rejection is well defined histologically, no reproducible specific features of AMR are currently identified. Therefore, a combination of clinical features, serology, histopathology, and immunologic findings is suggested for the diagnosis of AMR...
November 7, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818660/unraveling-the-role-of-allo-antibodies-and-transplant-injury
#10
REVIEW
Yoshiko Matsuda, Minnie M Sarwal
Alloimmunity driving rejection in the context of solid organ transplantation can be grossly divided into mechanisms predominantly driven by either T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), though the co-existence of both types of rejections can be seen in a variable number of sampled grafts. Acute TCMR can generally be well controlled by the establishment of effective immunosuppression (1, 2). Acute ABMR is a low frequency finding in the current era of blood group and HLA donor/recipient matching and the avoidance of engraftment in the context of high-titer, preformed donor-specific antibodies...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809952/tuberculosis-and-transplantation
#11
José M Aguado, José Tiago Silva, Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major opportunistic pathogen in transplant recipients. Compared to that in the general population, the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) is 10 to 40 times higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and 20 to 74 times higher in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Transplant recipients with TB are also more likely to develop disseminated disease, have longer time to definitive diagnosis, require more invasive diagnostic procedures, and experience greater anti-TB treatment-related toxicity than the general population...
November 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798373/prolongation-of-cardiac-allograft-survival-by-endometrial-regenerative-cells-focusing-on-b-cell-responses
#12
Xiaoxi Xu, Xiaochun Li, Xiangying Gu, Bai Zhang, Weijun Tian, Hongqiu Han, Peng Sun, Caigan Du, Hao Wang
: : Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) have been recently evaluated as an attractive candidate source for emerging stem cell therapies in immunosuppression, but their role in immunoregulation is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate their effects, especially on B-cell responses in heart transplantation. In this study, ERCs were noninvasively obtained from menstrual blood. Heart transplantation was performed between C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor mice and BALB/c (H-2(d)) recipients...
October 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798244/the-emerging-importance-of-non-hla-autoantibodies-in-kidney-transplant-complications
#13
Héloise Cardinal, Mélanie Dieudé, Marie-Josée Hébert
Antibodies that are specific to organ donor HLA have been involved in the majority of cases of antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplant recipients. However, recent data show that production of non-HLA autoantibodies can occur before transplant in the form of natural autoantibodies. In contrast to HLAs, which are constitutively expressed on the cell surface of the allograft endothelium, autoantigens are usually cryptic. Tissue damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion, vascular injury, and/or rejection creates permissive conditions for the expression of cryptic autoantigens, allowing these autoantibodies to bind antigenic targets and further enhance vascular inflammation and renal dysfunction...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797067/spontaneous-resolution-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-hepatitis-b-core-antibody-positive-graft-a-case-report
#14
Yasuyuki Hara, Kazuaki Tokodai, Chikashi Nakanishi, Shigehito Miyagi, Naoki Kawagishi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive graft is reported to cause de novo hepatitis B after liver transplantation with a probability of 38-100 % without prophylaxis. Hepatitis B surface antigen loss is reported to be achieved with a probability of only 3-8 % in the patients treated by antiviral agents. We present an extremely rare case of spontaneous resolution of de novo hepatitis B after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with HBcAb-positive graft. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old female patient underwent LDLT for end-stage biliary atresia using an HBcAb-positive left lobe graft...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742388/protocol-biopsies-utility-and-limitations
#15
Yihung Huang, Evan Farkash
As both T cell and antibody-mediated rejection can have a subclinical phase, protocol biopsies provide an early opportunity to intervene before the onset of clinical allograft dysfunction. Protocol biopsies are usually done after reperfusion to establish baseline, between 3 and 6 months to identify subclinical rejection, and at 6-12 months to assess chronicity and persistent inflammation that have prognostic implication. Treatment of both subclinical T cell and antibody-mediated rejection prevents progression of rejection and development of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy or transplant glomerulopathy...
September 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741127/anti-tnf%C3%AE-therapy-for-chronic-inflammatory-disease-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-clinical-outcomes
#16
Cyril Garrouste, Dany Anglicheau, Nassim Kamar, Claire Bachelier, Joseph Rivalan, Bruno Pereira, Sophie Caillard, Julien Aniort, Philippe Gatault, Martin Soubrier, Johnny Sayegh, Charlotte Colosio, Anthony Buisson, Eric Thervet, Nicolas Bouvier, Anne Elisabeth Heng
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) therapy has improved the prognosis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. It appears to be well-tolerated by liver-transplant patients. However, their use and their safety in kidney-transplant patients have yet to be determined.In this retrospective study, we identified 16 adult kidney-transplant patients aged 46.5 years (34-51.8) who received anti-TNFα therapy from 7 kidney transplantation centers. The indications for this treatment included: chronic inflammatory bowel disease (n = 8), inflammatory arthritis (n = 5), AA amyloidosis (n = 1), psoriasis (n = 1), and microscopic polyangiitis (n = 1)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739606/histological-long-term-outcomes-from-acute-antibody-mediated-rejection-following-abo-compatible-liver-transplantation
#17
Arnaud Del Bello, Marie Danjoux, Nicolas Congy-Jolivet, Laurence Lavayssière, Laure Esposito, Fabrice Muscari, Nassim Kamar
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Acute antibody-mediated rejection (aAMR) is an unusual complication after orthotopic ABO-compatible liver transplantation. To date, the clinical and histological long-term outcomes after aAMR are not well known. METHOD: Herein, we describe 9 cases of aAMR that occurred in our liver-transplant center between 2008 and 2016, with an initial and reevaluation liver biopsy available for reexamination. RESULTS: Two patients presented with aAMR at 10...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712016/post-transplant-blood-transfusions-and-pediatric-renal-allograft-outcomes
#18
Priya Verghese, Kristen Gillingham, Arthur Matas, Srinath Chinnakotla, Blanche Chavers
The association of blood transfusions with GS after pediatric KTx is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed blood transfusions post-KTx and subsequent outcomes. Between 1984 and 2013, 482 children (<18 years of age) underwent KTx at our center. Recipient demographics, outcomes and transfusion data were collected. Cox regression with post-KTx blood transfusion as a time-dependent covariate was performed to model the impact of blood transfusion on outcomes. Of the 208 (44%) that were transfused, 39% had transfusion <1 month post-KTx; 48% >12 months...
November 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683635/updates-on-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-intestinal-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
Guo-Sheng Wu
Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) has increasingly emerged as an important cause of allograft loss after intestinal transplantation (ITx). Compelling evidence indicates that donor-specific antibodies can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection after ITx. However, diagnostic criteria for ABMR after ITx have not been established yet and the mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft injury are not well-known. Effective approaches to prevent and treat ABMR are required to improve long-term outcomes of intestine recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649571/the-spectrum-of-renal-allograft-failure
#20
Sourabh Chand, David Atkinson, Clare Collins, David Briggs, Simon Ball, Adnan Sharif, Kassiani Skordilis, Bindu Vydianath, Desley Neil, Richard Borrows
BACKGROUND: Causes of "true" late kidney allograft failure remain unclear as study selection bias and limited follow-up risk incomplete representation of the spectrum. METHODS: We evaluated all unselected graft failures from 2008-2014 (n = 171; 0-36 years post-transplantation) by contemporary classification of indication biopsies "proximate" to failure, DSA assessment, clinical and biochemical data. RESULTS: The spectrum of graft failure changed markedly depending on the timing of allograft failure...
2016: PloS One
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