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Hippocampus and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785582/altered-cerebro-cerebellum-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-hiv-infected-male-patients
#1
Huijuan Wang, Ruili Li, Yawen Zhou, Yanming Wang, Jin Cui, Benedictor Alexander Nguchu, Bensheng Qiu, Xiaoxiao Wang, Hongjun Li
In addition to the role of planning and executing movement, the cerebellum greatly contributes to cognitive process. Numerous studies have reported structural and functional abnormalities in the cerebellum for HIV-infected patients, but little is known about the altered functional connectivity of particular cerebellar subregions and the cerebrum. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) changes of the cerebellum and further analyze the relationship between the rsFC changes and the neuropsychological evaluation...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750875/ulinastatin-alleviates-neurological-deficiencies-evoked-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-via-improving-autophagy-nrf-2-are-and-apoptosis-signals-in-hippocampus
#2
Xiao-Ming Jiang, Jing-Hai Hu, Lu-Lu Wang, Chi Ma, Xu Wang, Xiao-Liang Liu
Ulinastatin [or called as urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI)] plays a role in regulating neurological deficits evoked by transient cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanisms still need to be determined. The present study was to examine the effects of UTI on autophagy, Nrf2-ARE and apoptosis signal pathway in the hippocampus in the process of neurological functions after cerebral ischemia using a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA). CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rats...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746297/microglial-activation-is-inversely-associated-with-cognition-in-individuals-living-with-hiv-on-effective-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Leah H Rubin, Ned Sacktor, Jason Creighton, Yong Du, Christopher J Endres, Martin G Pomper, Jennifer M Coughlin
OBJECTIVE: Despite viral suppression, HIV-associated cognitive impairment persists and may be partially due to persistent immune signaling by cells of the myeloid-lineage. Here we aimed to understand the contribution of activated microglia located in vulnerable brain regions (e.g., frontal, subcortical) of HIV-infected, virally suppressed (HIV+VS) individuals in relation to cognitive and motor function. DESIGN: 21 HIV+VS individuals underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with [C]DPA-713 to image the translocator protein 18 KDa (TSPO), a marker of microglial activation, and completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740871/the-neuropeptide-12-n-pep-12-improves-recognition-memory-and-neuronal-plasticity-of-the-limbic-system-in-old-rats
#4
Elizabeth Monserrat Hernández-Hernández, Karen Caporal Hernandez, Rubén Antonio Vázquez-Roque, Alfonso Díaz, Fidel de la Cruz, Benjamin Florán, Gonzalo Flores
Aging is a stage of life where cognitive and motor functions are impaired. This is because oxidative and inflammatory processes exacerbate neurodegeneration, which affects dendritic morphology and neuronal communication of limbic regions with memory loss. Recently, the use of trophic substances has been proposed to prevent neuronal deterioration. The neuropeptide-12 (N-PEP-12) has been evaluated in elderly patients with dementia, showing improvements in cognitive tasks due to acts as a neurotrophic factor. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of N-PEP-12 on motor activity and recognition memory, as well as its effects on dendritic morphology and the immunoreactivity of GFAP, Synaptophysin, and BDNF in neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal hippocampus (DH) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged rats...
May 8, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738851/intranasally-delivered-small-interfering-rna-mediated-suppression-of-scavenger-receptor-mac-1-attenuates-microglial-phenotype-switching-and-working-memory-impairment-following-hypoxia
#5
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Brain, being the highest consumer of oxygen, is prone to increased risk of hypoxia-induced neurological insults. In response to hypoxia, microglia, the major resident immune cells of brain switches to an activated phenotype and promote inflammatory responses leading to tissue damage and loss of cognitive functions including working memory impairment. Till date, no proven clinical therapeutics is available to retard the progression of neurodegenerative memory impairment. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of intranasal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery in a mouse model of hypoxia-induced working memory impairment using microglial receptor, Mac-1 as a target gene...
May 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732526/neuroprotective-evidence-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-and-desvenlafaxine-on-memory-deficit-in-a-neuroendocrine-model-of-depression
#6
Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Germana Silva Vasconcelos, Ingridy da Silva Medeiros, Márcia Calheiros Chaves Silva, Fayçal Mouaffak, Oussama Kebir, Cláudio Manuel Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocinio, Danielle Macedo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Cognitive impairment is present in patients with depression. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) can reduce cognitive impairment, especially when combined to antidepressants. Female mice received vehicle or corticosterone (CORT) 20 mg/kg, s.c. for 14 days. From the 15th to 21st day, the animals were divided in groups: vehicle, CORT, CORT+desvenlafaxine (DVS) 10 or 20 mg/kg, ALA 100 or 200 mg/kg, DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200, or DVS20+ALA200. Tail suspension (TST), social interaction (SIT), novel object recognition (NOR), and Y-maze tests were conducted...
May 7, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698637/a-mouse-model-of-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity-combined-with-offspring-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-resulted-in-cognitive-impairment-in-male-offspring
#7
Chen Zhu, Ting-Li Han, Yalan Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou, Xun Mao, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker, Hua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a brain dysfunction characterized by neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, and executive function. Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the offspring has been suggested to have detrimental consequences for offspring cognitive function through its effect on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal obesity and offspring HFD exposure on the brain metabolome of the offspring...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685007/neuroprotection-of-ulinastatin-on-transient-cerebral-ischemia-via-antioxidative-mechanisms
#8
H X Hu, D H Xu, W N Ju, C Ma, X Wang, X L Liu
Ulinastatin [also called urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI)] has beneficial effects on cerebral ischemic injury evoked by cardiac arrest (CA). However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this report was to determine the involvement of antioxidative signal pathway of the hippocampus in effects of UTI in the process of neurological functions after transient cerebral ischemia. CA was induced by asphyxia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used to examine expression of Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) and superoxide dismutases (SOD), and the levels of products of oxidative stress...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681453/dissociable-structural-and-functional-hippocampal-outputs-via-distinct-subiculum-cell-classes
#9
Mark S Cembrowski, Matthew G Phillips, Salvatore F DiLisio, Brenda C Shields, Johan Winnubst, Jayaram Chandrashekar, Erhan Bas, Nelson Spruston
The mammalian hippocampus, comprised of serially connected subfields, participates in diverse behavioral and cognitive functions. It has been postulated that parallel circuitry embedded within hippocampal subfields may underlie such functional diversity. We sought to identify, delineate, and manipulate this putatively parallel architecture in the dorsal subiculum, the primary output subfield of the dorsal hippocampus. Population and single-cell RNA-seq revealed that the subiculum can be divided into two spatially adjacent subregions associated with prominent differences in pyramidal cell gene expression...
April 10, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#11
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666565/postnatal-vitamin-d-intake-modulates-hippocampal-learning-and-memory-in-adult-mice
#12
Qiujuan Liang, Chunhui Cai, Dongxia Duan, Xinyu Hu, Wanhao Hua, Peicheng Jiang, Liu Zhang, Jun Xu, Zhengliang Gao
Vitamin D (VD) is a neuroactive steroid crucial for brain development, function and homeostasis. Its deficiency is associated with numerous brain conditions. As such, VD and its variants are routinely taken by a broad of groups with/without known VD deficiency. In contrast, the harmful effects of VD overdose have been poorly studied. Similarly, the developmental stage-specific VD deficiency and overdose have been rarely explored. In the present work, we showed that postnatal VD supplementation enhanced the motor function transiently in the young adult, but not in the older one...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661834/mir-132-couples-the-circadian-clock-to-daily-rhythms-of-neuronal-plasticity-and-cognition
#13
Sydney Aten, Katelin F Hansen, Kaitlin Snider, Kelin Wheaton, Anisha Kalidindi, Ashley Garcia, Diego Alzate-Correa, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
The microRNA miR-132 serves as a key regulator of a wide range of plasticity-associated processes in the central nervous system. Interestingly, miR-132 expression has also been shown to be under the control of the circadian timing system. This finding, coupled with work showing that miR-132 is expressed in the hippocampus, where it influences neuronal morphology and memory, led us to test the idea that daily rhythms in miR-132 within the forebrain modulate cognition as a function of circadian time. Here, we show that hippocampal miR-132 expression is gated by the time-of-day, with peak levels occurring during the circadian night...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660975/synergistic-effects-of-psychosocial-stress-and-mild-peripheral-infection-on-inducing-microglial-activation-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-and-long-lasting-deficits-in-hippocampus-related-memory
#14
Wen-Yu Tzeng, Chien-Chou Su, Li-Han Sun, Chianfang G. Cherng, Lung Yu
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice...
April 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656905/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-long-term-memory-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-modulates-oxidative-and-inflammatory-parameters
#15
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Bruna Bellaver, Artur Alban Salvi, Carla de Oliveira, Wolnei Caumo, Eugenio Horacio Grevet, Felipe Fregni, André Quincozes-Santos, Luis Augusto Rohde, Iraci L S Torres
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that modulates neuronal activity and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Although pilot studies have shown evidence of efficacy, its mechanism of action remains unclear. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effects of tDCS on behavioral (working and long-term memory) and neurochemical (oxidative and inflammatory parameters) outcomes related to ADHD pathophysiology...
April 5, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651654/in-the-telencephalon-glun2c-nmda-receptor-subunit-mrna-is-predominately-expressed-in-glial-cells-and-glun2d-mrna-in-interneurons
#16
Hassan A Alsaad, Nicholas W DeKorver, Zhihao Mao, Shashank M Dravid, Jyothi Arikkath, Daniel T Monaghan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are widely distributed in the brain with high concentrations in the telencephalon where they modulate synaptic plasticity, working memory, and other functions. While the actions of the predominate GluN2 NMDAR subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B are relatively well understood, the function of GluN2C and GluN2D subunits in the telencephalon is largely unknown. To better understand the possible role of GluN2C subunits, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) together with multiple cell markers to define the distribution and type of cells expressing GluN2C mRNA...
April 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626564/dorsal-ca1-interneurons-contribute-to-acute-stress-induced-spatial-memory-deficits
#17
Jing-Ying Yu, Ping Fang, Chi Wang, Xing-Xing Wang, Kun Li, Qian Gong, Ben-Yan Luo, Xiao-Dong Wang
Exposure to severely stressful experiences disrupts the activity of neuronal circuits and impairs declarative memory. GABAergic interneurons coordinate neuronal network activity, but their involvement in stress-evoked memory loss remains to be elucidated. Here, we provide evidence that interneurons in area CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus partially modulate acute stress-induced memory deficits. In adult male mice, both acute forced swim stress and restraint stress impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and increased the density of c-fos-positive interneurons in the dorsal CA1...
April 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611151/perinatal-glyphosate-based-herbicide-exposure-in-rats-alters-brain-antioxidant-status-glutamate-and-acetylcholine-metabolism-and-affects-recognition-memory
#18
Cristina Eugenia Gallegos, Carlos Javier Baier, Mariana Bartos, Cristina Bras, Sergio Domínguez, Nina Mónaco, Fernanda Gumilar, María Sofía Giménez, Alejandra Minetti
Glyphosate-based herbicides (Gly-BHs) lead the world pesticide market. Although are frequently promoted as safe and of low toxicity, several investigations question its innocuousness. Previously, we described that oral exposure of rats to a Gly-BH during pregnancy and lactation decreased locomotor activity and anxiety in the offspring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity of this herbicide. Pregnant Wistar rats were supplied orally with 0.2 and 0.4% of Gly-BH (corresponding to 0...
April 2, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611035/znf804a-variation-may-affect-hippocampal-prefrontal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-schizophrenic-and-healthy-individuals
#19
Yuyanan Zhang, Hao Yan, Jinmin Liao, Hao Yu, Sisi Jiang, Qi Liu, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue
The ZNF804A variant rs1344706 has consistently been associated with schizophrenia and plays a role in hippocampal-prefrontal functional connectivity during working memory. Whether the effect exists in the resting state and in patients with schizophrenia remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the ZNF804A polymorphism at rs1344706 in 92 schizophrenic patients and 99 healthy controls of Han Chinese descent, and used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the functional connectivity in the participants...
April 2, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601574/dynamic-frontotemporal-systems-process-space-and-time-in-working-memory
#20
Elizabeth L Johnson, Jenna N Adams, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Tor Endestad, Pål G Larsson, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Torstein R Meling, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight
How do we rapidly process incoming streams of information in working memory, a cognitive mechanism central to human behavior? Dominant views of working memory focus on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but human hippocampal recordings provide a neurophysiological signature distinct from the PFC. Are these regions independent, or do they interact in the service of working memory? We addressed this core issue in behavior by recording directly from frontotemporal sites in humans performing a visuospatial working memory task that operationalizes the types of identity and spatiotemporal information we encounter every day...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Biology
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