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Linezolid and vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146499/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-genes-profiling-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-burn-center-a-5-year-study
#1
Bei Jiang, Supeng Yin, Bo You, Yali Gong, Guangtao Huang, Zichen Yang, Yulong Zhang, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Xiaomei Hu, Yizhi Peng
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has attracted more and more attention in recent years, especially in burn medical centers. Here we conducted a 5-year period study to evaluate the MRSA infection in our burn center. The staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, antimicrobials susceptibility and virulence profiles were also performed among the MRSA isolates. Of the 259 S. aureus isolates, 239 (92.28%) isolates were identified as MRSA. A decreased trend of MRSA isolation rate over time was found (P = 0...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136035/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-antibiotics-used-to-treat-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-results-of-a-network-meta-analysis
#2
Julian F Guest, Jaime Esteban, Anton G Manganelli, Andrea Novelli, Giuliano Rizzardini, Miquel Serra
OBJECTIVE: This NMA compared the efficacy and safety between IV antibiotics that are used in the current standard of care for managing adult patients (≥18 years of age) with ABSSSI. METHODS: Comparators were chosen on the basis that both direct and indirect comparisons between the interventions of interest could be performed. Outcomes of the analysis were selected on the basis that they are frequently measured and reported in trials involving ABSSSI patients, and only published randomised control trials of any size and duration and with any blinding status were eligible for inclusion in the analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124451/current-treatment-concepts-for-iatrogenic-ventriculitis-a-nationwide-survey-in-germany
#3
Niklas von Spreckelsen, Norma Jung, Sergej Telentschak, Jürgen Hampl, Roland Goldbrunner, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ventriculitis is a common complication of the external ventricular drainage. While the procedure and indications for external ventricular drains (EVD) are highly standardized, the treatment of ventriculitis is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To depict the treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis currently performed in German hospitals. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire consisting of 18 multiple choice questions, each with the ability to provide additional individual answers, covering the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis as well as general handling of EVDs, was sent to 121 neurosurgical hospitals registered in the German Society for Neurosurgery (DGNC)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121980/a-complicated-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-treated-with-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-a-case-report
#4
C G K Amiyangoda, H Wimalaratna, S Bowatte
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rare disease with significant mortality and morbidity. With the emerging resistance and adverse effect profile of vancomycin which is the standard treatment, there is a compelling necessity of an effective alternative for vancomycin. Linezolid is proved as such an agent for infections caused by MRSA in other sites. However to-date the evidence for successful use of linezolid for MRSA prosthetic valve endocarditis is limited only for few case studies...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#5
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102052/reduction-of-bacterial-burden-by-copper-alloys-on-high-touch-athletic-center-surfaces
#6
Zina Ibrahim, Alexandra J Petrusan, Patrick Hooke, Shannon M Hinsa-Leasure
BACKGROUND: Athletic centers have been locations for the transmission of community-acquired infections. This study assessed the capacity of copper alloys to reduce the bacterial burden associated with high-touch athletic center equipment. Copper alloy weights and grips were rotated with rubber coated and stainless steel controls in an undergraduate college athletic center over a 16-month period. The athletic center is used by college athletic teams, student body, and local community. METHODS: The primary outcome was to compare bacterial burdens on copper and control grips by swabbing surfaces...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101082/the-emerging-problem-of-linezolid-resistant-enterococcus
#7
REVIEW
Ruru Bi, Tingting Qin, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Bing Gu
Enterococcus is a significant pathogen of numerous infections, particularly nosocomial infections, thus conferring a great challenge to clinicians. Linezolid (an oxazolidinone antibiotic) is an important therapeutic option for infections caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, especially vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). To characterize these infections with respect to epidemiological, microbiological and clinical scenarios, we make a systematic review of literature available on linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (LRE)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096582/peripheral-blood-plasma-clot-as-a-local-antimicrobial-drug-delivery-matrix
#8
Jan Gessmann, Dominik Seybold, Fahim Ayami, Elvira Peter, Hinnerk Baecker, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Manfred Koeller
Platelet-free blood plasma clots were loaded either with antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, or linezolid) at concentrations of 5-300 µg/ml or with silver ions (silver acetate) at concentrations of 3.3-129 µg/ml. The release of antibiotics or silver from the clot matrix was analyzed after repeated immersion of the plasma clots using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, tissue cell compatibility was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC)...
November 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063519/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-oxazolidinones
#9
REVIEW
Claire Roger, Jason A Roberts, Laurent Muller
Oxazolidinones are a class of synthetic antimicrobial agents with potent activity against a wide range of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Oxazolidinones exhibit their antibacterial effects by inhibiting protein synthesis acting on the ribosomal 50S subunit of the bacteria and thus preventing formation of a functional 70S initiation complex. Currently, two oxazolidinones have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: linezolid and more recently tedizolid...
October 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062249/a-retrospective-evaluation-of-blood-cultures-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-a-three-year-evaluation
#10
Ayşe Betül Ergül, Halit Işık, Yasemin Ay Altıntop, Yasemin Altuner Torun
AIM: In this study, it was aimed to retrospectively assess the frequency and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms isolated from blood cultures of patients in a pediatric intensive care unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on blood culture tests obtained from patients in a pediatric intensive care unit and sent to a microbiology laboratory between 2013 and 2016. The species and antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed in microorganisms isolated from the blood cultures...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057055/targeting-wall-teichoic-acid-in-situ-with-branched-polyethylenimine-potentiates-%C3%AE-lactam-efficacy-against-mrsa
#11
Melissa A Foxley, Summer N Wright, Anh K Lam, Anthony W Friedline, Stoffel J Strange, Min T Xiao, Erika L Moen, Charles V Rice
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a medical concern. Here, we show that branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), a nontoxic, cationic polymer, restores MRSA's susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics. Checkerboard assays with MRSA demonstrated synergy between BPEI and β-lactam antibiotics. A time-killing curve showed BPEI to be bactericidal in combination with oxacillin. BPEI did not potentiate efficacy with vancomycin, chloramphenicol, or linezolid. When exposed to BPEI, MRSA increased in size and had difficulty forming septa...
October 12, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046248/clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#12
Jung-Jr Ye, Shian-Sen Shie, Chun-Wen Cheng, Jeng-How Yang, Po-Yen Huang, Ting-Shu Wu, Ming-Hsun Lee, Ching-Tai Huang
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE-fm) bacteremia causes significant mortality in hospitalized patients. We sought to investigate clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and microbiological eradication associated with VRE-fm bacteremia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included 210 adult patients admitted between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. RESULTS: The mean Pitt bacteremia score was 4...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030448/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococci-isolated-from-retail-meats-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#13
Gregory H Tyson, Epiphanie Nyirabahizi, Emily Crarey, Claudine Kabera, Claudia Lam, Crystal Rice-Trujillo, Patrick F McDermott, Heather Tate
Bacteria of the genus Enterococcus are important human pathogens that are frequently resistant to a number of clinically important antibiotics. They are also used as a marker of animal fecal contamination of human foods, and are employed as sentinel organisms for tracking trends in resistance to antimicrobials with gram-positive activity. As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), we evaluated several retail meat commodities for the presence of enterococci from 2002-2014, finding 92...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991315/-impact-of-rational-use-of-antibiotics-in-a-third-level-clinic-in-colombia
#14
Christian J Pallares, Juan C Cataño
BACKGROUND: The increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics threatens the survival of patients and health costs. AIM: To determine the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in bacterial resistance and antibiotic consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi experimental study in a third level clinic in the city of Medellin, that evaluate in two time periods (pre-intervention between October 2012 and September 2013 and post intervention between October 2013 and September 2014) the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program in terms of antibiotic consumption and bacterial ecology...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977793/antibiotic-resistance-trends-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-in-kuwait-hospitals-2011-2015
#15
Edet Udo, Samar Boswihi
<br>The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance trends and carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genetic elements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Kuwait hospitals to ascertain whether they were healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA) or community-associated (CA-MRSA). <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>In total 6,922 MRSA isolates obtained from different clinical samples were tested for resistance to antibiotics, urease production and carriage of SCCmec elements...
October 4, 2017: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975963/linezolid-vs-vancomycin-in-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-meta-analysis
#16
J Li, Q-H Zhao, K-C Huang, Z-Q Li, L-Y Zhang, D-Y Qin, F Pan, W-X Huang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the treatment of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection by using meta-analysis method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, CNKI and Wanfang database were comprehensively searched to obtain the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on linezolid and vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA infections. We extracted features and information of included studies and selected appropriate effect models based on the heterogeneity test results...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969738/linezolid-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-hemolyticusisolated-from-leukemic-patient-first-case-report-from-pakistan
#17
Adeel Gardezi, Aamer Ikram, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Pervez Ahmed, Muhammad Ayyub
Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcusposes a challenging situation in healthcare settings. The spread of resistance among such organisms against major drugs is alarming as it limits the treatment options for serious infections. Traditionally, Vancomycin had remained a mainstay of treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci. Linezolid introduction into the clinical practice was a major breakthrough since it provided orally administered treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci. Widespread use of Linezolid has gradually turned the impending fear of emergence of resistance against this novel drug into a reality...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969155/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-a-therapeutic-problem
#18
Garima Yadav, Bhaskar Thakuria, Molly Madan, Vivek Agwan, Anita Pandey
INTRODUCTION: Enterococci are recognized as opportunistic pathogens, as well as commensals in both humans and animals. They are an important cause of nosocomial infections, difficult to treat, as the organism have intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics. AIM: To isolate and identify clinically relevant Enterococcus up to species level from all the clinical samples processed in the microbiology laboratory and also to study their resistance pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out for a period of one year from May 2014 to April 2015 at the Department of Microbiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966498/antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonizing-the-anterior-nares-of-health-care-workers-and-outpatients-attending-the-remotely-located-tertiary-care-hospital-of-north-india
#19
Seema Singh, Rubina Malhotra, Pragati Grover, Renu Bansal, Shipra Galhotra, Rupinderjit Kaur, Neerja Jindal
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major concern worldwide and is exemplified by the global spread of the Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Health care workers (HCWs) and asymptomatically colonized patients are important sources of nosocomial MRSA infections. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of MRSA colonisation, two hundred HCWs and 200 consecutive outpatients attending our tertiary care hospital were studied...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961986/novel-multiresistance-cfr-plasmids-in-linezolid-resistant-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-vre-from-a-hospital-outbreak-co-location-of-cfr-and-optra-in-vre
#20
Alexandros Lazaris, David C Coleman, Angela M Kearns, Bruno Pichon, Peter M Kinnevey, Megan R Earls, Breida Boyle, Brian O'Connell, Gráinne I Brennan, Anna C Shore
Background: Linezolid is often the drug of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid resistance can be mutational (23S rRNA or L-protein) or, less commonly, acquired [predominantly cfr , conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A compounds (PhLOPS A ) or optrA , encoding oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance]. Objectives: To investigate the clonality and genetic basis of linezolid resistance in 13 linezolid-resistant (LZDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates recovered during a 2013/14 outbreak in an ICU in an Irish hospital and an LZDR vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from an LZDR-MRSE-positive patient...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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