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Invasive fungal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736021/infectious-complications-and-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-the-first-12-months-after-transplant
#1
A César-Arce, P Volkow-Fernández, L M Valero-Saldaña, B Acosta-Maldonado, D Vilar-Compte, P Cornejo-Juárez
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used as treatment in different hematologic and solid malignancies. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of infectious complications, microbiology, and outcome in patients undergoing HSCT in Mexico during the pre-engraftment period and the impact on mortality rates at 12 months. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all hematologic malignancies that received HSCT from January 2009 and December 2014, at an oncology reference center...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734773/epico-4-0-total-quality-in-the-management-of-invasive-candidiasis-in-critically-ill-patients-by-analysing-the-integrated-process
#2
Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Pedro Llinares, Emilio Maseda, Alejandro Rodríguez, Santiago Grau, Guillermo Quindós
BACKGROUND: A high quality integrated process in the clinical setting of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk for invasive candidiasis is a necessary tool to improve the management of these patients. AIMS: To identify the key points on invasive candidiasis in order to develop a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus required for the creation of a total quality integrated process for the management of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk of invasive candidiasis...
July 19, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730644/fungiscope-%C3%A2-global-emerging-fungal-infection-registry
#3
Danila Seidel, Luisa A Durán Graeff, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Hilmar Wisplinghoff, Maren Ziegler, J Janne Vehreschild, Blasius Liss, Axel Hamprecht, Philipp Köhler, Zdenek Racil, Nikolay Klimko, Donald C Sheppard, Raoul Herbrecht, Anuradha Chowdhary, Oliver A Cornely, FungiScope Group
Rare invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are challenging for the treating physicians because of their unspecific clinical presentation, as well as the lack of standardised diagnostic and effective treatment strategies. Late onset of treatment and inappropriate medication is associated with high mortality, thus, urging the need for a better understanding of these diseases. The purpose of FungiScope(™) is to continuously collect clinical information and specimens to improve the knowledge on epidemiology and eventually improve patient management of these orphan diseases...
August 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#4
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705753/invasive-fungal-infections-secondary-to-traumatic-injury
#5
REVIEW
Ryan Kronen, Stephen Y Liang, Grant Bochicchio, Kelly Bochicchio, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#6
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694566/antifungal-resistance-metabolic-routes-as-drug-targets-and-new-antifungal-agents-an-overview-about-endemic-dimorphic-fungi
#7
REVIEW
Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha, Alexandre Melo Bailão, André Correa Amaral, Carlos Pelleschi Taborda, Juliano Domiraci Paccez, Clayton Luiz Borges, Maristela Pereira
Diseases caused by fungi can occur in healthy people, but immunocompromised patients are the major risk group for invasive fungal infections. Cases of fungal resistance and the difficulty of treatment make fungal infections a public health problem. This review explores mechanisms used by fungi to promote fungal resistance, such as the mutation or overexpression of drug targets, efflux and degradation systems, and pleiotropic drug responses. Alternative novel drug targets have been investigated; these include metabolic routes used by fungi during infection, such as trehalose and amino acid metabolism and mitochondrial proteins...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694096/a-role-for-random-humidity-dependent-epiphytic-growth-prior-to-invasion-of-wheat-by-zymoseptoria-tritici
#8
Helen N Fones, Chris J Eyles, William Kay, Josh Cowper, Sarah J Gurr
Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria leaf blotch of wheat. The prevailing paradigm of the Z. tritici-wheat interaction assumes fungal ingress through stomata within 24-48h, followed by days of symptomless infection. This is extrapolated from studies testing the mode of fungal ingress under optimal infection conditions. Here, we explicitly assess the timing of entry, using GFP-tagged Z. tritici. We show that early entry is comparatively rare, and extended epiphytic growth possible. We test the hypotheses that our data diverge from earlier studies due to: i...
July 8, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688551/pediatric-invasive-fungal-rhinosinusitis-an-investigation-of-17-patients
#9
Daniel Vinh, Michael Yim, Ankhi Dutta, John K Jones, Wei Zhang, Matthew Sitton
PURPOSE: To investigate outcomes of pediatric patients at a single institution with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) and to determine variables that impact overall survival. METHODS: All pediatric patients at a large tertiary children's hospital diagnosed with IFRS confirmed by surgical pathology from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, underlying diseases, symptoms, antifungal therapy, absolute neutrophil count (ANC), surgical management,and outcomes were analyzed...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681812/evaluation-of-serum-galactomannan-enzyme-immunoassay-at-two-different-cut-offs-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#10
Ritin Mohindra, Malini R Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Dinesh K Gupta, B Gupta, Ranadip Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI) detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008) European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Mycoses Study Group (EORTC-MSG) criteria at two different optical density (OD) cut-offs of 0...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681317/restraining-pathogenicity-in-candida-albicans-by-taxifolin-as-an-inhibitor-of-ras1-pka-pathway
#11
Sonali Mishra, Sangeeta Singh, Krishna Misra
Candida albicans is one of the most virulent and opportunistic fungal strains. In the present scenario, majority metabolic imbalances and unsuccessful treatments of some severe diseases including cancer, diabetes, HIV, psoriasis are because of invasive Candida emergence. Being a beneficial integral part of human biome, its elimination is not possible. The major pathogenicity characteristics in Candida involve hyphal growth, biofilm formation, HSP90 down regulation and genetic modifications. Ras1-pka pathway initiated by HSP90 down regulation is important for hyphal growth and has been focused in the present study...
July 5, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681028/osteomyelitis-and-lung-abscess-due-to-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-chronic-granulomatous-disease-patient
#12
S Mamishi, K Zomorodian, F Saadat, S Z Jalali, M Geramishoar
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. This disorder results in recurrent life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Aspergillus species are the most common fungal infections in these patients. CASE REPORT: Herein, we present a case of fungal infection in a girl with CGD. We confirmed aspergillosis through the positive microscopic and macroscopic examinations, as well as radiology results...
September 2016: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680525/progress-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Adilia Warris, Thomas Lehrnbecher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the fungal diagnostic measures currently available for use in paediatric patients at high risk for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and those suspected of having an IFD. The clinical utility of each test is described based on reported performances of individual tests in specific paediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Available studies in the paediatric population are scarce and are characterized by a huge heterogeneity in underlying diseases (e...
2017: Current Fungal Infection Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680340/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-candidiasis-and-aspergillosis-in-patient-with-refractory-hodgkin-lymphoma-using-micafungin-case-study-and-brief-literature-review
#14
Marta Barańska, Renata Kroll-Balcerzak, Lidia Gil, Joanna Rupa-Matysek, Mieczysław Komarnicki
The number of patients with hematological malignancies who develop invasive fungal disease (IFD) has increased dramatically in recent decades. This increase is attributed to impairment of the host immune system due to intensive cytotoxic chemotherapies, use of corticosteroids and profound immunosuppression after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Additionally, the increasing prevalence of fungal infections caused by emerging and rare pathogens, IFD of mixed etiology or of atypical localization is observed...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669830/drivers-and-impact-of-antifungal-therapy-in-critically-ill-patients-with-aspergillus-positive-respiratory-tract-cultures
#15
J A Paiva, P Mergulhão, A Gomes, F S Taccone, A-M Van den Abeele, P Bulpa, B Misset, W Meersseman, G Dimopoulos, J Rello, D Vogelaers, S Blot
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an increasingly recognized problem in critically ill patients. Little is known about how intensivists react to a Aspergillus-positive respiratory sample and about the efficacy of antifungals. Our goal was to identify drivers of antifungal therapy (AFT) prescription and diagnostic workup in patients with Aspergillus isolation in respiratory specimens as well as the impact of AFT in these patients. METHODS: ICU patients with a Aspergillus-positive respiratory sample from the database of a previous observational multicenter study were analysed...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668492/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-invasive-fungal-diseases-among-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-in-korea-results-of-risk-study
#16
Jae-Ki Choi, Sung-Yeon Cho, Sung-Soo Yoon, Joon-Ho Moon, Sung-Han Kim, Je-Hwan Lee, Jin Seok Kim, June-Won Cheong, Jun-Ho Jang, Bo-Jeong Seo, Young-Joo Kim, Hye-Jung Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Jong Wook Lee, Dong-Gun Lee
Incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients can vary from different cohorts and countries. Therefore, we performed a nationwide study to establish a proper antifungal prophylaxis strategies based on risk stratifications of IFDs after all-HSCT in Korea (RISK study). This was a multicenter, retrospective, and observational study in Korea. All consecutive adult patients who received allo-HSCT in 2013 were included...
June 28, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659882/dendritic-cells-primed-with-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-peptide-p10-are-therapeutic-in-immunosuppressed-mice-with-paracoccidioidomycosis
#17
Leandro B R Silva, Lucas S Dias, Glauce M G Rittner, Julián E Muñoz, Ana C O Souza, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Luiz R Travassos, Carlos P Taborda
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We previously reported that P10-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) induce a protective response against P. brasiliensis. Presently, dexamethasone-treated BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646949/recognition-and-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-neonates
#18
Joanne L Calley, Adilia Warris
Fungal infections largely caused by Candida species are responsible for a significant disease burden in neonates and invasive candidiasis in hospitalised neonates has high associated morbidity and mortality. Early initiation of antifungal treatment improves outcome but the recognition and diagnosis of systemic fungal infection in this population is difficult due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the high false negative rate of cultures. There is a need for a practical, sensitive and rapid diagnostic test to enhance identification and early treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641654/-efficacy-and-safety-of-posaconazoleon-for-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-against-invasive-fungal-disease-in-patients-with-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Ya-Mei Wu, Yong-Bin Cao, Xiao-Hong Li, Li-Xin Xu, Bei Yan, Song-Wei Li, Hai-Tao Wang, Ya-Hui Gao, Tian-Tian Zhang, Ya-Qian Zhang, Li Wang, Xiao-Xiong Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and clinical safety of posaconazoleon primary antifungal prophylaxis against invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with stem cell transplantation. METHODS: At the start from preconditioning regimen, 45 patients without IFD were administered with posaconazoleon until neutrophils greater than 0.5×10(9)/L, 35 patients treated with micafungin were enrolled in control group. The incidence, risk factors of IFD and side effects of medicines were evaluated...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641094/emerging-concepts-in-cytomegalovirus-infection-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
REVIEW
Jose F Camargo, Krishna V Komanduri
Despite the refinements in molecular methods for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the advent of highly effective preemptive strategies, CMV remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. CMV can cause tissue-invasive disease including pneumonia, hepatitis, colitis, retinitis, and encephalitis. Mortality in HCT recipients with CMV disease can be as high as 60%. CMV infection has been associated with increased risk of secondary bacterial and fungal infections, increased risk of graft-versus-host disease, and high rates of non-relapse mortality following HCT...
June 14, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
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