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Multi-resistant organisms

Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Various organisms exist in the oceanic environment. These marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many marine peptides possess anticancer properties, some of which have been evaluated for treatment of human cancer in clinical trials. Marine anticancer peptides kill cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as apoptosis, disruption of the tubulin-microtubule balance, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents have side effects and depress immune responses...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adham Abu Taha, Ayman Daoud, Sawsan Zaid, Sajida Sammour, Maram Belleh, Refqa Daifi
BACKGROUND: Active surveillance is important in infection control programmes, allowing the detection of patients colonised with multi-drug resistant organisms and preventing the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of asymptomatic colonisation with multi-drug resistant organisms and the prevalence of each organism in patients transferred to An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, occupied Palestinian territory. METHODS: Patients transferred from other hospitals between January and December, 2015, were screened at time of admission by taking nasal, groin, and axillary swabs...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
H Morioka, M Nagao, S Yoshihara, H Ohge, K Kasahara, N Shigemoto, T Kajihara, M Mori, M Iguchi, Y Tomita, S Ichiyama, T Yagi
BACKGROUND: The Japanese government adopted a national action plan on antimicrobial resistance, which aims to reduce drug-resistant pathogens and antimicrobial use. A point-prevalence survey (PPS) is a useful surveillance method to gain information about hospital epidemiology; however, no multi-centre PPS has previously been performed in Japan. AIM: To investigate general information about hospital epidemiology, healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), and antimicrobial use in multiple Japanese university hospitals...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Cheon Tae Kim, Tae-Ok Kim, Hong-Joon Shin, Young Chun Ko, Yeong Hun Choe, Hak-Ryul Kim, Yong-Soo Kwon
Relatively little is known about the efficacy and safety of the programmatic use of bedaquiline and delamanid in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. This study evaluated 61 patients with MDR-TB treated with bedaquiline (n=39), delamanid (n=11), or both, either sequentially (n=10) or in co-administration (n=1), for more than 1 month, combined with a World Health Organization-recommended regimen. Of these, 49 (80.3%) were men and 12 (19.7%) were women. The median age was 53 years (interquartile range [IQR]=38...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Charles Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda, Jiliu Xu, Kay D Beharry
OBJECTIVES: Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis...
March 8, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
N Valiente, R Carrey, N Otero, A Soler, D Sanz, A Muñoz-Martín, F Jirsa, W Wanek, J J Gómez-Alday
Endorheic or closed drainage basins in arid and semi-arid regions are vulnerable to pollution. Nonetheless, in the freshwater-saltwater interface of endorheic saline lakes, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions can attenuate pollutants such as nitrate (NO3 - ). This study traces the ways of nitrogen (N) removal in the Pétrola lake-aquifer system (central Spain), an endorheic basin contaminated with NO3 - (up to 99.2mg/L in groundwater). This basin was declared vulnerable to NO3 - pollution in 1998 due to the high anthropogenic pressures (mainly agriculture and wastewaters)...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shounak Majumder, Sonmoon Mohapatra, Ryan J Lennon, Guilherme Piovezani Ramos, Neil Postier, Ferga Gleeson, Michael J Levy, Randall K Pearson, Bret T Petersen, Santhi S Vege, Suresh T Chari, Mark Topazian, Thomas E Witzig
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a multi-organ fibro-inflammatory syndrome, typically responds to steroids. However, some cases are steroid resistant, and pancreaticobiliary IgG4-RD commonly relapses after steroid withdrawal. Rituximab induces remission of IgG4-RD, but the need for and safety of maintenance rituximab treatment are unknown. We compared outcomes of patients with pancreaticobiliary IgG4-RD treated with or without maintenance rituximab therapy...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ning Xu, Yingying Zheng, Xiaochen Wang, Terry A Krulwich, Yanhe Ma, Jun Liu
Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a moderately salt-alkali-tolerant industrial organism. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these specific adaptations. Here, we found that the Mrp1 antiporter played crucial roles in conferring both environmental Na+ -resistance and alkali-tolerance, whereas the Mrp2 antiporter was necessary in coping with high KCl stress at alkaline pH. Furthermore, the Δ mrp1mrp2 double mutant showed most severe growth retardation, and failed to grow under high salt or alkaline conditions...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zhi-Gang Zhang, Fei Chen, Jian-Zhong Chen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) on reducing antimicrobial resistance rate, antibiotics consumption and multi-drug resistance bacterial infections in the pediatric patients. METHODS: This study was carried out in the Pediatric Center of a tertiary hospital of Shandong Province, China. The study duration was separated into two periods according to introduction of ASP (began from April 2011). Before intervention: from April 2009 to March 2011; after intervention: from April 2012 to March 2014...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Hamid Heidari, Reza Khashei, Seyed Hesamedin Nabavizadeh
Infections due to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, a Gram-negative oxidative bacterium are frequently founded in neonatal and immunocompromised individuals. The notable characteristic of this organism is its multi-drug resistance to common antibiotics used for infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. We report a rare case of complicated pericardial effusion due to E. meningoseptica in a 2-year-old boy, who was admitted with chief complaints of fever and tachypnea (mentioned by his parents) and suffered from a rare lung malignancy (lymphangioleiomyomatosis)...
February 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Norman Zinne, Marcus Krueger, Doris Hoeltig, Burkhard Tuemmler, Erin C Boyle, Christian Biancosino, Klaus Hoeffler, Peter Braubach, Taufiek K Rajab, Anatol Ciubotaru, Judith Rohde, Karl-Heinz Waldmann, Axel Haverich
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria threatens to end the era of antibiotics. Drug resistant bacteria have evolved mechanisms to overcome antibiotics at therapeutic doses and further dose increases are not possible due to systemic toxicity. Here we present a pilot study of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) with high dose antibiotic therapy followed by autotransplantation as a new therapy of last resort for otherwise incurable multidrug resistant lung infections. Severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia was induced in the lower left lungs (LLL) of 18 Mini-Lewe pigs...
2018: PloS One
Sandip Patil, Tushar Deshpande, Nayantika Chaudhari, Yogesh R G Singh, Janhavi S Raut, Yogesh M Joshi, Ashutosh Sharma
Fabrication of large area, multi-scale micro-textured surfaces engineered for anti-adhesion property remains a challenge. Compared to an elastic surface, viscoelastic solids show much higher surface stickiness, tack and adhesion owing to increased contact area and energy dissipation. Here, we show a simple, low cost, large-area and high throughput method with roll-to-roll compatibility to fabricate multi-scale, rough micro-structures resistant to adhesion in a viscoelastic layer by controlled tearing of viscous film...
March 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
O Smibert, A K Aung, E Woolnough, G P Carter, M B Schultz, B P Howden, T Seemann, D Spelman, S McGloughlin, A Y Peleg
Few studies have utilized molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. 94 multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) cultured from routine specimens from ICU patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 MRSA, 2 VRE and 81 Gram-negative bacteria). Medical staff personal mobile phones, departmental phones and ICU keyboards were swabbed and cultured for MDRO; MRSA was isolated from two phones. Environmental and patient isolates of the same genus were selected for whole genome sequencing...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Vishal Mevada, Rajesh Patel, Bhoomi Patel, Rajesh Chaudhari
Since last several years, infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is challenging to cure using conventional antibiotics. The organism is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that can cause serious diseases not only in humans but also in animals, such as various skin infections, pneumonia, endocarditis and toxin shock syndrome. This bacterium causes such diseases by producing macromolecules such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, proteases and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1). This organism had developed the multidrug resistance by acquiring MEC-A gene...
February 26, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Louise A Kenny, Fabrizio DeRita, Mohamed Nassar, John Dark, Louise Coats, Asif Hasan
The single ventricle patient population comprises the most complex cohort presenting to the cardiac transplant team, in terms of demographics, anatomic substrate, and unique physiology. It is also the most rapidly growing diagnostic group presenting for heart transplantation. In this manuscript, we aim to describe the changing landscape of transplantation in single ventricle conditions through reflection on our own institution's practice and experience, alongside contemporary literature review. Single ventricle patients are heterogeneous in terms of age, anatomic diagnosis and physiology according to surgical stage of repair...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Assiya El Kettani, Fakhreddine Maaloum, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Katfy, Nadia Harrar, Khalid Zerouali, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia are grave because of the multi-resistance of the organism to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures and to describe their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 from all Ibn Rochd University Hospital intensive care units; it was based on the exploitation of microbiology laboratory database (duplicates were excluded)...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Shahram Mobaraki, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Hossein Soroush Barhaghi, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Hamid Reza Goli, Pourya Gholizadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
BACKGROUND: The presence of Class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with multi-drug resistance phenotype has rendered the organism as a new concern. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Class 1, 2 and 3 integrons in multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from hospitals in the city of Tabriz Materials and Methods: A total of 200 P. aeruginosa non-duplicated clinical isolates were collected from inpatients and outpatients in different wards of hospitals from May to November 2016...
March 2018: BioMedicine
Rebecca L Bartles, James E Leggett, Shannan Hove, Catherine D Kashork, Lian Wang, Margret Oethinger, Lynda Baxter, Jack J Brandabur
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a pilot study (8) we demonstrated that current guidelines for duodenoscope and linear echoendoscope (DLE) reprocessing using a single cycle of high-level disinfection (HLD) in an automated reprocessor may be inadequate. In August 2015, the FDA offered double-HLD as a possible response to address this concern. As a result, Providence Health & Services adopted double-HLD as standard procedure for DLE, but no rigorous clinical studies supported this practice. We undertook a quality improvement (QI) study to compare single-HLD versus double-HLD at 4 of our 34 hospitals...
February 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Faith M Robison, Marie Turner, Courtney E Jahn, Howard F Schwartz, Jessica E Prenni, Mark A Brick, Adam L Heuberger
Plant physiology and metabolism are important components of a plant response to microbial pathogens. Physiological resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been established, but the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. Here, the physiological and metabolic responses of bean varieties that differ in physiological resistance to S. sclerotiorum are investigated. Upon infection, the resistant bean variety A195 had a unique physiological response that included reduced photosynthesis and maintaining a higher leaf surface pH during infection...
February 24, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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