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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324181/effective-antibiotic-stewardship-in-spinal-cord-injury-challenges-and-a-way-forward
#1
Felicia Skelton, Katie Suda, Charlesnika Evans, Barbara Trautner
Context Antibiotic stewardship, defined as a multidisciplinary program to reduce the misuse of antibiotics, and in turn, antibiotic resistance, is a high priority. Persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) are vulnerable to receiving multiple courses of antibiotics over their lifetime given frequent healthcare exposure, and have high rates of bacterial infection with multi-drug resistant organisms. Additional challenges to evaluating appropriate use of antibiotics in this population include bacterial colonization in the urine and the differences in the presenting signs and symptoms of infection...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319784/the-effect-of-isabelin-a-sesquiterpene-lactone-from-ambrosiaartemisiifolia-on-soil-microorganisms-and-human-pathogens
#2
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299707/lupus-myocarditis-receiving-the-rituximab-therapy-a-monocentric-retrospective-study
#4
Chrong-Reen Wang, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wei-Ting Li
Despite high-dose corticosteroids alone or with immunosuppressive agents as the standard therapy in lupus myocarditis (LM), an immune complex-mediated critical setting, such management is still associated with resistant disease and even mortality. A retrospective study was performed for the refractory LM patients treated with rituximab (RTX), a very limited experience in English literatures. A retrospective review of the myocarditis manifestation was carried out in hospitalized Han Chinese patients with SLE from February 2007 to January 2017...
January 3, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298133/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-isolation-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#5
Francesco M Labricciosa, Massimo Sartelli, Lilian M Abbo, Pamela Barbadoro, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena
BACKGROUND: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies...
January 3, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286551/thiocarbamate-fungicides-reliable-tools-in-resistance-management-and-future-outlook
#6
Tarlochan S Thind, Derek W Hollomon
Amongst contact fungicides, dithiocarbamates have remained successful fungicides and are used worldwide. These organic sulphur fungicides viz. mancozeb, maneb, zineb, ziram, thiram, metiram and propineb have helped growers manage several economically important plant diseases. Their multi-site mode of action and broad-spectrum disease control make them some of the most common mixture partners with a number of single-site fungicides as part of resistance management strategies. Indeed, it was the part played by ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamates such as mancozeb in delaying the evolution of phenylamide resistance in several oomycete phytopathogens that laid the groundwork for mixture strategies to become a cornerstone of anti-resistance management in plant disease control...
December 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278781/isolation-structure-elucidation-and-anticancer-activity-from-brevibacillus-brevis-egs-9-that-combats-multi-drug-resistant-actinobacteria
#7
T Arumugam, P Senthil Kumar, R V Hemavathy, V Swetha, R Karishma Sri
Actinobacteria is the most widely distributed organism in the mangrove environment and produce a large amount of secondary metabolites. A new environmental actinobacterial stain exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against vancomycin and methicillin resistant actinobacteria. The active producer strain was found to be as Brevibacillus brevis EGS9, which was confirmed by its morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It was deposited in NCBI GeneBank database and received with an accession number of KX388147...
December 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277988/interface-engineering-for-controlling-device-properties-of-organic-anti-ambipolar-transistors
#8
Kazuyoshi Kobashi, Ryoma Hayakawa, Toyohiro Chikyow, Yutaka Wakayama
The main purpose of this study is to establish a guideline for controlling the device properties of organic anti-ambipolar transistors. Our key strategy is to use interface engineering to promote carrier injection at channel/electrode interfaces and carrier accumulation at a channel/dielectric interface. The effective use of carrier injection interlayers and an insulator layer with a high dielectric constant (high-k) enabled the fine tuning of device parameters, and in particular the onset (Von) and offset (Voff) voltages...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277528/determinants-of-inappropriate-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Elena Carrara, Iris Pfeffer, Oren Zusman, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: To assess study-level determinants of non-covering (inappropriate) empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT), focusing on the influence of study years and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the study. METHODS: Systematic review of prospective or retrospective observational studies reporting on the association between IEAT and mortality in adult patients with microbiologically documented infections published between 2008-2016. Meta-analysis of IEAT rates was conducted using a random-effects model...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261103/calli-essential-oils-synergize-with-lawsone-against-multidrug-resistant-pathogens
#10
Sameh S M Soliman, Abrar I Alsaadi, Eman G Youssef, Gregory Khitrov, Ayman M Noreddin, Mohamed I Husseiny, Ashraf S Ibrahim
The fast development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms increasingly threatens global health and well-being. Plant natural products have been known for centuries as alternative medicines that can possess pharmacological characteristics, including antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activities of essential oil (Calli oil) extracted from the Calligonum comosum plant by hydro-steam distillation was tested either alone or when combined with lawsone, a henna plant naphthoquinone, against MDR microbes...
December 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239034/succinate-dehydrogenase-sdh-deficient-neoplasia
#11
REVIEW
Anthony J Gill
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is a key respiratory enzyme composed of four subunits: SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Remarkably, immunohistochemistry for SDHB becomes negative whenever there is bi-alleic inactivation of any component of SDH, which is very rare in the absence of syndromic disease. Therefore, loss of SDHB immunohistochemistry serves as a marker of syndromic disease, usually germline mutation of one of the SDH subunits. Tumours which show loss of SDHB expression are termed succinate dehydrogenase-deficient...
January 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238818/multiscale-poroviscoelastic-compressive-properties-of-mouse-supraspinatus-tendons-are-altered-in-young-and-aged-mice
#12
Brianne Connizzo, Alan Grodzinsky
Rotator cuff disorders are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain and disability in the aging population but, unfortunately, the etiology is still unknown. One factor thought to contribute to the progression of disease is the external compression of the rotator cuff tendons, which can be significantly increased by age-related changes such as muscle weakness and poor posture. The objective of this study was to investigate the baseline compressive response of tendon and determine how this response is altered during maturation and aging...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238454/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-first-biofilm-forming-nasopharyngeal-colonized-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#13
Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Bahman Mirzaei, Bahareh Shaghaghi, Pantea Jalali, Tahereh Setayesh, Seyed Hamid Moosavi
Background and Objectives: Designing control and therapeutic policies for antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an important causative agent of several invasive and noninvasive infectious diseases and its carriage rates, has been described as the main target in World Health Organization (WHO). The present study was conducted to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, evaluate biofilm forming ability in S. pneumoniae isolates, and find the genetic relationship between cultured strains...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231889/exploring-the-caste-specific-multi-layer-defense-mechanism-of-formosan-subterranean-termites-coptotermes-formosanus-shiraki
#14
Abid Hussain, Ming-Yi Tian, Shuo-Yang Wen
The survival and foraging of Coptotermesformosanus Shiraki in a microbe-rich environment reflect the adaptation of an extraordinary, sophisticated defense mechanism by the nest-mates. We aimed to explore the host pathogen interaction by studying caste-specific volatile chemistry and genes encoding the antioxidant defense of winged imagoes, nymphs, soldiers and workers of Formosan subterranean termites. Qualitative analyses of C.formosanus Shiraki performed by HS-SPME/GC-MS showed considerable variations in the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their proportions among all the castes...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#15
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218444/resistance-to-apoptosis-in-leishmania-infantum-infected-human-macrophages-a-critical-role-for-anti-apoptotic-bcl-2-protein-and-cellular-iap1-2
#16
Antonia Cianciulli, Chiara Porro, Rosa Calvello, Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro
Apoptosis is essential for maintaining tissue homoeostasis in multi-cellular organisms, also occurring as a defence mechanism against a number of infectious agents, such as parasites. Among intracellular protozoan parasites reported to interfere with the apoptotic machinery of the host cell, Leishmania (L.) sp. have been described, although the various species might activate different pathways in their host cells. Since until now it is not yet well clarified the signalling pathway involved in the apoptosis modulation by L...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207350/mobile-genetic-elements-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-mine-soil-amended-with-organic-wastes
#17
Carlos Garbisu, Olatz Garaiyurrebaso, Anders Lanzén, Itxaso Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lide Arana, Fernando Blanco, Kornelia Smalla, Elisabeth Grohmann, Itziar Alkorta
Metal resistance has been associated with antibiotic resistance due to co- or cross-resistance mechanisms. Here, metal contaminated mine soil treated with organic wastes was screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The occurrence of conjugative IncP-1 and mobilizable IncQ plasmids, as well as of class 1 integrons, was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, suggesting that bacteria from these soils have gene-mobilizing capacity with implications for the dissemination of resistance factors...
December 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201660/operational-aspects-of-bedaquiline-implementation-in-swaziland-report-from-the-field
#18
D Vambe, T Dlamini, J Furin, C Gracia-Edwards, K Keus, K Kunene, A Shabangu, S N Dlamini, W Sikhondze
Bedaquiline (BDQ) has been recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) since 2013, but experience using the drug in high-burden, lower-income countries is limited and case studies are needed. Swaziland started using BDQ under national TB programme conditions in 2015 in four pilot sites. As of 1 December 2016, 93 patients had been initiated on BDQ, i.e., 19% of MDR-TB patients treated in the country. Swaziland has developed a systematic and efficient model for BDQ introduction in collaboration with several partners...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198444/endocrine-and-metabolic-assessment-in-adults-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#19
L Montefusco, S Harari, D Elia, A Rossi, C Specchia, O Torre, G Adda, M Arosio
CONTEXT: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of most common complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but prevalence of anterior pituitary deficiencies and metabolic alterations have not been clearly defined yet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate prevalence of endocrine and metabolic manifestations in a cohort of patients affected by Pulmonary LCH. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study on 18 adults (7 M/11 F, 42±12years) studied for complete basal and dynamic endocrine lab tests and glucose metabolism...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196345/mitoprotection-attenuates-myocardial-vascular-impairment-in-porcine-metabolic-syndrome
#20
Fang Yuan, Ahmad F Hedayat, Christopher M Ferguson, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman, Alfonso Eirin
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) leads to cardiac vascular injury, which may reflect in increased retention of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Coronary endothelial cell (EC) mitochondria partly regulate vascular function and structure. We hypothesized that chronic mitoprotection would preserve EC mitochondria and attenuate coronary vascular injury and dysfunction in swine MetS. METHODS: Pigs were studied after 16 weeks of diet-induced MetS, MetS treated for the last 4 weeks with the mitochondria-targeted peptide elamipretide (ELAM, 0...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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