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Invasive fungal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927203/diagnostic-imaging-and-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-children
#1
Aspasia Katragkou, Brian T Fisher, Andreas H Groll, Emmanuel Roilides, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a life-threatening condition, especially in immunocompromised children. The role of diagnostic imaging in children at risk for an IFD is multifactorial, including initially detecting it, evaluating for dissemination of infection beyond the primary site of disease, monitoring the response to antifungal therapy, and assessing for potential relapse. The objective of this review was to synthesize the published literature relevant to the use of various imaging modalities for the diagnosis and management of IFD in children...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927202/role-of-molecular-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-children
#2
Anna R Huppler, Brian T Fisher, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Thomas J Walsh, William J Steinbach
Invasive fungal diseases are important clinical problems that are often complicated by severe illness and therefore the inability to use invasive measures to definitively diagnose the disease. Tests for a range of fungal biomarkers that do not require an invasive sample-collection procedure have been incorporated into adult clinical practice, but pediatric data and pediatric-specific recommendations for some of these diagnostic tools are lacking. In this review, we summarize the published literature and contemporary strategies for using the biomarkers galactomannan, (1→3)-β-d-glucan, Candida mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibody, and fungal polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing invasive fungal disease in children...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927201/recognition-and-clinical-presentation-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-neonates-and-children
#3
Jill King, Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Adilia Warris
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are devastating opportunistic infections that result in significant morbidity and death in a broad range of pediatric patients, particularly those with a compromised immune system. Recognizing them can be difficult, because nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms or isolated fever are frequently the only presenting features. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in patients at increased risk of IFD, which requires knowledge of the pediatric patient population at risk, additional predisposing factors within this population, and the clinical signs and symptoms of IFD...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927200/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#4
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Emmanuel Roilides, Adilia Warris, Andreas H Groll, Theoklis Zaoutis
Considerable progress has been made in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric patients with invasive fungal disease (IFD). The reported decreasing trend in the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) over the past 15 years in both neonates and children has been encouraging. Nevertheless, due to the growing number of immunocompromised children at risk for IFD, this disease continues to be associated with significant morbidity and death and with increased financial burden to the health care system...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927199/international-collaborative-on-contemporary-epidemiology-and-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#5
William J Steinbach, Brian T Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922285/what-where-and-why-exploring-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-s-ability-to-localise-and-differentiate-infection-from-cancer
#6
Abby Douglas, Eddie Lau, Karin Thursky, Monica Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the utility of FDG-PET imaging in detecting the cause of fever and infection in patients with cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET has been shown to have high sensitivity and accuracy for causes of neutropenic fever, leading to higher diagnostic certainty in this group. Recent advances in pathogen-specific labelling in PET to identify Aspergillus spp. and Yersinia spp. infections in mice, as well as differentiating between Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial infections are promising...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919635/aspergillus-fumigatus-morphology-and-dynamic-host-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark S Gresnigt, Luigina Romani, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus is an environmental filamentous fungus that can cause life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. The interactions between A. fumigatus and the host environment are dynamic and complex. The host immune system needs to recognize the distinct morphological forms of A. fumigatus to control fungal growth and prevent tissue invasion, whereas the fungus requires nutrients and needs to adapt to the hostile environment by escaping immune recognition and counteracting host responses...
September 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915910/colonization-of-the-bovine-uterus-by-candida-kefyr
#8
Cecilia Christensen Karstrup, Bent Aalbæk, Kirstine Klitgaard, Tim Kåre Jensen, Hanne Gervi Pedersen, Jørgen Steen Agerholm
BACKGROUND: While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. CASE PRESENTATION: Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid or within macrophages...
September 16, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894556/how-we-manage-invasive-fungal-disease-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-with-glucose-6-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#9
Marco Sanna, Giovanni Caocci, Giorgio La Nasa
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) represents a common human enzyme defect, particularly prevalent in the Mediterranean, African e Asian area, where malaria was or is still endemic. Recently, we identified G6PD deficiency as a risk factor for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and particularly Candida Sepsis in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that there is an urgent need for strategies to properly manage this kind of patients at high risk of invasive mycoses...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887897/opportunistic-invasive-cutaneous-fungal-infections-associated-with-administration-of-cyclosporine-to-dogs-with-immune-mediated-disease
#10
B B McAtee, K J Cummings, A K Cook, J A Lidbury, J C Heseltine, M D Willard
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (OIFIs) occur in dogs administered immunosuppressive medications. However, the epidemiology of OIFIs among dogs undergoing immunosuppressive treatment is poorly understood. The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the incidence of OIFIs among dogs diagnosed with certain immune-mediated diseases and treated with immunosuppressive drugs, and (2) determine if administration of particular drug(s) was a risk factor for OIFIs. HYPOTHESIS: Dogs receiving cyclosporine treatment (alone or as part of a multidrug protocol) are at higher risk of developing OIFIs...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887808/comparison-of-reference-values-for-immune-recovery-between-event-free-patients-receiving-haploidentical-allografts-and-those-receiving-human-leukocyte-antigen-matched-sibling-donor-allografts
#11
Xuying Pei, Xiangyu Zhao, Yu Wang, Lanping Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Kaiyan Liu, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang
To establish optimal reference values for recovered immune cell subsets, we prospectively investigated post-transplant immune reconstitution (IR) in 144 patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo- SCT) and without showing any of the following events: poor graft function, grades II‒IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), serious chronic GVHD, serious bacterial infection, invasive fungal infection, or relapse or death in the first year after transplantation. IR was rapid in monocytes, intermediate in lymphocytes, CD3(+) Tcells, CD8(+) T cells, and CD19(+) B cells, and very slow in CD4(+) T cells in the entire patient cohort...
September 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887465/host-immune-status-specific-production-of-gliotoxin-and-bis-methyl-gliotoxin-during-invasive-aspergillosis-in-mice
#12
Janyce A Sugui, Stacey R Rose, Glenn Nardone, Muthulekha Swamydas, Chyi-Chia R Lee, Kyung J Kwon-Chung, Michail S Lionakis
Delayed diagnosis in invasive aspergillosis (IA) contributes to its high mortality. Gliotoxin (GT) and bis-methyl-gliotoxin (bmGT) are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus during invasive, hyphal growth and may prove diagnostically useful. Because IA pathophysiology and GT's role in virulence vary depending on the underlying host immune status, we hypothesized that GT and bmGT production in vivo may differ in three mouse models of IA that mimic human disease. We defined temporal kinetics of GT and bmGT in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs of A...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880124/efficacy-and-safety-of-posaconazole-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-patients-with-invasive-fungal-disease
#13
Sudong Zhang, Yi He, Erlie Jiang, Jialin Wei, Donglin Yang, Rongli Zhang, Weihua Zhai, Guixin Zhang, Zhao Wang, Lining Zhang, Li Liu, Mingzhe Han, Sizhou Feng
AIM: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. This study reports real-world efficacy and safety of posaconazole (POS) in HSCT recipients with IFD. PATIENTS & METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to investigate the efficacy and safety of POS oral suspension in 45 HSCT patients with IFD from December 2013 to December 2016. RESULTS: The success rate at 12 weeks after POS treatment was 57...
September 7, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870728/clinical-use-of-fungal-pcr-from-deep-tissue-samples-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-a-retrospective-observational-study
#14
Mari Ala-Houhala, Pirkko Koukila-Kähkölä, Jenni Antikainen, Jaana Valve, Juha Kirveskari, Veli-Jukka Anttila
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. METHODS: We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Secondly, we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013-2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was non-selected...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864921/invasive-pulmonary-fungal-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Carsten Schwarz, Claudia Brandt, Paul Whitaker, Sivagurunathan Sutharsan, Heino Skopnik, Silvia Gartner, Christina Smazny, Jobst F Röhmel
Invasive pulmonary mycosis is after allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) a frequent and severe complication of CF lung disease. Among CF caregivers, there is an insecurity when and how to treat infections of the lung parenchyma caused by different fungi in patients with CF. This case series provides a multicenter experience on diagnostic, manifestation, and treatment of non-ABPA cases of pulmonary. Non-ABPA cases of pulmonary mycoses in patients with CF have been collected from the CF Centers in Berlin, Essen, Worms, Frankfurt (Germany), Leeds (UK), and Barcelona (Spain)...
September 1, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856589/impact-of-a-mixed-educational-and-semi-restrictive-antimicrobial-stewardship-project-in-a-large-teaching-hospital-in-northern-italy
#16
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Malgorzata Mikulska, Giulia Gustinetti, Anna Marchese, Federica Mina, Alessio Signori, Andrea Orsi, Fulvio Rudello, Cristiano Alicino, Beatrice Bonalumi, Alessandra Morando, Giancarlo Icardi, Sabrina Beltramini, Claudio Viscoli, Antonio Ferrazin, Ferdinando Dodi, Norberto Morandi, Federica Toscanini, Marco Camera, Antonio Di Biagio, Giovanni Mazzarello, Anna Ida Alessandrini, Andrea De Maria, Emanuele Delfino, Laura Ambra Nicolini, Carolina Saffioti, Federica Magnè, Nemo Gandolfo
BACKGROUND: The overuse of antimicrobials favors the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance, as well as invasive fungal diseases and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). In this study, we assessed the impact of a mixed educational and semi-restrictive antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) project in a large teaching hospital in Italy. METHODS: The AMS project was conducted from May 2014 to April 2016. It consisted of two initiatives in two consecutive periods: (1) educational activities; (2) semi-restrictive control of antimicrobial prescribing through a computerized software...
August 30, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844921/spinal-coccidioidomycosis-a-current-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#17
Eduardo Martinez-Del-Campo, Samuel Kalb, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Karam Moon, Ana Moran, Omar Gonzalez, Hector Soriano-Baron, Nicholas Theodore
OBJECTIVE: Coccidioidomycosis is an invasive fungal disease that may present with extrathoracic dissemination. Patients with spinal coccidioidomycosis require unique medical and surgical management. The authors review the risk factors and clinical presentations, discuss the indications for surgical intervention, and evaluate outcomes and complications after medical and surgical management. METHODS: A review of the English-language literature was performed. Eighteen articles included the management of 140 patients with spinal coccidioidomycosis...
August 24, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842139/daunorubicin-90-mg-m-2-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-induction-increased-toxicity-in-young%C3%A2-patients
#18
Rodrigo Portugal, Renata Lyrio, Monique Loureiro, Kátia Urago, Johny Bard, Aline Borchardt, Márcia Garnica, Márcio Nucci
BACKGROUND: The combination of an anthracycline and cytosine arabinoside has been the standard induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia for more than 3 decades. The clinical benefit of intensification of the daunorubicin dose to 90 mg/m(2) has been supported by randomized trials. Based on these promising results, in 2010 we changed our induction protocol of acute myeloid leukemia, increasing the dose of daunorubicin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome of patients treated with high-dose daunorubicin (90 mg/m(2) on days 1-3) and cytosine arabinoside (200 mg/m(2)/day continuous infusion on days 1-7) compared with patients receiving 45 to 60 mg/m(2) of daunorubicin...
August 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837657/mycetoma-laboratory-diagnosis-review-article
#19
REVIEW
Amel Altayeb Ahmed, Wendy van de Sande, Ahmed Hassan Fahal
Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease caused by a substantial number of microorganisms of fungal or bacterial origins. Identification of the causative organism and the disease extension are the first steps in the management of the affected patients and predicting disease treatment outcome and prognosis. Different laboratory-based diagnostic tools and techniques were developed over the years to determine and identify the causative agents. These include direct microscopy and cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical techniques in addition to the classical grain culture...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836110/effects-of-photodynamic-therapy-on-the-growth-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-scedosporium-and-lomentospora-spp
#20
Qiaoyun Lu, Yi Sun, Dingdan Tian, Shoubao Xiang, Lujuan Gao
Scedosporium and Lomentospora species are the second most frequent colonizing, allergenic, or invasive fungal pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis, and are responsible for infections varying from cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue infections caused by traumatic inoculation to severe systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. The clinical relevance of fungal airway colonization for individual patients harboring Scedosporium and Lomentospora species is still an underestimated issue. The high resistance of Scedosporium and Lomentospora species to antifungal drugs has highlighted the need for alternative treatment modalities, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy may be one such alternative...
August 23, 2017: Mycopathologia
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