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Multi-resistant organisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422253/3d-printed-poly-vinylidene-fluoride-carbon-nanotube-composites-as-a-tunable-low-cost-chemical-vapour-sensing-platform
#2
Z C Kennedy, J F Christ, K A Evans, B W Arey, L E Sweet, M G Warner, R L Erikson, C A Barrett
We report the production of flexible, highly-conductive poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites as filament feedstock for 3D printing. This account further describes, for the first time, fused deposition modelling (FDM) derived 3D-printed objects with chemiresistive properties in response to volatile organic compounds. The typically prohibitive thermal expansion and die swell characteristics of PVDF were minimized by the presence of MWCNTs in the composites enabling straightforward processing and printing...
April 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421643/empiric-antibiotic-regimens-for-neonatal-sepsis-in-australian-and-new-zealand-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#3
Jeremy P Carr, David P Burgner, Rohan S Hardikar, Jim P Buttery
AIM: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and requires prompt empiric treatment. However, only a minority of babies who receive antibiotics for suspected sepsis have an infection. Antimicrobial exposure in infancy has important short- and long-term consequences. There is no consensus regarding empirical antimicrobial regimens. METHODS: The study included a survey of empiric antimicrobial regimens in all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand in 2013-2014...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420365/social-determinants-of-antibiotic-misuse-a-qualitative-study-of-community-members-in-haryana-india
#4
Anna K Barker, Kelli Brown, Muneeb Ahsan, Sharmila Sengupta, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global public health crisis. In India alone, multi-drug resistant organisms are responsible for over 58,000 infant deaths each year. A major driver of drug resistance is antibiotic misuse, which is a pervasive phenomenon worldwide. Due to a shortage of trained doctors, access to licensed allopathic doctors is limited in India's villages. Pharmacists and unlicensed medical providers are commonly the primary sources of healthcare. Patients themselves are also key participants in the decision to treat an illness with antibiotics...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414423/robust-fluorine-free-superhydrophobic-amino-silicone-oil-sio2-modification-of-electrospun-polyacrylonitrile-membranes-for-waterproof-breathable-application
#5
Junlu Sheng, Yue Xu, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410511/evaluation-of-intraventricular-colistin-utilization-a-case-series
#6
Brian Gilbert, Christopher Morrison
PURPOSE: Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are an increasing concern in health systems. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae hold highest mortality rates especially when the central nervous system is involved. When MDROs are cultured treatment options are limited and reliance on medications such as colistin is becoming more prevalent. Penetration of these therapies into the central nervous system is concerning therefore local administration is a potential concomitant therapy...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402626/a-combination-of-boron-nitride-nanotubes-and-cellulose-nanofibers-for-the-preparation-of-a-nanocomposite-with-high-thermal-conductivity
#7
Xiaoliang Zeng, Jiajia Sun, Yimin Yao, Rong Sun, Jian-Bin Xu, Ching-Ping Wong
With the current development of modern electronics toward miniaturization, high-degree integration and multifunctionalization, considerable heat is accumulated, which results in the thermal failure or even explosion of modern electronics. The thermal conductivity of materials has thus attracted much attention in modern electronics. Although polymer composites with enhanced thermal conductivity are expected to address this issue, achieving higher thermal conductivity (above 10 W m(-1) K(-1)) at filler loadings below 50...
April 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397262/extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-critical-tools-for-antibiotic-resistance-pattern
#8
REVIEW
Nagarajan Padmini, Antony Alex Kennedy Ajilda, Natesan Sivakumar, Gopal Selvakumar
Drug resistance is a phenomenon where by an organism becomes fully or partially resistant to drugs or antibiotics being used against it. Antibiotic resistance poses an exacting intimidation for people with underlying medical immune conditions or weakened immune systems. Infections caused by the enzyme extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing multi drug resistance (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae especially Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are resistant to a broad range of beta lactams, including third generation cephalosporins...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396730/the-incidence-of-mrsa-infections-in-the-united-states-is-a-more-comprehensive-tracking-system-needed
#9
Kevin T Kavanagh, Said Abusalem, Lindsay E Calderon
A review of epidemiological studies on the incidence of MRSA infections overtime was performed along with an analysis of data available for download from Hospital Compare (https://data.medicare.gov/data/hospital-compare). We found the estimations of the incidence of MRSA infections varied widely depending upon the type of population studied, the types of infections captured and in the definitions and terminology used to describe the results. We could not find definitive evidence that the incidence of MRSA infections in U...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390962/in-vitro-activity-of-fosfomycin-trometamol-and-other-oral-antibiotics-against-multi-drug-resistant-uropathogens
#10
Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Giulia La Rosa, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Carla Caio, Andrea Novelli, Stefania Stefani
Clinical midstream and urinary catheter isolates (n=106) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli, carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus were tested against fosfomycin using the agar dilution method, the broth microdilution method and the gradient test described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the gradient test alone...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384882/polymyxin-b-induced-diffuse-cutaneous-hyperpigmentation
#11
Sandeep Lahiry, Shouvik Choudhury, Ayan Mukherjee, Prajesh Kiran Bhunya, Moumita Bala
Polymyxin B is a polypeptide-antibiotic, primarily used for resistant Gram-negative infections, first obtained from bacterium Bacillus polymyxa in the late 1940s. Antibiotic spectrum are restricted to mainly gram negative bacterias like Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Bordetella, Shigella; and particularly organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, which are extremely potent to acquire antibiotic resistance. Side effects include neurotoxicity and acute renal tubular necrosis...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384858/antimicrobial-resistance-surveillance-among-intensive-care-units-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-southern-india
#12
Kailash Moolchandani, Apurba Sankar Sastry, R Deepashree, Sujatha Sistla, B N Harish, Jharna Mandal
INTRODUCTION: Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) are the rising threat in the health care facilities across the globe. As most Intesive Care Unit (ICU) patients are frequently on broad spectrum antimicrobials, this induces selective antibiotic pressure which leads to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) among the microorganisms of ICUs. AIM: To study the occurrence of different types of HAIs in patients admitted to various ICUs of JIPMER and the AMR pattern of the bacterial pathogens isolated from them...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375516/host-pathogen-interface-progress-in-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-infection-due-to-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#13
Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
The diverse responses of critically ill patients to infection with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are determined by many complex factors. These include the nature of the immune response activated by specific organisms. Properties unique to each organism such as adherence proteins, microvesicle formation, toxin production and the propensity to form biofilms are important factors in pathogenesis. Equally important is the variability in the host immune response, whether due to genetic or iatrogenic factors, including the presence of major comorbidities, treatment with immunomodulatory therapy and disruption of the microbiome...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371506/population-specific-resequencing-associates-the-atp-binding-cassette-subfamily-c-member-4-abcc4-gene-with-gout-in-new-zealand-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-men
#14
Callum Tanner, James Boocock, Eli A Stahl, Amanda Dobbyn, Asim K Mandal, Murray Cadzow, Amanda J Phipps-Green, Ruth K Topless, Jennie Harré Hindmarsh, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Hyon K Choi, David B Mount, Tony R Merriman
Objective There is no evidence for genetic association of the organic anion transporters (OAT) 1-3 (SLC22A6, SLC22A7, SLC22A8) and multi-drug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) with serum urate or gout. The Māori and Pacific (Polynesian) population of New Zealand (NZ) has the highest prevalence of gout worldwide. Our aim was to determine if there were any Polynesian population-specific genetic variants in the SLC22A6-8 and ABCC4 genes associated with gout. Participants and Methods All participants had ≥3 self-reported Māori and/or Pacific grandparents...
March 28, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369756/the-antibiotic-prescribing-pathway-for-presumed-urinary-tract-infections-in-nursing-home-residents
#15
Christine E Kistler, Sheryl Zimmerman, Kezia Scales, Kimberly Ward, David Weber, David Reed, Mallory McClester, Philip D Sloane
OBJECTIVES: Due to the high rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for presumed urinary tract infections (UTIs) in nursing home (NH) residents, we sought to examine the antibiotic prescribing pathway and the extent to which it agrees with the Loeb criteria; findings can suggest strategies for antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: Chart review of 260 randomly-selected cases from 247 NH residents treated with an antibiotic for a presumed UTI in 31 NHs in North Carolina...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368216/an-overview-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-the-latest-advances-in-their-development
#16
Josep M Sierra, Ester Fusté, Francesc Rabanal, Teresa Vinuesa, Miguel Viñas
The recent dramatic increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized by organizations such as the United Nations and World Health Organization as well as the governments of the USA and several European countries. A relatively new weapon in the fight against severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These include colistin, currently regarded as the last line of antimicrobial therapy against multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Areas covered: Here, the authors provide an overview of the current research on AMPs...
April 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360464/assess-drug-resistance-pattern-and-genetic-profile-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-by-molecular-typing-methods-using-direct-repeats-and-is6110-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-cases
#17
Deepika Kalo, Surya Kant, Kanchan Srivastava, Ajay K Sharma
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious disease that sees no gender, age, or race is mainly a disease of lungs. According to World Health Organization, a TB patient can be completely cured with 6-9 months of anti-TB treatment under directly observed treatment short course. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to check the mono, multi- and triple-drug resistance to first line drugs (FLDs) among TB patients and to access their genetic profile using DR 3074, DR 0270, DR 0642, DR 2068, and DR 4110 using molecular techniques...
March 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359546/attributable-mortality-of-hospital-acquired-bloodstream-infections-in-ireland
#18
M Brady, A Oza, R Cunney, K Burns
AIM: To estimate the attributable mortality of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) in Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective case-cohort study was conducted, based on notifications from Irish microbiology laboratories and administrative patient records from six Irish hospitals from January 2007 to December 2013. Probabilistic linkage was used to link 1252 cases of bloodstream infection from a cohort of 343,189 hospitalized patients. Independent predictors of mortality were determined using a multi-variable logistic regression model, and included: patient age, emergency or re-admission to hospital, length of stay in an intensive care unit, number of procedures, number of diagnoses, major diagnostic category and presence of HA-BSI...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355093/a-multi-institutional-study-of-struvite-stones-patterns-of-infection-and-colonization
#19
Egor Parkhomenko, Adam De Fazio, Timothy Tran, Julie Thai, Kyle Blum, Mantu Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To examine urine and stone bacteriology of struvite stone formers in a large cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1191 patients, with stone and urine cultures, treated with PCNL for renal calculi were included in the study. Statistical differences were assessed using Mann-Whitney U and T-tests. RESULTS: Stone cultures were positive in 72% of patients with struvite stones...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348979/biology-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pathogenesis-antibiotic-resistance-mechanisms-and-prospective-treatment-options
#20
REVIEW
Chang-Ro Lee, Jung Hun Lee, Moonhee Park, Kwang Seung Park, Il Kwon Bae, Young Bae Kim, Chang-Jun Cha, Byeong Chul Jeong, Sang Hee Lee
Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most successful pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections in the modern healthcare system. Due to the prevalence of infections and outbreaks caused by multi-drug resistant A. baumannii, few antibiotics are effective for treating infections caused by this pathogen. To overcome this problem, knowledge of the pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii is important. In this review, we summarize current studies on the virulence factors that contribute to A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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