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Hippocampus and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749455/primary-biliary-cholangitis-alters-functional-connections-of-the-brain-s-deep-gray-matter
#1
Victoria A L Mosher, Mark G Swain, Jack X Q Pang, Gilaad G Kaplan, Keith A Sharkey, Glenda M MacQueen, Bradley G Goodyear
OBJECTIVES: Fatigue, itch, depressed mood, and cognitive impairment significantly impact the quality of life of many patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Previous neuroimaging studies of non-hepatic diseases suggest that these symptoms are often associated with dysfunction of deep gray matter brain regions. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) to determine whether PBC patients exhibit altered functional connections of deep gray matter. METHODS: Twenty female non-cirrhotic PBC patients and 21 age/gender-matched controls underwent rsfMRI...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#2
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727685/erbb4-signaling-in-dopaminergic-axonal-projections-increases-extracellular-dopamine-levels-and-regulates-spatial-working-memory-behaviors
#3
M Skirzewski, I Karavanova, A Shamir, L Erben, J Garcia-Olivares, J H Shin, D Vullhorst, V A Alvarez, S G Amara, A Buonanno
Genetic variants of Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its neuronal tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 are associated with risk for schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and dopamine (DA) dysfunction. To date, most ErbB4 studies have focused on GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex, particularly fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cells. However, NRG has also been shown to modulate DA levels, suggesting a role for ErbB4 signaling in dopaminergic neuron function...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#4
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720379/inhibition-of-12-15-lox-ameliorates-cognitive-and-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-mouse-model-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress
#5
Richa Choudhary, Udayabanu Malairaman, Anju Katyal
12/15 Lipoxygenase has recently been described as potent propagator of oxidative stress and is closely associated with cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism/s behind 12/15 LOX involvement in cognitive deficits remain obscure. The current study has been designed to investigate the underlying role of 12/15LOX and effect of 12/15 LOX inhibition on hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment and cholinergic deficits. Male Balb/c mice subjected to simulated hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation condition for 3days showed marked working memory impairment concomitant with hippocampal neuronal damage and malondialdehyde production which were significantly attenuated by baicalein, a specific inhibitor of 12/15LOX...
July 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719040/discovering-long-term-potentiation-ltp-recollections-and-reflections-on-what-came-after
#6
REVIEW
Terje Lømo
Chance events led me to a lifelong career in scientific research. They paved the way for being the first to see long-term potentiation of synaptic efficiency (LTP) in Per Andersen's lab in Oslo in 1966. Here I describe my way to this discovery and the experiments with Tim Bliss in 1968-1969 that led to Bliss and Lømo, 1973. Surprisingly, we later failed to reproduce these results. I discuss possible reasons for this failure, which made us both leave LTP research, in my case for good, in Tim's case for several years...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716545/effect-of-ageing-on-neurocognitive-function-by-stage-of-hiv-infection-evidence-from-the-multicenter-aids-cohort-study
#7
Karl Goodkin, Eric N Miller, Christopher Cox, Sandra Reynolds, James T Becker, Eileen Martin, Ola A Selnes, David G Ostrow, Ned C Sacktor
BACKGROUND: The demographics of the HIV epidemic in the USA have shifted towards older age. We aimed to establish the relationship between the processes of ageing and HIV infection in neurocognitive impairment. METHODS: With longitudinal data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a long-term prospective cohort study of the natural and treated history of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the USA, we examined the effect of ageing, HIV infection (by disease stage), and their interaction on five neurocognitive domains: information processing speed, executive function, episodic memory, working memory, and motor function...
July 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709783/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-memory-through-online-processing-of-information
#9
REVIEW
Victor Mathis, Lucas Lecourtier
Our memory abilities, whether they involve short-term working memory or long-term episodic or procedural memories, are essential for our well-being, our capacity to adapt to constraints of our environment and survival. Therefore, several key brain regions and neurotransmitter systems are engaged in the processing of sensory information to either maintain such information in working memory so that it will quickly be used, and/or participate in the elaboration and storage of enduring traces useful for longer periods of time...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708033/neuropsychological-profile-and-social-cognition-in-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-cchs-correlation-with-neuroimaging-in-a-clinical-case
#10
Borja Esteso Orduña, Raquel Seijas Gómez, Elena García Esparza, Emily M Briceño, Javier Melero Llorente, María de la Concepción Fournier Del Castillo
INTRODUCTION: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare genetic disorder due to paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutations. CCHS patients suffer from dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system characterized by the absence of or extremely reduced response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with neuropsychological deficits. The aim of this exploratory study is to describe the longitudinal neuropsychological profile and its correlations with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a child with CCHS with a PHOX2B mutation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700628/asiatic-acid-protects-against-cognitive-deficits-and-reductions-in-cell-proliferation-and-survival-in-the-rat-hippocampus-caused-by-5-fluorouracil-chemotherapy
#11
Pornthip Chaisawang, Apiwat Sirichoat, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai, Peter Wigmore, Jariya Umka Welbat
The chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been reported to cause cognitive impairments in cancer patients. The drug also reduces cell proliferation and survival in the brain. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene compound found in Centella asiatica that can protect against reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus and memory deficits induced by valproic acid (VPA). In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of AA on the deficits in spatial working memory and cell proliferation and survival caused by 5-FU chemotherapy in a rat model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694433/antidepressant-effect-of-taurine-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-induced-depressive-rats
#12
Gao-Feng Wu, Shuang Ren, Ri-Yi Tang, Chang Xu, Jia-Qi Zhou, Shu-Mei Lin, Ying Feng, Qun-Hui Yang, Jian-Min Hu, Jian-Cheng Yang
Depression, a psychiatric and dysthymic disorder, severely affects the learning, work and life quality. The main pathogenesis of depression is associated with central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Taurine has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the brain development and can improve learning ability and memory. Our study investigated the antidepressant-like effects of taurine pre-treatment by examining the changes in depression-like behavior, hormones, neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors and neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus of a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depressive rat model...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686806/hippocampal-damage-causes-retrograde-but-not-anterograde-memory-loss-for-context-fear-discrimination-in-rats
#13
Justin Q Lee, Robert J Sutherland, Robert J McDonald
There is a substantial body of evidence that the hippocampus (HPC) plays and essential role in context discrimination in rodents. Studies reporting anterograde amnesia (AA) used repeated, alternating, distributed conditioning and extinction sessions to measure context fear discrimination. In addition, there is uncertainty about the extent of damage to the HPC. Here, we induced conditioned fear prior to discrimination tests and rats sustained extensive, quantified pre- or post-training HPC damage. Unlike previous work, we found that extensive HPC damage spares context discrimination, we observed no AA...
July 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676297/inferring-synaptic-excitation-inhibition-balance-from-field-potentials
#14
Richard Gao, Erik J Peterson, Bradley Voytek
Neural circuits sit in a dynamic balance between excitation (E) and inhibition (I). Fluctuations in E:I balance have been shown to influence neural computation, working memory, and information flow, while more drastic shifts and aberrant E:I patterns are implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Current methods for measuring E:I dynamics require invasive procedures that are difficult to perform in behaving animals, and nearly impossible in humans. This has limited the ability to examine the full impact that E:I shifts have in cognition and disease...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671572/effects-of-aged-garlic-extract-on-cholinergic-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-systems-with-regard-to-cognitive-impairment-in-a%C3%AE-induced-rats
#15
Piyaporn Thorajak, Wanassanun Pannangrong, Jariya Umka Welbat, Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak, Kittisak Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn Sripanidkulchai
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the degeneration of central cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which correlates with progressive memory loss and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). It has been claimed that aged garlic extract (AGE) has a beneficial effect in preventing neurodegeneration in AD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of AGE on Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction with a biochemical basis in the cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in rats...
July 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669717/mirnas-may-regulate-gabaergic-transmission-associated-genes-in-aged-rats-with-anesthetics-induced-recognition-and-working-memory-dysfunction
#16
Ligang Shan, Duo Ma, Chengshen Zhang, Wei Xiong, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Isoflurane and sevoflurane are widely used anesthetics in surgery and administration of these anesthetics could lead to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: Aged Wistar rats were exposed to isoflurane and sevoflurane for 2 or 4 hours. Recognition memory and spatial working memory were measured using Novel object recognition (NOR) and Y-maze test, respectively. Apoptotic cells were detected by TUNEL staining...
June 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654773/increased-anxiety-and-fear-memory-in-adult-mice-lacking-type-2-deiodinase
#17
Soledad Bárez-López, Ana Montero-Pedrazuela, Daniel Bosch-García, César Venero, Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
A euthyroid state in the brain is crucial for its adequate development and function. Impairments in thyroid hormones (THs; T3 or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and T4 or thyroxine) levels and availability in brain can lead to neurological alterations and to psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders. The thyroid gland synthetizes mainly T4, which is secreted to circulating blood, however, most actions of THs are mediated by T3, the transcriptionally active form. In the brain, intracellular concentrations of T3 are modulated by the activity of type 2 (D2) and type 3 (D3) deiodinases...
June 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652752/cognitive-dysfunction-in-major-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-hippocampal-prefrontal-cortex-dysconnectivity
#18
REVIEW
Dayalan Sampath, Monica Sathyanesan, Samuel S Newton
Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in psychiatric disorders. Deficits are observed in multiple domains, including working memory, executive function, attention, and information processing. Disability caused by cognitive dysfunction is frequently as debilitating as the prominent emotional disturbances. Interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex are increasingly appreciated as an important link between cognition and emotion. Recent developments in optogenetics, imaging, and connectomics can enable the investigation of this circuit in a manner that is relevant to disease pathophysiology...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620075/experience-dependent-epigenomic-reorganization-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Corey G Duke, Andrew J Kennedy, Cristin F Gavin, Jeremy J Day, J David Sweatt
Using a hippocampus-dependent contextual threat learning and memory task, we report widespread, coordinated DNA methylation changes in CA1 hippocampus of Sprague-Dawley rats specific to threat learning at genes involved in synaptic transmission. Experience-dependent alternations in gene expression and DNA methylation were observed as early as 1 h following memory acquisition and became more pronounced after 24 h. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment of functional categories related to synaptic transmission in genes that were hypomethylated at 24 h following threat learning...
July 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605382/assessment-of-spontaneous-alternation-novel-object-recognition-and-limb-clasping-in-transgenic-mouse-models-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-neuropathology
#20
Christian J Miedel, Jennifer M Patton, Andrew N Miedel, Edward S Miedel, Jonathan M Levenson
Here we describe a staged, behavioral testing approach that can be used to screen for compounds that exhibit in vivo efficacy on cognitive and functional motor behaviors in transgenic mouse models of β-amyloidosis and tauopathy. The paradigm includes tests for spontaneous alternation in a Y-maze, novel object recognition, and limb clasping. These tests were selected because they: 1) interrogate function of cognitive or motor domains and the correlate neural circuitry relevant to the human disease state, 2) have clearly defined endpoints, 3) have easily implementable quality control checks, 4) can be run in a moderate throughput format, and 5) require little intervention by the investigator...
May 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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