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Hippocampus and working memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341318/cognitive-trajectories-and-spectrum-of-neuropathology-in-superagers-the-first-ten-cases
#1
Emily Rogalski, Tamar Gefen, Qinwen Mao, Maureen Connelly, Sandra Weintraub, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam
On average, memory capacity is significantly higher in populations of 50-60 year olds than in populations of 80 year olds. We define SuperAgers as individuals 80 or older whose episodic memory capacity is at least as good as that of cognitively average individuals in their 50s and 60s. SuperAgers therefore have memory capacity that is superior for age. Previous work showed that SuperAgers have greater cortical volumes and greater resistance to age-related cortical atrophy than 'cognitively average' individuals of the same age...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334651/effects-of-perinatal-fluoride-exposure-on-the-expressions-of-mir-124-and-mir-132-in-hippocampus-of-mouse-pups
#2
Jixiang Wang, Yuliang Zhang, Zhenzhen Guo, Rui Li, Xingchen Xue, Zilong Sun, Ruiyan Niu
To investigate the effects of perinatal fluoride exposure on learning and memory ability of mouse offspring, ICR female mice were received different doses of sodium fluoride (0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L NaF) from pregnant day 7 to lactational day 21. Pups were exposed to fluoride through the cord blood and breast milk. Open field test showed that compared to the control group, perinatal fluoride exposure significantly decreased the number of entries into the center zone in 100 mg/L NaF group. In the eight-arm maze test, the number of working memory errors, reference memory errors, and the total arm entries were significantly increased in fluoride treatment groups, compared to the control group...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#3
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317248/cognitive-decline-and-increased-hippocampal-p-tau-expression-in-mice-with-hearing-loss
#4
So Young Park, Min Jung Kim, Hong Lim Kim, Dong Kee Kim, Sang Won Yeo, Shi Nae Park
Hearing and cognition are commonly involved in both normal and pathological aging. Current clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline. In our previous publication, the authors have shown a causal relationship between hearing and cognitive impairments in C57BL/6 mice. Here we extended the follow-up to 12 months to determine the long-term effects of hearing loss on cognition and to observe hippocampal p-tau and lipofuscin. One month old male mice were randomly allocated into two groups, the control (n = 12) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) (n = 12)...
January 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316421/the-role-of-hippocampal-replay-in-memory-and%C3%A2-planning
#5
REVIEW
H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Daniel Bush, Caswell Barry
The mammalian hippocampus is important for normal memory function, particularly memory for places and events. Place cells, neurons within the hippocampus that have spatial receptive fields, represent information about an animal's position. During periods of rest, but also during active task engagement, place cells spontaneously recapitulate past trajectories. Such 'replay' has been proposed as a mechanism necessary for a range of neurobiological functions, including systems memory consolidation, recall and spatial working memory, navigational planning, and reinforcement learning...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287243/individual-variation-in-the-propensity-for-prospective-thought-is-associated-with-functional-integration-between-visual-and-retrosplenial-cortex
#6
Mario Villena-Gonzalez, Hao-Ting Wang, Mladen Sormaz, Giovanna Mollo, Daniel S Margulies, Elizabeth A Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
It is well recognized that the default mode network (DMN) is involved in states of imagination, although the cognitive processes that this association reflects are not well understood. The DMN includes many regions that function as cortical "hubs", including the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, anterior temporal lobe and the hippocampus. This suggests that the role of the DMN in cognition may reflect a process of cortical integration. In the current study we tested whether functional connectivity from uni-modal regions of cortex into the DMN is linked to features of imaginative thought...
December 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259151/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-gamma-coupling-during-performance-of-a-spatial-working-memory-task
#7
Makoto Tamura, Timothy J Spellman, Andrew M Rosen, Joseph A Gogos, Joshua A Gordon
Cross-frequency coupling supports the organization of brain rhythms and is present during a range of cognitive functions. However, little is known about whether and how long-range cross-frequency coupling across distant brain regions subserves working memory. Here we report that theta-slow gamma coupling between the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is augmented in a genetic mouse model of cognitive dysfunction. This increased cross-frequency coupling is observed specifically when the mice successfully perform a spatial working memory task...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246456/scavenger-receptor-a-deficiency-impairs-immune-response-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-potentiating-alzheimer-s-disease-pathophysiology
#8
Francisca Cornejo, Marianne Vruwink, Claudia Metz, Paola Muñoz, Nicole Salgado, Joaquín Poblete, María Estela Andrés, Jaime Eugenín, Rommy von Bernhardi
Late onset Alzheimer disease's (LOAD) main risk factor is aging. Although it is not well known which age-related factors are involved in its development, evidence points out to the involvement of an impaired amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the aged brain among possible causes. Glial cells are the main scavengers of the brain, where Scavenger Receptor class A (SR-A) emerges as a relevant player in AD because of its participation in Aβ uptake and in the modulation of glial cell inflammatory response. Here, we show that SR-A expression is reduced in the hippocampus of aged animals and APP/PS1 mice...
December 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245987/hydrogen-sulfide-attenuates-chronic-restrain-stress-induced-cognitive-impairment-by-upreglulation-of-sirt1-in-hippocampus
#9
Xiao-Na Li, Lei Chen, Bang Luo, Xiang Li, Chun-Yan Wang, Wei Zou, Ping Zhang, Yong You, Xiao-Qing Tang
Chronic restraint stress (CRS) has detrimental effects on cognitive function. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a neuromodulator, regulates learning and memory. Hippocampus is a key structure in learning and memory. Sirt1 (silence signal regulating factor 1) plays an important role in modulating cognitive function. Therefore, our present work was to investigate whether H2S meliorates CRS-induced damage in hippocampus and impairment in cognition, and further to explore whether the underlying mechanism is via upreglulating Sirt1...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232494/reconstructing-relational-information
#10
Kevin M Horecka, Michael Dulas, Hillary Schwarb, Heather Lucas, Melissa Duff, Neal J Cohen
Hippocampal involvement in learning and remembering relational information has an extensive history, often focusing specifically on spatial information. In humans, spatial reconstruction (SR) paradigms are a powerful tool for evaluating an individuals' spatial-relational memory. In SR tasks, participants study locations of items in space and subsequently reconstruct the studied display after a short delay. Previous work has revealed that patients with hippocampal damage are impaired both in overall placement accuracy as well as on a specific measure of relational memory efficacy, "swaps" (i...
December 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232315/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-pretreatment-in-a-sporadic-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#11
Chongyun Wu, Luodan Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Quanguang Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of swimming exercise pretreatment on a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease rat model and provide an initial understanding of related molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male 2.5-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a) control, b) swim + vehicle, c) STZ without swim, and d) swim + STZ. The Barnes Maze task and Novel Object Recognition test were used to measure hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and working memory, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227583/single-point-mutation-on-the-gene-encoding-dysbindin-results-in-recognition-deficits
#12
Eric H Chang, Kayla Fernando, Lok Wan E Yeung, Kristina Barbari, Toni-Shay S Chandon, Anil K Malhotra
The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is a candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and has been associated with cognitive ability in both patient populations and healthy controls. DTNBP1 encodes dysbindin protein, which is localized to synaptic sites and is reduced in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia, indicating a potential role in schizophrenia etiology. Most studies of dysbindin function have focused on the sandy (sdy) mice that lack dysbindin protein and have a wide range of abnormalities...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209218/nootropic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dichrocephala-integrifolia-on-scopolamine-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Nadège E Kouémou, Germain S Taiwe, Fleur C O Moto, Simon Pale, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Jacqueline S K Njapdounke, Gisèle C N Nkantchoua, David B Pahaye, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Alzheimer's disease the most common form of dementia in the elderly is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 44 millions of people worldwide. The first treatments against Alzheimer's disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; however, these medications are associated with many side effects. Dichrocephala integrifolia is a traditional herb widely used by indigenous population of Cameroon to treat and prevent Alzheimer's disease and for memory improvement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the decoction prepared from leaves of D...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207901/repeated-treatment-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-uk-14304-improves-cognitive-performance-in-middle-age-rats-role-of-hippocampal-fas-associated-death-domain
#14
Elena Hernández-Hernández, Antonio Miralles, Susana Esteban, M Julia García-Fuster
The cell fate regulator Fas-associated death domain (FADD) balances cell death with non-apoptotic actions via its phosphorylated form. A recent study associated loss of cortical FADD with cognitive decline and increased risk of clinical dementia. Since the activation of cortical α2A-adrenoceptors improved memory deficits in various animal models of working memory loss, the present study evaluated whether UK-14304, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist known to acutely regulate brain FADD forms, would improve cognitive function in middle-aged rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187333/toward-a-clinic-of-temporality
#15
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Martine Batt, Alain Trognon
The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187078/maternal-fluoride-exposure-during-gestation-and-lactation-decreased-learning-and-memory-ability-and-glutamate-receptor-mrna-expressions-of-mouse-pups
#16
Z Sun, Y Zhang, X Xue, R Niu, J Wang
Previous investigations demonstrated that high fluoride (F) exposure may adversely affect the neurodevelopment and learning and memory ability. However, whether maternal F exposure during gestation and lactation can influence the learning, memory ability, and glutamate receptor expressions of offspring has not yet been elucidated. Hence, in the present study, maternal mice were exposed to F (25, 50, or 100 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water) during gestation and lactation. Results showed that exposure to 100 mg/L NaF significantly enhanced the number of total arm entries and working memory errors of offspring in the radial arm maze test compared to the control group...
January 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187028/rat-model-of-brain-injury-to-occupants-of-vehicles-targeted-by-land-mines-mitigation-by-elastomeric-frame-designs
#17
Flaubert Tchantchou, Adam C Puche, Ulrich Leiste, William Fourney, Thomas A Blanpied, Gary Fiskum
Many victims of blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) are occupants of vehicles targeted by land mines. A rat model of under-vehicle blast TBI was used to test the hypothesis that the neuropathology and altered behavior that ensue are mitigated by vehicle designs that dramatically reduce blast-induced acceleration (G force). Male rats were restrained on an aluminum platform that was accelerated vertically at up to 2850G, in response to detonation of an explosive positioned under a second platform in contact with the top via different energy-absorbing structures...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182653/recovery-from-trauma-induced-amnesia-correlates-with-normalization-of-thrombin-activity-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#18
Marina Ben Shimon, Talya Zeimer, Efrat Shavit Stein, Avital Artan-Furman, Sagi Harnof, Joab Chapman, Arik Eisenkraft, Chaim G Pick, Nicola Maggio
Transient amnesia is a common consequence of minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, while recent findings have addressed the mechanisms involved in its onset, the processes contributing to its recovery have not yet been addressed. Recently, we have found that thrombin is detected at high concentrations in the brain of mice after exposure to mTBI and that in such settings amnesia is rescued by either inhibiting thrombin activity or by blockade of PAR1. Here, we report that mice spontaneously recover from amnesia after two weeks from mTBI exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172053/associations-of-neurofunctional-morphometric-and-metabolic-abnormalities-with-clinical-symptom-severity-and-recognition-deficit-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Chung-Man Moon, Gwang-Woo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. This study assessed the associations of the neurofunctional changes, gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo metabolic changes on the working memory tasks in patients with OCD. METHODS: Eighteen patients with OCD and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and educational levels underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), event-related functional MRI (fMRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 3T...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168009/dietary-lipophilic-iron-accelerates-regional-brain-iron-load-in-c57bl6-mice
#20
Douglas G Peters, Carson J Purnell, Michael P Haaf, Qing X Yang, James R Connor, Mark D Meadowcroft
Impaired brain iron homeostatic mechanisms, independent of pathological hallmarks, are harmful to the brain because excess free iron can cause DNA, protein, and lipid damage via oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal effect of chronic iron overload and deficiency in the vertebrate brain. Ten-week-old C57BL6 male mice were randomly assigned to one of four unique dietary regiments for 1 year: iron-deficient, normal iron, and two different concentrations of lipophilic iron diet containing 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl ferrocene (TMHF)...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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