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Hippocampus and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927240/temporal-dynamics-of-hippocampal-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-interactions-during-the-delay-period-of-a-working-memory-guided-foraging-task
#1
Maxym Myroshnychenko, Jeremy K Seamans, Anthony G Phillips, Christopher C Lapish
Connections between the hippocampus (HC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are critical for working memory; however, the precise contribution of this pathway is a matter of debate. One suggestion is that it may stabilize retrospective memories of recently encountered task-relevant information. Alternatively, it may be involved in encoding prospective memories, or the internal representation of future goals. To explore these possibilities, simultaneous extracellular recordings were made from mPFC and HC of rats performing the delayed spatial win-shift on a radial maze...
September 12, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915251/computational-analysis-of-network-activity-and-spatial-reach-of-sharp-wave-ripples
#2
Sadullah Canakci, Muhammed Faruk Toy, Ahmet Fatih Inci, Xin Liu, Duygu Kuzum
Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs) are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as information transfer to the neocortex. To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914428/anhydroecgonine-methyl-ester-aeme-a-product-of-cocaine-pyrolysis-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-induces-striatal-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#3
Elisa Fraga Gomes, Ingryd Fortes Souza Lipaus, Cleciane Waldetário Martins, Andrezza Menezes Araújo, Josidéia Barreto Mendonça, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Evandro Carlos Lebarch, Lívia Carla de Melo Rodrigues, Ester Miyuki Nakamura-Palacios
When burning crack cocaine, the pyrolysis of cocaine generates anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME has been shown to be highly neurotoxic but its effects on cognitive function and oxidative stress are still unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effects of AEME on spatial working memory and on parameters of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. First, 18 well-trained rats in 8-arm radial maze (8-RM) procedures received acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of AEME at doses of 10, 32, or 100 μg or saline (SAL) in a counterbalanced order and were tested 5 min later in 1-h delayed tasks in the 8-RM...
September 15, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904449/james-wenceslaus-papez-his-circuit-and-emotion
#4
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
James Papez worked on the anatomical substrates of emotion and described a circuit, mainly composed of the hippocampus, thalamus and cingulum, and published his observations in 1937. However, such an idea existed before him, as evidenced by the rudimentary indications from Paul Broca, and Paul MacLean added some other structures like, septum, amygdala, and hypothalamus in its ambit and called it the limbic system. Paul Ivan Yakovlev, proposed a circuit which also referred to orbitofrontal, insular, anterior temporal lobe, and other nuclei of thalamus...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888955/distinct-roles-of-neuronal-and-microglial-cb2-cannabinoid-receptors-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#5
Yong Li, Jimok Kim
The effects of cannabinoids are primarily mediated by type-1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and type-2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2Rs) in the peripheral immune system. However, recent evidence demonstrates that CB2Rs are also expressed in the brain and implicated in neuropsychiatric effects. Diverse types of cells in various regions in the brain express CB2Rs but the cellular loci of CB2Rs that induce specific behavioral effects have not been determined. To manipulate CB2R expression in specific types of cells in the dorsal hippocampus of adult mice, we used Cre-dependent overexpression and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing techniques in combination with adeno-associated viruses and transgenic mice...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861724/role-of-the-hippocampus-in-distinct-memory-traces-timing-of-match-and-mismatch-enhancement-revealed-by-intracranial-recording
#7
Bing Ni, Ruijie Wu, Tao Yu, Hongwei Zhu, Yongjie Li, Zuxiang Liu
A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study reported evidence for parallel memory traces in the hippocampus: a controlled match signal detecting matches to internally-generated goal states and an automatic mismatch signal identifying unpredicted perceptual novelty. However, the timing information in this process is unknown. In the current study, facilitated by the high spatial and temporal resolution of intracranial recording from human patients, we confirmed that the left posterior hippocampus played an important role in the goal match enhancement effect, in which combinations of object identity and location were involved...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851764/ftbmt-a-novel-and-selective-gpr52-agonist-demonstrates-antipsychotic-like-and-procognitive-effects-in-rodents-revealing-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-schizophrenia
#8
Keiji Nishiyama, Hirobumi Suzuki, Toshiya Harasawa, Noriko Suzuki, Emi Kurimoto, Takanori Kawai, Minoru Maruyama, Hidetoshi Komatsu, Kensuke Sakuma, Yuji Shimizu, Masato Shimojo
GPR52 is a Gs protein-coupled receptor that is predominantly expressed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and was recently proposed as a potential therapeutic target in schizophrenia. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities of a novel GPR52 agonist, 4-(3-(3-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-methylbenzamide (FTBMT) functioned as a selective GPR52 agonist in vitro and in vivo, as demonstrated by the activation of cAMP signaling in striatal neurons...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845441/temporal-and-spatial-context-in-the-mind-and-brain
#9
Marc W Howard
Theories of episodic memory have long hypothesized that recollection of a specific instance from one's life is mediated by recovery of a neural state of spatiotemporal context. This paper reviews recent theoretical advances in formal models of spatiotemporal context and a growing body of neurophysiological evidence from human imaging studies and animal work that neural populations in the hippocampus and other brain regions support a representation of spatiotemporal context.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842830/beneficial-effects-of-delayed-p7c3-a20-treatment-after-transient-mcao-in-rats
#10
Zachary B Loris, Justin R Hynton, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Despite ischemic stroke being the fifth leading cause of death in the USA, there are few therapeutic options available. We recently showed that the neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 reduced brain atrophy, increased neurogenesis, and improved functional recovery when treatment was initiated immediately post-reperfusion after a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In the present study, we investigated a more clinically relevant therapeutic window for P7C3-A20 treatment after ischemic stroke. MCAO rats were administered P7C3-A20 for 1 week, beginning immediately or at a delayed point, 6 h post-reperfusion...
August 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827761/copy-number-elevation-of-22q11-2-genes-arrests-the-developmental-maturation-of-working-memory-capacity-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#11
S Boku, T Izumi, S Abe, T Takahashi, A Nishi, H Nomaru, Y Naka, G Kang, M Nagashima, A Hishimoto, S Enomoto, G Duran-Torres, K Tanigaki, J Zhang, K Ye, S Kato, P T Männistö, K Kobayashi, N Hiroi
Working memory capacity, a critical component of executive function, expands developmentally from childhood through adulthood. Anomalies in this developmental process are seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities (ID), implicating this atypical process in the trajectory of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the cellular and neuronal substrates underlying this process are not understood. Duplication and triplication of copy number variants of 22q11...
August 22, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814760/mir-181a-involves-in-the-hippocampus-dependent-memory-formation-via-targeting-prkaa1
#12
Sun-Fu Zhang, Jun-Chen Chen, Jing Zhang, Jian-Guo Xu
Post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in memory formation. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in these processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we want to clarify the role of miR-181a in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. A transient increase in miR-181a expression was observed after conditioned fear conditioning (CFC) and object location task (OLT) training. Selective overexpression or inhibition of miR-181a in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) via the injection of a miR-181a agomir or antagomir enhanced or impaired the CFC- and OLT-dependent memory formation, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808887/chronic-silymarin-quercetin-and-naringenin-treatments-increase-monoamines-synthesis-and-hippocampal-sirt1-levels-improving-cognition-in-aged-rats
#13
F Sarubbo, M R Ramis, C Kienzer, S Aparicio, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801273/building-concepts-one-episode-at-a-time-the-hippocampus-and-concept-formation
#14
REVIEW
Michael L Mack, Bradley C Love, Alison R Preston
Concepts organize our experiences and allow for meaningful inferences in novel situations. Acquiring new concepts requires extracting regularities across multiple learning experiences, a process formalized in mathematical models of learning. These models posit a computational framework that has increasingly aligned with the expanding repertoire of functions associated with the hippocampus. Here, we propose the Episodes-to-Concepts (EpCon) theoretical model of hippocampal function in concept learning and review evidence for the hippocampal computations that support concept formation including memory integration, attentional biasing, and memory-based prediction error...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#15
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790178/heteromeric-channels-formed-by-trpc1-trpc4-and-trpc5-define-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-working-memory
#16
Jenny Bröker-Lai, Astrid Kollewe, Barbara Schindeldecker, Jörg Pohle, Vivan Nguyen Chi, Ilka Mathar, Raul Guzman, Yvonne Schwarz, Alan Lai, Petra Weißgerber, Herbert Schwegler, Alexander Dietrich, Martin Both, Rolf Sprengel, Andreas Draguhn, Georg Köhr, Bernd Fakler, Veit Flockerzi, Dieter Bruns, Marc Freichel
Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels influence various neuronal functions. Using quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC5 assemble into heteromultimers with each other, but not with other TRP family members in the mouse brain and hippocampus. In hippocampal neurons from Trpc1/Trpc4/Trpc5-triple-knockout (Trpc1/4/5(-/-)) mice, lacking any TRPC1-, TRPC4-, or TRPC5-containing channels, action potential-triggered excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were significantly reduced, whereas frequency, amplitude, and kinetics of quantal miniature EPSC signaling remained unchanged...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780366/transthyretin-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is-dependent-on-proteolysis
#17
Catarina S Silva, Jessica Eira, Carlos A Ribeiro, Ângela Oliveira, Mónica M Sousa, Isabel Cardoso, Márcia A Liz
The deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the hippocampus is one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss and cognitive impairment. The modulation of Aβ levels in the brain results from an equilibrium between its production from the amyloid precursor protein and removal by amyloid clearance proteins, which might occur via enzymatic (Aβ-degrading enzymes) or nonenzymatic (binding/transport proteins) reactions. Transthyretin (TTR) is one of the major Aβ-binding proteins acting as a neuroprotector in AD...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767442/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-cognitive-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-involving-suppression-in-hippocampal-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#18
Wei Zou, Juan Yuan, Zhuo-Jun Tang, Hai-Jun Wei, Wei-Wen Zhu, Ping Zhang, Hong-Feng Gu, Chun-Yan Wang, Xiao-Qing Tang
Diabetes induces impairment in cognitive function. There is substantial evidence that hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in diabetic cognitive impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) attenuates the learning and memory decline in experimental Alzheimer's disease and inhibits the hippocampal ER stress in homocysteine-exposed rats. Therefore, this aim of the present work was to investigate whether H2S ameliorates the diabetic cognitive dysfunction involving inhibition of hippocampal ER stress...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754901/scheduled-feeding-restores-memory-and-modulates-c-fos-expression-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-septohippocampal-complex
#19
Norman F Ruby, Nathan Fisher, Danica F Patton, Matthew J Paul, Fabian Fernandez, H Craig Heller
Disruptions in circadian timing impair spatial memory in humans and rodents. Circadian-arrhythmic Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) exhibit substantial deficits in spatial working memory as assessed by a spontaneous alternation (SA) task. The present study found that daily scheduled feeding rescued spatial memory deficits in these arrhythmic animals. Improvements in memory persisted for at least 3 weeks after the arrhythmic hamsters were switched back to ad libitum feeding. During ad libitum feeding, locomotor activity resumed its arrhythmic state, but performance on the SA task varied across the day with a peak in daily performance that corresponded to the previous daily window of food anticipation...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#20
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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