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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214420/prevention-of-radiotherapy-induced-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-the-potential-role-of-modern-imaging-and-radiotherapy-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Stephen Price, Gail Horan, Amos Burke, Sarah Jefferies
Neurocognitive dysfunction is the leading cause of reduced quality of life in long-term survivors of paediatric brain tumours. Radiotherapy is one of the main contributors to neurocognitive sequelae. Current approaches for prevention and reduction of neurocognitive dysfunction include avoidance of radiotherapy in young children and reduction of the radiotherapy dose and volume of brain irradiated. Substantial advances have been made in brain imaging, especially with functional imaging and fibre tracking with the use of diffusion tensor imaging...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188495/cancer-treatment-and-the-kir-hla-system-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
Patrizia Leone, Valli De Re, Angelo Vacca, Franco Dammacco, Vito Racanelli
Accumulating evidence indicates that the success of cancer therapy depends not only on a combination of adequate procedures (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) that aim to eliminate all tumor cells, but also on the functional state of the host immune system. HLA and KIR molecules, in particular, are critical to the interactions between tumor cells and both innate and adaptive immune cells such as NK cells and T cells. Different KIR-HLA gene combinations as well as different HLA expression levels on tumor cells associate with variable tumor prognosis and response to treatment...
February 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181780/diagnosis-treatment-clinical-course-and-prognosis-of-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma-patients
#3
Hermann L Müller
CONTEXT: For decades gross-total resection was the preferred treatment option in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, assuming that radical strategies at the time of initial diagnosis and treatment would result in cure. Recent reports on long-term prognosis, novel treatment approaches, and molecular genetics provide new insights into more risk-adapted treatment strategies in order to prevent sequelae such as hypothalamic syndrome. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A search for original articles published between 2000 and 2016 was performed in PubMed, Science Citation Index Expanded, EMBASE and Scopus...
February 9, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169043/the-value-of-adaptive-preoperative-radiotherapy-in-management-of-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#4
Colleen Dickie, Amy Parent, Anthony M Griffin, Jay Wunder, Peter Ferguson, Peter W Chung, Tim Craig, Michael Sharpe, Nathan Becker, David Shultz, Charles N Catton, Brian O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: To determine the value of preoperative adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for soft tissue sarcoma patients (STS) by modeling the dosimetric consequences of tumour volume changes (TVC) using different external beam radiotherapy techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A subset of 22 STS patients from a recent trial (NCT00188175) underwent a repeat CT scan (CT2) prompted by TVC>1cm during IMRT; 14 tumours grew, 8 shrank. Conformal and conventional plans were modelled in addition to IMRT replicating original criteria from the initial planning dataset (CT1):95% PTV encompassed by 97% prescribed dose...
February 3, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151724/impact-of-dose-escalation-and-adaptive-radiotherapy-for-cervical-cancers-on-tumour-shrinkage-a-modelling-study
#5
Marius Røthe Arnesen, Taran Hellebust, Eirik Malinen
Tumour shrinkage occurs during fractionated radiotherapy and is regulated by radiation induced cellular damage, repopulation of viable cells and clearance of dead cells. In some cases additional tumour shrinkage during external beam therapy may be beneficial, particularly for locally advanced cervical cancer where a small tumour volume may simplify and improve brachytherapy. In the current work, a mathematical tumour model is utilized to investigate how local dose escalation affects tumour shrinkage, focusing on implications for brachytherapy...
February 2, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149763/statistical-control-process-to-compare-and-rank-treatment-plans-in-radiation-oncology-impact-of-heterogeneity-correction-on-treatment-planning-in-lung-cancer
#6
Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso
BACKGROUND: This study proposes a statistical process to compare different treatment plans issued from different irradiation techniques or different treatment phases. This approach aims to provide arguments for discussion about the impact on clinical results of any condition able to significantly alter dosimetric or ballistic related data. METHODS: The principles of the statistical investigation are presented in the framework of a clinical example based on 40 fields of radiotherapy for lung cancers...
December 2016: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137295/a-phase-ii-trial-of-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-with-concurrent-anti-pd1-treatment-in-metastatic-melanoma-evaluation-of-clinical-and-immunologic-response
#7
Katrien De Wolf, Vibeke Kruse, Nora Sundahl, Mireille van Gele, Ines Chevolet, Reinhart Speeckaert, Lieve Brochez, Piet Ost
BACKGROUND: Antibodies blocking programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have encouraging responses in patients with metastatic melanoma. Response to anti-PD-1 treatment requires pre-existing CD8+ T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1-mediated adaptive immune resistance. Unfortunately, less than half of melanoma tumours have these characteristics. Combining anti-PD-1 treatment with other immunomodulating treatments to activate CD8+ T cells is therefore of vital importance to increase response rates and long-term survival benefit in melanoma patients...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134979/a-multiresolution-prostate-representation-for-automatic-segmentation-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#8
Charlens Alvarez, Fabio Martínez, Eduardo Romero
PURPOSE: Accurate prostate delineation is necessary in radiotherapy processes for concentrating the dose onto the prostate and reducing side effects in neighboring organs. Currently, manual delineation is performed over Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) taking advantage of its high soft tissue contrast property. Nevertheless, since human intervention is a consuming task with high intra and inter-observer variability rates, (semi)-automatic organ delineation tools have emerged to cope with these challenges, reducing the time spent for these tasks...
January 30, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129789/short-report-interim-safety-results-for-a-phase-ii-trial-measuring-the-integration-of-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy-sabr-plus-surgery-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-missile-nsclc
#9
David A Palma, Timothy K Nguyen, Keith Kwan, Stewart Gaede, Mark Landis, Richard Malthaner, Dalilah Fortin, Alexander V Louie, Eric Frechette, George B Rodrigues, Brian Yaremko, Edward Yu, A Rashid Dar, Ting-Yim Lee, Al Gratton, Andrew Warner, Aaron Ward, Richard Inculet
: A phase II trial was launched to evaluate if neoadjuvant stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) before surgery improves oncologic outcomes in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report a mandated interim safety analysis for the first 10 patients who completed protocol treatment. Operable patients with biopsy-proven T1-2 N0 NSCLC were eligible. SABR was delivered using a risk-adapted fractionation (54Gy/3 fractions, 55/5 or 60/8). Surgical resection was planned 10 weeks later at a high-volume center (>200 lung cancer resections annually)...
January 27, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126268/-colorectal-cancer-in-the-elderly-surgical-treatment-chemotherapy-and-contribution-from-geriatrics
#10
Pilar Sáez-López, Elena Filipovich Vegas, Javier Martinez Peromingo, Sonia Jimenez Mola
Age is the biggest risk factor for colorectal cancer, with 70% of the cases in patients over 70 years old. For this reason, a review is presented on the surgical treatment and chemotherapy of cancer of colon and rectum in the elderly. A search was performed in PubMed, including words such as elderly, surgery, colorectal cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and oncogeriatrics, and review articles and originals on treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly were selected. A narrative form was developed from the latest evidence with the results obtained on the treatment of this pathology...
January 23, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125698/late-course-adaptive-adjustment-based-on-metabolic-tumor-volume-changes-during-radiotherapy-may-reduce-radiation-toxicity-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Linlin Xiao, Ning Liu, Guifang Zhang, Hui Zhang, Song Gao, Zheng Fu, Suzhen Wang, Qingxi Yu, Jinming Yu, Shuanghu Yuan
To reduce the high risk of radiation toxicity and enhance the quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we quantified the metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) from baseline to the late-course of radiotherapy (RT) by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computerized tomography (FDG PET-CT) and discussed the potential benefit of late-course adaptive plans rather than original plans by dose volume histogram (DVH) comparisons. Seventeen patients with stage II-III NSCLC who were treated with definitive conventionally fractionated RT were eligible for this prospective study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118260/effect-of-different-segmentation-algorithms-on-metabolic-tumor-volume-measured-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-of-cervical-primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Weina Xu, Shupeng Yu, Ying Ma, Changping Liu, Jun Xin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is known that fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) segmentation algorithms have an impact on the metabolic tumor volume (MTV). This leads to some uncertainties in PET/CT guidance of tumor radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmentation algorithms on the PET/CT-based MTV and their correlations with the gross tumor volumes (GTVs) of cervical primary squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia∼IIb and histologically proven cervical squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled...
March 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117416/tumour-associated-macrophages-as-treatment-targets-in-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Alberto Mantovani, Federica Marchesi, Alberto Malesci, Luigi Laghi, Paola Allavena
Macrophages are crucial drivers of tumour-promoting inflammation. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to tumour progression at different levels: by promoting genetic instability, nurturing cancer stem cells, supporting metastasis, and taming protective adaptive immunity. TAMs can exert a dual, yin-yang influence on the effectiveness of cytoreductive therapies (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), either antagonizing the antitumour activity of these treatments by orchestrating a tumour-promoting, tissue-repair response or, instead, enhancing the overall antineoplastic effect...
January 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114115/fully-automatic-segmentation-of-arbitrarily-shaped-fiducial-markers-in-cone-beam-ct-projections
#14
J Bertholet, H Wan, J Toftegaard, M L Schmidt, F Chotard, P J Parikh, P R Poulsen
Radio-opaque fiducial markers of different shapes are often implanted in or near abdominal or thoracic tumors to act as surrogates for the tumor position during radiotherapy. They can be used for real-time treatment adaptation, but this requires a robust, automatic segmentation method able to handle arbitrarily shaped markers in a rotational imaging geometry such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection images and intra-treatment images. In this study, we propose a fully automatic dynamic programming (DP) assisted template-based (TB) segmentation method...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114107/generation-of-synthetic-ct-data-using-patient-specific-daily-mr-image-data-and-image-registration
#15
Kim Melanie Kraus, Oliver Jäkel, Nina I Niebuhr, Asja Pfaffenberger
To fully exploit the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning, a method is required to overcome the problem of lacking electron density information. We aim to establish and evaluate a new method for computed tomography (CT) data generation based on MRI and image registration. The thereby generated CT data is used for dose accumulation. We developed a process flow based on an initial pair of rigidly co-registered CT and T2-weighted MR image representing the same anatomical situation...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113548/visualization-of-deformable-image-registration-quality-using-local-image-dissimilarity
#16
Matthias Schlachter, Tobias Fechter, Miro Jurisic, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Oliver Oehlke, Sonja Adebahr, Wolfgang Birkfellner, Ursula Nestle, Katja Buhler
Deformable image registration (DIR) has the potential to improve modern radiotherapy in many aspects, including volume definition, treatment planning and image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. Studies have shown its possible clinical benefits. However, measuring DIR accuracy is difficult without known ground truth, but necessary before integration in the radiotherapy workflow. Visual assessment is an important step towards clinical acceptance. We propose a visualization framework which supports the exploration and the assessment of DIR accuracy...
April 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108513/relb-expression-determines-the-differential-effects-of-ascorbic-acid-in-normal-and-cancer-cells
#17
Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K St Clair, William H St Clair
Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid (AA) is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099270/a-prospective-assessment-of-surgical-risk-factors-in-114-gluteal-fold-flap-reconstructions-after-oncological-vulvoperineal-resection-to-establish-clinically-relevant-selection-criteria
#18
Maurits Lange, J Joris Hage, Marc van Beurden
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To date, clinically relevant selection criteria have not been established for the use of the gluteal fold flap after oncological vulvoperineal resection. We prospectively assessed the surgical risk factors of this reconstructive technique in a large series. METHODOLOGY: From April of 2000 through December of 2015, 114 gluteal fold flaps were used for vulvoperineal reconstruction after excision of (pre)malignant skin disorders in 75 women. The possible influence of 10 patient-related and 6 procedure-related risk factors on flap-related postoperative complications was statistically analyzed...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089762/long-terms-results-of-a-trial-of-concurrent-chemotherapy-and-escalating-doses-of-radiation-for-unresectable-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-ncctg-n0028-alliance
#19
Steven E Schild, Shauna L Hillman, Angelina D Tan, Helen J Ross, William L McGinnis, Yolanda A Garces, David L Graham, Alex A Adjei, James R Jett
INTRODUCTION OR HYPOTHESIS: This phase I/II trial was originally designed to determine the maximally tolerated dose(MTD) of thoracic radiotherapy(TRT) as part of a combined modality approach. This report includes the long-term outcome of patients treated on this study. The phase II portion was never completed as RTOG-0617 opened before it was concluded. METHODS: The MTD was defined as 74Gy in 37 fractions in this study. Twenty-five patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) were treated with 2Gy daily fractions and concurrent weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060744/targeting-macrophage-anti-tumor-activity-to-suppress-melanoma-progression
#20
REVIEW
Huafeng Wang, Lijuan Zhang, Luhong Yang, Chengfang Liu, Qi Zhang, Linjing Zhang
By phagocytosing cancer cells and their cellular debris, macrophages play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and, as antigen presenters, they help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity). Malignant melanoma is a lethal disease due to its aggressive capacity for metastasis and resistance to therapy. For decades, considerable effort has gone into development of an effective immunotherapy for treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review, we focus on the anti-tumor activities of macrophages in melanoma and their potential as therapeutic targets in melanoma...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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