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Invasive fungal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342778/-the-burden-of-fungal-infections-in-algeria
#1
REVIEW
M Chekiri-Talbi, D W Denning
In Algeria, superficial mycoses are very commonly diagnosed. Deep fungal infections are less often observed. Few data from Algeria are found in the literature. We report for the first time the main causes of these diseases in our country and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports...
March 22, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341518/evaluation-of-the-implementation-rate-of-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-and-the-prognosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-acute-leukemia-patients-in-china
#2
Xiao-Han Xu, Lu Zhang, Xin-Xin Cao, Jian Li, Wei Zhang, Tie-Nan Zhu, Hua-Cong Cai, Miao Chen, Xiao Han, Chen Yang, Bing Han, Yan Zhang, Jun-Ling Zhuang, Dao-Bin Zhou, Ming-Hui Duan
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major complication of acute leukemia, thus primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) is recommended by guidelines. Nevertheless, guidelines might not be commonly followed in developing countries due to economic factors. The primary objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of PAP in acute leukemia patients in China and to compare the prognosis of IFD with and without PAP. The secondary objectives were to investigate the safety of PAP, clinical characteristics of IFDs and risk factors of breakthrough...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341385/imaging-of-intracranial-and-orbital-complications-of-sinusitis-and-atypical-sinus-infection-what-the-radiologist-needs-to-know
#3
REVIEW
Vinodkumar Velayudhan, Zeshan A Chaudhry, Wendy R K Smoker, Roman Shinder, Deborah L Reede
Sinusitis is a common disease. Complications, however, are less common and can be life threatening. Major complications occur from extension of disease into the orbit and intracranial compartment and often require emergent treatment with intravenous (IV) antibiotics or operative intervention. Immunocompromised patients with acute sinusitis are susceptible to atypical infections, such as invasive fungal sinusitis, which is a surgical emergency. Therefore, it is important to accurately and promptly identify potentional complications of acute sinusitis to ensure appropriate treatment and minimize negative outcomes...
January 18, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#4
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339744/determining-the-analytical-specificity-of-pcr-based-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-ia-what-is-aspergillus
#5
C Oliver Morton, P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes, Lena Klingspor, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Katrien Lagrou, Stéphane Bretagne, Willem Melchers, Carlo Mengoli, Angela M Caliendo, Massimo Cogliati, Yvette Debets-Ossenkopp, Rebecca Gorton, Ferry Hagen, Catriona Halliday, Petr Hamal, Kathleen Harvey-Wood, Katia Jaton, Gemma Johnson, Sarah Kidd, Martina Lengerova, Cornelia Lass-Florl, Chris Linton, Laurence Millon, C Orla Morrissey, Melinda Paholcsek, Alida Fe Talento, Markus Ruhnke, Birgit Willinger, J Peter Donnelly, Juergen Loeffler
A wide array of PCR tests has been developed to aid the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), providing technical diversity but limiting standardisation and acceptance. Methodological recommendations for testing blood samples using PCR exist, based on achieving optimal assay sensitivity to help exclude IA. Conversely, when testing more invasive samples (BAL, biopsy, CSF) emphasis is placed on confirming disease, so analytical specificity is paramount. This multicenter study examined the analytical specificity of PCR methods for detecting IA by blind testing a panel of DNA extracted from a various fungal species to explore the range of Aspergillus species that could be detected, but also potential cross reactivity with other fungal species...
October 7, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336168/-pseudo-tumoral-invasive-fungus-infection-of-the-maxillary-sinus-in-abidjan
#6
A K Tanon, C Assouan, E Anzouan-Kacou, D N'guessan, A Salami, S Boni, E Konan
INTRODUCTION: The invasive fungal infection of the maxillary sinus is a rare and serious disease generally favored by immunosuppression. We report an exceptional case of pseudotumoral invasive fungal infection of the maxillary sinus in an immunocompetent patient. OBSERVATION: A 32-year-old patient consulted for labial and left temporal swelling associated with proptosis and chemosis that has been developing for 18 months. The scanner objectified a filling of the left maxillary sinus, and the ipsilateral orbital cavity, and the surrounding muscles...
March 20, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335692/liposomal-amphotericin-b-ambisome%C3%A2-at-beginning-of-its-third-decade-of-clinical-use
#7
Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Simone Cesaro, Corrado Girmenia, Mario Luppi, Anna Maria Nosari, Livio Pagano, Luigina Romani, Giuseppe Rossi, Adriano Venditti, Andrea Novelli
Haematologists have been using liposomal amphotericin-B (L-AMB) since 1993 and despite the introduction of several novel antifungal agents over the past decade, their propensity to prescribe L-AMB remains unchanged. Although antifungal guidelines strongly recommend voriconazole as the drug of choice in the treatment of probable and proven invasive fungal disease (IFD), L-AMB is widely used in the real life because of its several advantages in terms of wide anti-mould spectrum, tolerability and efficacy. Furthermore, the concept that L-AMB is endowed with immune-modulating effects, which may have a role in fighting IFD, represent another reason for its use in patients who do not tolerate an excess of inflammation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#8
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#9
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321926/evaluation-of-30-cases-of-mucormycosis-at-a-university-hospital-in-iran
#10
Reza Samarei, Naser Gharebaghi, Salar Zayer
Mucormycosis is a deadly invasive fungal infection and mainly affects immunocompromised patients. To investigate the clinical features of patients who developed mucormycosis and to determine the parameters, which influenced the outcome following mycotic infection. The current investigation retrospectively evaluated the demographic characteristics, clinical features, therapeutic data, as well as the outcomes of treatment in all cases of proven and probable mucormycosis diagnosed from 2002 until 2016 in our hospital...
March 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317569/oral-fungal-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#11
REVIEW
David R Telles, Niraj Karki, Michael W Marshall
Oral and maxillofacial fungal infections can appear in high-risk patients, including those immunocompromised. This article explores common oral manifestations of fungal infections in the oral cavity as primary lesions or as a result of disseminated disease. By far the most common oral fungal infection experienced in dentistry is oral candidiasis, which is reviewed in depth from simple oral infections to invasive candidiasis. The review aids the dental practitioner in understanding the full scope of Candida infections and other fungal infections...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297793/-research-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-liver-failure-in-2016
#12
F J Yang, L Peng, Y Y Liu, Z L Gao, T Han, J R Huang
Liver failure has various clinical types, a complex pathogenesis, and rapid disease progression, as well as a high mortality rate. Liver failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection is the most common type in China with severe conditions, various complications, and a mortality rate as high as 40%-90%. Invasive fungal disease secondary to acute-on-chronic liver failure can affect patients' prognosis and increase mortality rate. This article introduces the research advances in hepatitis B-related liver failure, artificial liver, and invasive fungal disease secondary to acute-on-chronic liver failure in 2016...
February 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294067/the-infectious-etiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Marta Sochocka, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Jerzy Leszek
Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially late-onset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades...
March 13, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293759/serious-fungal-diseases-in-the-republic-of-uzbekistan
#14
S A Tilavberdiev, D W Denning, N N Klimko
We have undertaken the first and preliminary estimation of severe and chronic mycotic diseases in the Republic of Uzbekistan, using a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculation was carried out based on data from 2014. Published results describing mycoses in Uzbekistan were identified. In the absence of published or official data, information about the frequency of mycoses from scientific literature elsewhere in groups at risk of development of fungal infections were taken into account...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289034/the-impact-of-mucositis-on-absorption-and-systemic-drug-exposure-of-isavuconazole
#15
Laura L Kovanda, Francisco M Marty, Johan Maertens, Amit V Desai, Christopher Lademacher, Marc Engelhardt, Qiaoyang Lu, William W Hope
Isavuconazonium sulfate is the water-soluble prodrug of isavuconazole. Population analyses have demonstrated relatively predictable pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior in diverse patient populations. We evaluated the impact of mucositis on the oral isavuconazole exposure using population PK modeling. METHODS: We evaluated patients treated in two phase 3 trials of isavuconazole, SECURE for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and other filamentous fungi and VITAL for patients with mucormycosis, invasive fungal disease (IFD) caused by other rare fungi, or IA and renal impairment...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286016/fluconazole-prophylaxis-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Juliana Ferreira da Silva Rios, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Luísa Petri Corrêa, Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the use of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous fluconazole in premature newborns and the occurrence of Invasive Candidiasis. METHODS: This is a systematic review with search at databases: PubMed, Capes Portal, Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde)/Lilacs, Scopus and Cochrane. The keywords used were: "Antifungal", "Candida" "Fluconazole prophylaxis" and "Preterm infants". RESULTS: Invasive Candidiasis was evaluated in all the twelve items...
March 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285659/candida-albicans-infection-and-intestinal-immunity
#17
REVIEW
Yiqing Tong, Jianguo Tang
Fungal infections cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in intensive care and immunocompromised patients, and can represent a life-threatening disease. As a microorganism commonly found in the intestine, Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade the gut epithelium barrier via microfold cells and enter the bloodstream. The defensive potential of the intestinal barrier against invasive C. albicans is dependent on innate and adaptive immune responses which enable the host to eliminate pathogenic fungi. The lamina propria layer of the intestine contains numerous immune cells capable of inducing an innate cellular immune response against invasive fungi...
May 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275471/immunity-status-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-patients-with-structural-lung-diseases-in-chinese-adults
#18
Shuo Liang, Rong Jiang, Hai-Wen Lu, Bei Mao, Man-Hui Li, Cheng-Wei Li, Shu-Yi Gu, Jiu-Wu Bai, Jin-Fu Xu
BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a fungal infection frequently observed in patients with immune dysfunction, such as those suffering from structural lung diseases. Nevertheless, studies assessing IPA combined with other common respiratory diseases remain scarce, particularly those regarding the immune status of its patients. Different structural lung diseases are known to differently affect patient immune status; however, the mechanisms by which this is conferred have yet to be determined...
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273191/-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#19
János Sinkó
Invasive fungal diseases represent an ever changing field within infectology, profoundly affecting daily clinical activities of specialists in haematology. The dynamic development seen in oncohaematology creates novel risk groups of patients, consequently necessitating a re-evaluation of principles in antifungal therapy from time to time. Not even in 2017 may achievements of fungal diagnostics and therapy become a substitute for clinical thinking and adaptation of general guidelines according to local experience...
March 8, 2017: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271647/mycobacterium-kansasii-pneumonia-with-mediastinal-lymphadenitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-successful-treatment-to-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Yeon Geun Choi, Sung Yeon Cho, Dong Gun Lee, Eunjung Yim, Hyonsoo Joo, Seongyul Ryu, Jae Ki Choi, Hee Je Kim
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is a relatively rare cause of neutropenic fever in patients with hematologic malignancies. During the neutropenic period, performing invasive procedures for microbiological or pathological confirmation is difficult. In addition, the optimal treatment duration for NTM disease in patients with leukemia, especially prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT), has not been documented. Therefore, we report a case of pneumonia with necrotizing lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii diagnosed during chemotherapy being performed for acute myeloid leukemia...
January 19, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
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