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Linezolid and vancomycin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432878/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-to-vancomycin-daptomycin-linezolid-and-tedizolid
#1
Johanna Marcela Vanegas Múnera, Ana María Ocampo Ríos, Daniela Montoya Urrego, Judy Natalia Jiménez Quiceno
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus remains as a clinical challenge due to emergence of new resistance mechanisms. Tedizolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone, recently approved for skin and soft tissues infections. We conducted a study to determine in vitro susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tedizolid in MRSA clinical isolates from adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methicillin-resistant S...
April 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#2
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419033/oral-only-linezolid-rifampin-is-highly-effective-compared-with-other-antibiotics-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-study-of-a-mouse-model
#3
John M Thompson, Vikram Saini, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Robert J Miller, Alvaro A Ordonez, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Robert S Sterling, Sanjay K Jain, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: The medical treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) involves prolonged systemic antibiotic courses, often with suboptimal clinical outcomes including increased morbidity and health-care costs. Oral and intravenous monotherapies and combination antibiotic regimens were evaluated in a mouse model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) PJI. METHODS: Oral linezolid with or without oral rifampin, intravenous vancomycin with oral rifampin, intravenous daptomycin or ceftaroline with or without oral rifampin, oral doxycycline, or sham treatment were administered at human-exposure doses for 6 weeks in a mouse model of PJI...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407067/evaluation-of-a-second-sign-process-for-antimicrobial-prior-authorization
#4
Aimee M Dassner, Jennifer E Girotto
Background.: A second-sign prospective restriction of select broad-spectrum antimicrobials was fully implemented in January 2015 as a pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) initiative to help ensure the most appropriate empiric use of ceftaroline, cefepime, fidaxomicin, linezolid, and vancomycin (intravenous). The objective of this evaluation is to assess the effectiveness of a forced second-sign process in the electronic medical record as a pediatric ASP strategy. We anticipated that the second-sign process for antibiotics would increase the appropriateness of empiric antibiotic use, as defined by preapproved criteria, clinical pathways, national guidelines, and pediatric-specific infectious diseases reference texts, while not causing significant delay in the initial administration of antibiotic therapy...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406091/daptomycin-associated-eosinophilic-pneumonia-with-rechallenge-a-case-report%C3%A2
#5
Melanie Nickerson, Ashish Bhargava, Pramodini B Kale-Pradhan
PURPOSE: A case of daptomycin-associated acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) with positive rechallenge is reported. SUMMARY: AEP associated with daptomycin is reported in the literature, and the product labeling contains a warning and precaution statement. Criteria for diagnosing daptomycin-induced AEP varies and generally includes bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils ≥ 25%. We report a case of a 70-year-old woman with cough, shortness of breath, and altered mental status who presented ~ 9 days after starting therapy with daptomycin to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379553/high-vancomycin-mics-predict-the-development-of-infective-endocarditis-in-patients-with-catheter-related-bacteraemia-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#6
Rafael San-Juan, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Oriol Gasch, Mariana Camoez, Francisco López-Medrano, María Ángeles Domínguez, Benito Almirante, Belén Padilla, Miquel Pujol, José María Aguado
Background: It has been suggested that there is an increased risk of treatment failure in episodes of MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by strains with high vancomycin MICs. However, it is unknown if this phenomenon may also act as a risk factor for the development of infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: We analysed 207 episodes of catheter-related (CR)-BSI recruited from June 2008 to December 2009 within a prospective study on MRSA BSI in 21 Spanish hospitals...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378945/translational-pharmacometric-evaluation-of-typical-antibiotic-broad-spectrum-combination-therapies-against-staphylococcus-aureus-exploiting-in-vitro-information
#7
Sebastian G Wicha, Wilhelm Huisinga, Charlotte Kloft
Broad-spectrum antibiotic combination therapy is frequently applied due to increasing resistance development of infective pathogens. The objective of the present study was to evaluate two common empiric broad-spectrum combination therapies consisting of either linezolid or vancomycin combined with meropenem against Staphylococcus aureus as the most frequent causative pathogen of severe infections. A semi-mechanistic PK-PD model mimicking a simplified bacterial life-cycle of S. aureus was developed upon time-kill curve data to describe the effects of linezolid, vancomycin and meropenem alone and in dual combinations...
April 5, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377752/antimicrobial-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-causing-childhood-pneumonia-in-shanghai
#8
Zhen Song, Fei-Fei Gu, Xiao-Kui Guo, Yu-Xing Ni, Ping He, Li-Zhong Han
Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen causing pneumonia among children. To estimate the prevalence and molecular properties of S. aureus in children pneumonia in Shanghai, China, 107 hospitalized children with S. aureus pneumonia from two children's hospitals from January 2014 through June 2015 were studied. S. aureus isolates from the respiratory specimens were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, agr typing, toxin genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa, and SCCmec typing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353453/a-change-for-the-antibacterial-treatment-policy-to-decrease-carbapenem-consumption-at-a-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-centre
#9
Gõkhan Metan, Leylagül Kaynar, Nuran Yozgat, Ferhan Elmali, Cemile Altay Kürkçüoglu, Emine Alp, Mustafa Çetin
After experiencing a high rate of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli infections in febrile neutropenic patients, a two-stage intervention was introduced in the haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) centre. During the first eight months of 2014, carbapenems remained the first choice for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia while the use of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) was encouraged in patients with stable clinical condition. When blood cultures were reported as negative and the patient was clinically stable the carbapenem/TZP treatment was stopped regardless of continuous fever and neutrophil count...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342937/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-among-patients-and-their-parents-guardian-in-an-iranian-referral-hospital
#10
Babak Pourakbari, Mahmoud Khodabandeh, Shima Mahmoudi, Farah Sabouni, Alireza Aziz-Ahari, Abbas Bahador, Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Reihaneh Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in the nose appears to play a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection. It is important to investigate the genetic relatedness of S. aureus and MRSA clones in different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus, including MRSA strains in both hospitalized children and general adult population (parents/guardian). In addition, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and molecular diversity of S...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333257/comparative-effectiveness-of-linezolid-versus-vancomycin-as-definitive-antibiotic-therapy-for-heterogeneously-resistant-vancomycin-intermediate-coagulase-negative-staphylococcal-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#11
A C Blanchard, E Fortin, C Laferrière, I Goyer, A Moussa, J Autmizguine, C Quach
Objectives: Heterogeneously resistant vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci (hVICoNS) are emerging pathogens causing central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Given the burden of disease associated with CLABSI and the current lack of therapeutic guidelines, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of linezolid versus vancomycin used as the definitive antibiotic therapy for hVICoNS CLABSI. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants with hVICoNS CLABSI from a single NICU between 2009 and 2014, treated with either linezolid or vancomycin as definitive antibiotic therapy...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332345/high-incidence-of-virulence-factors-among-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#12
Hamid Heidari, Somayeh Hasanpour, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, enterococci have emerged as an important agent responsible for hospital acquired infection. Several virulence factors contribute to the adherence, colonization, evasion of the host immune response, and pathogenicity and severity of the infection. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common and virulent species causing infections in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E...
March 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330484/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-production-among-the-strains-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-nepal
#13
Ankit Belbase, Narayan Dutt Pant, Krishus Nepal, Bibhusan Neupane, Rikesh Baidhya, Reena Baidya, Binod Lekhak
BACKGROUND: The increasing drug resistance along with inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of Staphylococcus aureus are present as the serious problems to the successful treatment of the infections caused by S. aureus. So, the main objectives of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns along with the rates of inducible clindamycin resistance, methicillin resistance and biofilm production among the strains of S...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326447/in-vitro-activity-of-tedizolid-and-linezolid-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolated-from-prosthetic-joint-infections
#14
C Littorin, B Hellmark, Å Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, B Söderquist
Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare but long-lasting and are serious complications without any spontaneous resolution, requiring additional surgery and long-term treatment with antibiotics. Staphylococci are the most important aetiological agents of PJIs, and among the coagulase-negative staphylococci Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common. However, S. epidermidis often displays multidrug resistance (MDR), demanding additional treatment options. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of tedizolid and linezolid against S...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321212/microbiological-characteristics-and-clinical-features-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infections-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-china
#15
Ruobing Wang, Xuebin Li, Qi Wang, Yawei Zhang, Hui Wang
The incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the microbiological characteristics and clinical features of symptomatic CIED infections are not well described. The present study included patients with CIED infections in China, and their pocket tissues were collected for clinical microbiological determination. A total of 219 patients with CIED infections were investigated; of these patients, 145 (66.2%) were positive for CIED infection in pocket tissue cultures and 24 (11...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303819/prevalence-and-genetic-mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-staphylococcus-species-a-multicentre-report-of-the-indian-council-of-medical-research-antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-network
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Sunanda Rajkumar, Sujatha Sistla, Meerabai Manoharan, Madhan Sugumar, Niveditha Nagasundaram, Subhash Chandra Parija, Pallab Ray, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Arti Kapil, Kamini Walia, V C Ohri
PURPOSE: Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293153/susceptibility-profile-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-to-linezolid-in-clinical-isolates
#17
Ali Shariq, Syed Bilal Tanvir, Atif Zaman, Salman Khan, Armeena Anis, Misha Aftab Khan, Sumaira Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: To determine the resistance and sensitivity pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates to linezolid (LZD) along with its prevalence in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. This study lasted for about 1 year. Prevalence and sensitivity of LZD, vancomycin, and oxacillin was tested against isolates of MRSA. RESULTS: Out of total 369 specimens 165 were found to be MRSA making the prevalence in our study 44...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273381/role-of-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-infections-review-of-the-current-evidence
#18
Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, Michael J Rybak
Enterococcus species are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and are particularly concerning in critically ill patients with preexisting comorbid conditions. Rising resistance to antimicrobials that were historically used as front-line agents for treatment of enterococcal infections, such as ampicillin, vancomycin, and aminoglycosides, further complicates the treatment of these infections. Of particular concern are Enterococcus faecium strains that are associated with the highest rate of vancomycin resistance...
March 8, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267763/molecular-characterization-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-from-bermuda
#19
Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Clyde Wilson, Padman Jayaratne, Ashley Smith, George R Golding
Molecular characteristics of vancomycin resistant enterococci isolates from Bermuda Island is currently unknown. This study was conducted to investigate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of VRE isolates from Bermuda Island using the chromogenic agar, E-tests, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eighteen E. faecium isolates were completely analyzed and were all resistant to vancomycin, susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin, positive for vanA and esp genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264856/effect-of-continuous-and-sequential-therapy-among-veterans-receiving-daptomycin-or-linezolid-for-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#20
Nicholas S Britt, Emily M Potter, Nimish Patel, Molly E Steed
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium bloodstream infections (VREF-BSI) cause significant mortality, highlighting the need to optimize treatment. We compared the effectiveness and safety of daptomycin (DAP) and linezolid (LZD) as continuous or sequential therapy for VREF-BSI in a national, retrospective, propensity score (PS) matched cohort study of hospitalized Veterans Affairs patients (2004-2014). We compared clinical outcomes and adverse events among patients treated with continuous LZD, continuous DAP, or sequential LZD followed by DAP (LZD-DAP)...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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