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Linezolid and vancomycin

Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah, Nidhi Relhan, Avinash Pathengay, Nitin Mohan, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Shuaishuai Ni, Baoli Li, Feifei Chen, Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Yifu Liu, Yixiang Xu, Xiaoxi Qiu, Xiaokang Li, Wenwen Liu, Linghao Hu, Dazheng Ling, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) is a potential novel target for intervening in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor staphyloxanthin. In this study, 38 1,4-benzodioxan-derived CrtN inhibitors were designed and synthesized to overwhelm the defects of leading compound 4a . Derivative 47 displayed superior pigment inhibitory activity, better hERG inhibitory properties and water solubility, and significantly sensitized MRSA strains to immune clearance in vitro. Notably, 47 displayed excellent efficacy against pigmented S...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Megumi Yazaki, Takehiko Oami, Kazuya Nakanishi, Ryota Hase, Hiroyuki Watanabe
Although vancomycin administration is recommended for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), it is unclear whether an alternative agent, daptomycin, can be used to treat IE with pulmonary complications. A 26-year-old female who had undergone surgical repair of a ventricular septal defect as an early teenager presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. She was admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with right-sided IE with septic pulmonary embolism caused by MRSA...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
John Pham, Talal Asif, Majdi S Hamarshi
Methicillin-resistant S taphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was previously considered a purely nosocomial pathogen. However, community-acquired MRSA has recently emerged as an important cause of severe necrotizing community-acquired pneumonia (CA-MRSA) in previously healthy individuals. This new pathogen exhibits antibiotic resistance and is linked to extended hospital stay and higher mortality. CA-MRSA has presented new therapeutic challenges due to high vancomycin treatment failure and lack of specificity of clinical findings...
January 3, 2018: Curēus
Vladimír Kmeť, Anna Čuvalová, Michal Stanko
A total of 39 coagulase-negative staphylococci and seven Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from small mammal feces, i.e., the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the yellow-necked mouse (A. flavicollis) in two sampling areas, deciduous forest and karst plains. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed five species of coagulase-negative staphylococci: S. sciuri, S. hominis, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, and S. xylosus. All strains were susceptible to tetracycline, linezolid, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Three MRSA strains with the mecA gene were detected...
March 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Anno de Jong, Shabbir Simjee, Farid El Garch, Hilde Moyaert, Markus Rose, Myriam Youala, Magdalena Dry
The European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) program collects zoonotic and commensal bacteria from food-producing animals at slaughter and tracks their susceptibility to medically important antibiotics. Results of commensal enterococci species (2013-2014) are presented here. Intestinal content from cattle, pigs and chickens were randomly sampled (5-6 countries/host; ≥4 abattoirs/country; 1 sample/animal/farm) for isolation of enterococci, MICs of 9 antibiotics were assessed by CLSI agar dilution in a central laboratory...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Glen P Carter, Jitendra R Harjani, Lucy Li, Noel P Pitcher, Yi Nong, Thomas V Riley, Deborah A Williamson, Timothy P Stinear, Jonathan B Baell, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen. It has a high propensity for horizontal gene transfer, which has resulted in the emergence of MDR strains that are difficult to treat. The most notorious of these, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, are usually treated with linezolid or daptomycin. Resistance has, however, been reported, meaning that new therapeutics are urgently needed. The 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a recently discovered family of antimicrobials that are active against Gram-positive pathogens and therefore have therapeutic potential for treating E...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Diego B Nobrega, Sohail Naushad, S Ali Naqvi, Larissa A Z Condas, Vineet Saini, John P Kastelic, Christopher Luby, Jeroen De Buck, Herman W Barkema
Emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major concern for the dairy industry worldwide. Objectives were to determine: (1) phenotypic and genotypic prevalence of drug-specific resistance for 25 species of non-aureus staphylococci, and (2) associations between presence of resistance determinants and antimicrobial resistance. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine resistance profiles for 1,702 isolates from 89 dairy herds. Additionally, 405 isolates were sequenced to screen for resistance determinants...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chih-Ning Cheng, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, does not required dose adjustment in patients with Child's class A and B liver cirrhosis. The dose adjustment data for Child's class C liver cirrhosis is inadequate. We reported a case of Child's class C liver cirrhosis, in which lactic acidosis, an adverse effect related to prolonged use, occurred only after two weeks of linezolid treatment. A 63-year old male had underlying diseases, such as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and Child's class C liver cirrhosis, and was admitted for hepatic encephalopathy management and liver transplantation evaluation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Ana Alejandra García Robles, Eduardo López Briz, María Dolores Fraga Fuentes, Rocío Asensi Diez, Jesús Francisco Sierra Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To assess critically oritavancin, a second-generation  lipoglycopeptide, for the treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. METHOD: An evaluation report of oritavancin in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin  Structure Infections was carried out according to the methodology of the Group  for drug evaluation, standardization and research in drug selection of the  Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH)1, with the MADRE 4...
March 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Alicja Baranowska, Paweł Baranowski, Tadeusz Płusa
Infection of the surgical operation site is found in approximately 3% of patients and 20% of patients undergoing urgent surgery. The occurrence of this type of complications is affected both by coexisting diseases and the presence of infection in the environment in which the patient is staying. It should also be taken into account that the bacteria found in the implanted material and surrounding tissues have the ability to adhere to the implant, creating a biofilm structure there. The presented patient is an illustration of such a problem, because after L5 laminectomy and extensive L2-L3 and L3-L4 one-sided fenestration and L2-L3-L4-L5 facetectomy, interbody bone arthrodesis and transpedicular stabilization, he reported for fever and pain in right lumbar area...
February 23, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Tiffeny T Smith, Pranita D Tamma, Tiffany B Do, Kathryn E Dzintars, Yuan Zhao, Sara E Cosgrove, Edina Avdic
We assessed risk factors for and outcomes of linezolid-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LRVREF) bacteremia over 7 years. Thirty-four LRVREF cases were matched to 68 linezolid-susceptible VREF controls. The odds of bacteremia with LRVREF increased by 7% for each additional day of prior linezolid exposure.
February 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Yasuo Ohkoshi, Toyotaka Sato, Takayuki Wada, Yukari Fukushima, Hiromi Murabayashi, Yasunari Takakuwa, Kaoru Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Honda, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Koji Kuronuma, Hiroki Takahashi, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Yokota
Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were isolated from blood and sputum of a patient with disseminated intravascular coagulation in Sapporo city, Japan. These antibiograms were only susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, some carbapenems, and some fluoroquinolones. Identical antibiograms, serotypes (19F), and sequence types (ST10017) suggested a shared origin of these isolates. Only one ST10017 strain has been isolated in the same city in Japan previously (2014), and the 2014 isolate is still susceptible to macrolides...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Susan E Smith, Kelli A Rumbaugh
PURPOSE: Persistent elevation of prothrombin time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) values in a patient receiving daptomycin is reported. SUMMARY: A morbidly obese 51-year-old man was hospitalized for evaluation for surgical intervention for gallstone pancreatitis and biliary obstruction. Previously prescribed warfarin therapy was withheld due to suspected coagulopathy and an elevated INR (5.1), and warfarin reversal was initiated. After undergoing partial cholecystectomy on hospital day 6, the patient developed sepsis and was treated with i...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Dilini Kumaran, Mariam Taha, QiLong Yi, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos, Jean-Simon Diallo, Alberto Carli, Hesham Abdelbary
The inability to effectively treat biofilm-related infections is a major clinical challenge. This has been attributed to the heightened antibiotic tolerance conferred to bacterial cells embedded within biofilms. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) have evolved to effectively infect and eradicate biofilm-associated cells. The current study was designed to investigate the ability of phage treatment to enhance the activity of antibiotics against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus . The biofilm positive S. aureus strain ATCC 35556, the lytic S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre Delpech, Muna ALeryan, Brian Jones, Curtis Gemmell, Sue Lang
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are among the most commonly occurring infections and evidence suggests that these are increasing world-wide. The aetiology is diverse, but Staphylococcus aureus predominate and these are often resistant to antimicrobials that were previously effective. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone-class antibacterial indicated for the treatment of adults with SSTI caused by Gram-positive pathogens, including S. aureus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of tedizolid in comparison to other clinically used antibacterials against antibiotic sensitive- and resistant-staphylococci, grown in planktonic cultures and as biofilms reflecting the growth of the microorganism during episodes of SSTI...
January 10, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Maniya Arshadi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Moloud Sadat Motahar, Saber Soltani, Mohammad Reza Pourmand
Background: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Methods: Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Xiaoquan Li, Shujuan Fan, Xiaojie Lin, Li Liu, Jie Zheng, Xihui Zhou, Axel Heep
RATIONALE: Enterococcus gallinarum meningitis (EGM) is rarely found in normal adults and even rarer in children. To our knowledge, EGM in neonate has not been reported previously. PATIENTS CONCERNS: Here we reported the first case of EGM in neonate. Prolonged fever was the only manifestation for the case after admission. DIAGNOSES: Cerebrospinal fluid cultures showed that the isolate was Enterococcus gallinarum and sensitive to linezolid. INTERVENTIONS: Ceftriaxone, beta lactam type, and vancomycin were used respectively, but not effective...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Haroon Mohammad, Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Nader S Abutaleb, Mohamed N Seleem
Enterococci are commensal microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans. Though normally innocuous to the host, strains of Enterococcus exhibiting resistance to vancomycin (VRE) have been associated with high rates of infection and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Decolonization of VRE represents a key strategy to curb infection in highly-susceptible patients. However, there is a dearth of decolonizing agents available clinically that are effective against VRE. The present study confirms that niclosamide, an anthelmintic drug, has potent antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant E...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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