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Hippocampus and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#1
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132092/berberine-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-ameliorates-tau-hyperphosphorylation-by-limiting-the-self-perpetuating-pathogenic-cycle-between-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation
#2
Wenbo He, Chuanling Wang, Yi Chen, Yongli He, Zhiyou Cai
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present work was to explore whether BBR ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD and to investigate whether its underlying mechanism involves inhibiting hyperphosphorylated tau protein. METHODS: The cognitive function was measured by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins were determined by Western blot. The biomarkers of NF-κB signaling pathway and oxidative stress were detected by Western blot and biochemical assays...
June 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#3
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128813/effect-of-aromatase-inhibitors-on-learning-and-memory-and-modulation-of-hippocampal-dickkopf-1-and-sclerostin-in-female-mice
#4
Saima Zameer, Divya Vohora
BACKGROUND: There has been conflicting reports on the effect of third generation aromatase inhibitors on cognition in estrogen-deficient states. Since aromatase inhibitors themselves cause estrogen deprivation, the present work was designed to evaluate the comparative effect of three aromatase inhibitors on behavioral measures of learning and memory in female mice. Further, in view of the reports of estrogen and Wnt signaling pathway in cognition, the role of two Wnt signaling antagonists (dickkopf-1 and sclerostin) in mediation of cognitive effects of aromatase inhibitors was evaluated...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124761/longitudinal-investigation-of-neuroinflammation-and-metabolite-profiles-in-the-appswe-%C3%A3-ps1%C3%AE-e9-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
A Chaney, M Bauer, D Bochicchio, A Smigova, M Kassiou, K E Davies, S R Williams, H Boutin
There is increasing evidence linking neuroinflammation to many neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), however its exact contribution to disease manifestation and/or progression is poorly understood. Therefore, a need exists to find new ways of investigating neuroinflammation in both health and disease. Here we investigate cognitive decline, neuroinflammatory and other pathophysiological changes in the APPswe ×PS1Δe9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Transgenic (TG) mice were compared to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice at 6, 12 and 18 months of age...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108016/behavioral-and-pathophysiological-outcomes-associated-with-caffeine-consumption-and-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-rmtbi-in-adolescent-rats
#6
Glenn R Yamakawa, Connor Lengkeek, Sabrina Salberg, Simon C Spanswick, Richelle Mychasiuk
Given that caffeine consumption is exponentially rising in adolescents and they are at increased risk for repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (RmTBI), we sought to examine the pathophysiological outcomes associated with early life caffeine consumption and RmTBI. Adolescent male and female Sprague Dawley rats received either caffeine in the drinking water or normal water and were then randomly assigned to 3 mild injuries using our lateral impact device or 3 sham procedures. Following injury induction, behavioral outcomes were measured with a test battery designed to examine symptoms consistent with clinical manifestation of PCS (balance and motor coordination, anxiety, short-term working memory, and depressive-like behaviours)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107326/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-neuropathic-pain-and-alkyl-glycerol-ethers-treatment
#7
Anna A Tyrtyshnaia, Igor V Manzhulo, Ruslan M Sultanov, Ekaterina V Ermolenko
Neuropathic pain manifested by a number of sensory symptoms is often accompanied by disorders of higher nervous activity, such as memory impairment, depression, anxiety, anhedonia, etc. This emphasizes the involvement of supraspinal structures including the hippocampus in neuropathic pain pathogenesis. In the present study, we focused on the impact of chronic neuropathic pain on hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial state. In addition, we test the effect of alkyl glycerol ethers on hippocampal neuronal and microglial plasticity as well as behavioral parameters...
October 26, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105852/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-due-to-p301l-tau-mutation-showing-apathy-and-severe-frontal-atrophy-but-lacking-other-behavioral-changes-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
Tomoko Miki, Osamu Yokota, Shintaro Takenoshita, Yoko Mori, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Shu-Ichi Ueno, Takashi Haraguchi, Hideki Ishizu, Shigetoshi Kuroda, Seishi Terada, Norihito Yamada
The clinical features in cases that have mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau gene but lack prominent behavioral changes remain unclear. Here, we describe detailed clinical and pathological features of a case carrying the P301L tau mutation that showed only apathy until the middle stage of the course. The mother of this case was suspected to have mild cognitive decline at age 46. However, before she was fully examined, she had a subarachnoid hemorrhage at age 49 and died at age 53. An autopsy was not done...
November 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096318/sulforaphane-attenuates-postnatal-proteasome-inhibition-and-improves-spatial-learning-in-adult-mice
#9
Aditya Sunkaria, Supriya Bhardwaj, Aarti Yadav, Avishek Halder, Rajat Sandhir
Proteasomes are known to degrade proteins involved in various processes like metabolism, signal transduction, cell-cycle regulation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Evidence showed that protein degradation has a strong influence on developing neurons as well as synaptic plasticity. Here, we have shown that sulforaphane (SFN) could prevent the deleterious effects of postnatal proteasomal inhibition on spatial reference and working memory of adult mice. One day old Balb/c mice received intracerebroventricular injections of MG132 and SFN...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094921/endosulfan-and-cypermethrin-pesticide-mixture-induces-synergistic-or-antagonistic-effects-on-developmental-exposed-rats-depending-on-the-analyzed-behavioral-or-neurochemical-end-points
#10
Belén Gómez-Giménez, Marta Llansola, Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Vicente Hernández-Rabaza, Ana Agustí, Vicente Felipo
Exposure to pesticides has been associated with neurodevelopmental toxicity. Usually people are exposed to mixtures of pesticides. However, most studies analyze the effects of individual pesticides. Developmental exposure to mixtures of pesticides may result in additive effects or in antagonistic or synergistic effects. The aim of this work was to compare the effects of developmental exposure of rats to cypermethrin or endosulfan with the effects of its mixture on cognitive and motor function and on some underlying mechanisms...
November 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083204/running-wheel-exercise-reduces-renewal-of-extinguished-instrumental-behavior-and-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-neurons-in-adolescent-but-not-adult-rats
#11
Meghan C Eddy, John T Green
Physical exercise in rodents has repeatedly been shown to trigger positive effects on brain function, including increased neurotrophic factors and improved learning and memory. However, most of this work has focused on the adult hippocampus and hippocampal-dependent behavior. Here we examined the effect of running wheel exercise in adult and adolescent male rats on ABA renewal of extinguished instrumental conditioning, in which acquisition occurs in Context A, extinction in Context B, and renewal testing occurs back in Context A...
October 30, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081740/spatial-working-memory-in-male-rats-pre-experience-and-task-dependent-roles-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-like-receptors
#12
Mekite Bezu, Jovana Maliković, Martina Kristofova, Ephrem Engidawork, Harald Höger, Gert Lubec, Volker Korz
The dopaminergic system is known to be involved in working memory processed by several brain regions like prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, striatum. In an earlier study we could show that Levodopa but not Modafinil enhanced working memory in a T-maze only during the early phase of training (day 3), whereas the later phase remained unaffected. Rats treated with a higher dose performed better than low dose treated rats. Here we could more specifically segregate the contributions of dopamine type 1- and 2- like receptors (D1R; D2R) to the training state dependent modulation of spatial working memory by intracerebroventricular (ICV) application of a D1R-like (SKF81297) and D2R-like agonist (Sumanirole) and antagonist (SCH23390, Remoxipride) at a low and high dose through 3 days of training...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073650/the-cognitive-map-in-humans-spatial-navigation-and-beyond
#13
REVIEW
Russell A Epstein, Eva Zita Patai, Joshua B Julian, Hugo J Spiers
The 'cognitive map' hypothesis proposes that brain builds a unified representation of the spatial environment to support memory and guide future action. Forty years of electrophysiological research in rodents suggest that cognitive maps are neurally instantiated by place, grid, border and head direction cells in the hippocampal formation and related structures. Here we review recent work that suggests a similar functional organization in the human brain and yields insights into how cognitive maps are used during spatial navigation...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064341/the-role-of-visual-association-cortex-in-associative-memory-formation-across-development
#14
Maya L Rosen, Margaret A Sheridan, Kelly A Sambrook, Matthew R Peverill, Andrew N Meltzoff, Katie A McLaughlin
Associative learning underlies the formation of new episodic memories. Associative memory improves across development, and this age-related improvement is supported by the development of the hippocampus and pFC. Recent work, however, additionally suggests a role for visual association cortex in the formation of associative memories. This study investigated the role of category-preferential visual processing regions in associative memory across development using a paired associate learning task in a sample of 56 youths (age 6-19 years)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060217/chronic-multi-region-recording-from-the-rat-hippocampus-in-vivo-with-a-flexible-parylene-based-multi-electrode-array
#15
Huijing Xu, Ahuva Weltman, Kee Scholten, Ellis Meng, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song
Neural activities of free-moving animals provide valuable insights into behavior, memory formation and cognitive function of the hippocampus. Unitary activities simultaneously recorded from multiple sub-regions of the hippocampus enable detailed study of hippocampal neural circuits, but require high fidelity recordings with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we explored the possibility of using Parylene-C as the structural material for a penetrating, multi-electrode array designed to record from multiple sub-region of the rat hippocampus...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058042/chronic-n-acetylcysteine-treatment-alleviates-acute-lipopolysaccharide-induced-working-memory-deficit-through-upregulating-caveolin-1-and-synaptophysin-in-mice
#16
Xianzhi Shen, Yanyun Sun, Mengwei Wang, Hui Shu, Li-Juan Zhu, Pei-Yun Yan, Jun-Fang Zhang, Xinchun Jin
RATIONALE: Working memory (WM) is a dynamic encoding process and an active representation of information over a short time. The ability to guide forthcoming behavior would be disrupted if WM was impaired by various factors including inflammation, stress, free radicals, and disease states such as schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying acute working memory impairment remains to be defined. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that decreased caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and synaptophysin (SYP) accounted for the WM impairment challenged with acute intraperitoneally lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimicked neuroinflammation...
October 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056913/anti-alzheimer-s-studies-on-%C3%AE-sitosterol-isolated-from-polygonum-hydropiper-l
#17
Muhammad Ayaz, Muhammad Junaid, Farhat Ullah, Fazal Subhan, Abdul Sadiq, Gowhar Ali, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Shahid, Ashfaq Ahmad, Abdul Wadood, Mohamed El-Shazly, Nisar Ahmad, Sajjad Ahmad
The family Polygonaceae is known for its traditional use in the management of various neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In search of new anti-AD drugs, β-sitosterol isolated from Polygonum hydropiper was subjected to in vitro, in vivo, behavioral and molecular docking studies to confirm its possibility as a potential anti-Alzheimer's agent. The in vitro AChE, BChE inhibitory potentials of β-sitosterol were investigated following Ellman's assay. The antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 assays...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056362/critical-appraisal-of-pathology-transmission-in-the-%C3%AE-synuclein-fibril-model-of-lewy-body-disorders
#18
Negin Nouraei, Daniel M Mason, Kristin M Miner, Michael A Carcella, Tarun N Bhatia, Benjamin K Dumm, Dishaben Soni, David A Johnson, Kelvin C Luk, Rehana K Leak
Lewy body disorders are characterized by the emergence of α-synucleinopathy in many parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the telencephalon. Dense α-synuclein(+) pathology appears in regio inferior of the hippocampus in both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may disturb cognitive function. The preformed α-synuclein fibril model of Parkinson's disease is growing in use, given its potential for seeding the self-propagating spread of α-synucleinopathy throughout the mammalian brain...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054431/lesions-of-the-lateral-habenula-improve-working-memory-performance-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#19
Cheng Xue Du, Jian Liu, Yuan Guo, Li Zhang, Qiao Jun Zhang
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an important structure involved in various brain functions, because it controls the activity of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the midbrain. The impairment of working memory commonly occurs in Parkinson's disease; however, it is not clear whether the LHb involves in the regulation of working memory in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In this study, we found that the MFB lesions in rats decreased choice accuracy as measured by the T-maze rewarded alternation test compared to control rats, indicating the induction of working memory impairment, and decreased dopamine (DA) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and amygdala...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042986/sevoflurane-exposure-in-postnatal-rats-induced-long-term-cognitive-impairment-through-upregulating-caspase-3-cleaved-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-pathway
#20
Yunzhi Ling, Xiaohong Li, Li Yu, Qisheng Liang, Xuewu Lin, Xiaodi Yang, Hongtao Wang, Ye Zhang
The association of anesthetic exposure in infants or young children with the long-term impairment of neurologic functions has been reported previously; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In order to identify dysregulated gene expression underlying long-term cognitive impairment caused by sevoflurane exposure at the postnatal stage, the present study initially performed behavioral tests on adult Wistar rats, which received 3% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7) for different time course...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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