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Multi-resistant organisms

Ruggeri Jessica, Foresti Fabio, Pavesi Roberta, Terrini Alessia, Giudici Francesca, Padoan Diego, Corradi Attilio, Ossiprandi Maria Cristina, Pasquali Paolo, Alborali Giovanni Loris
Salmonella Typhimurium (including S.Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i-) and other enteric pathogens cause acute infection in pigs during the weaning stage, often evolving into chronic infections responsible for the introduction of zoonotic bacteria into the slaughterhouse and thus determining carcass contamination. In addition to being zoonotic hazards, these pathogens are responsible for economic losses in affected farms. Traditionally, antibiotic treatments have been largely administered in order to reduce the infection burden but it favored, as a direct consequence, an increase in the number of multi-drug resistance strains...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Junghyun Kim, Sewoon Han, Andy Lei, Masaru Miyano, Jessica Bloom, Vasudha Srivastava, Martha M Stampfer, Zev J Gartner, Mark A LaBarge, Lydia L Sohn
The mechanical properties of cells change with their differentiation, chronological age, and malignant progression. Consequently, these properties may be useful label-free biomarkers of various functional or clinically relevant cell states. Here, we demonstrate mechano-node-pore sensing (mechano-NPS), a multi-parametric single-cell-analysis method that utilizes a four-terminal measurement of the current across a microfluidic channel to quantify simultaneously cell diameter, resistance to compressive deformation, transverse deformation under constant strain, and recovery time after deformation...
2018: Microsystems & Nanoengineering
Karen L Visick, Kelsey M Hodge-Hanson, Alice H Tischler, Allison K Bennett, Vincent Mastrodomenico
Vibrio fischeri is used as a model for number of processes, including symbiosis, quorum sensing, bioluminescence, and biofilm formation. Many of these studies depend on generating deletion mutants and complementing them. Engineering such strains, however, is a time-consuming, multi-step process that relies on cloning and subcloning. Here, we describe a set of tools that can be used to rapidly engineer deletions and insertions in the V. fischeri chromosome without cloning. We developed a uniform approach for generating deletions using PCR SOEing (Splicing by Overlap Extension) with antibiotic cassettes flanked by standardized linker sequences...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Owoicho Adogwa, Victoria D Vuong, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Daniel T Lilly, Shyam A Desai, Syed Khalid, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A Bagley
BACKGROUND: Wound infections following adult spinal deformity surgery place a high toll on patients, providers, and the healthcare system. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of postoperative wound infections, and nasal colonization by this organism may be an important factor development of surgical site infections (SSI's). The aim is to investigate whether post-operative surgical site infections after elective spine surgery occur at a higher rate in patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yaoguang Chen, Yangfan Zhang, Xiu Liu, Xuliang Fan, Bing Bai, Kang Yang, Zhongxin Liang, Zishou Zhang, Kancheng Mai
The main bottlenecks for the widespread application of radical polymers in organic radical batteries are poor cycling stability, due to the dissolution of radical polymers into the electrolyte, and the low efficiency of multi-step synthesis strategies. Herein, a kind of electrolyte-resistant radical polymer bearing multi-pendant groups (poly(ethylene-alt-TEMPO maleate) (PETM)) is designed and synthesized through a one-step esterification reaction to graft 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-teramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy into the commercially available poly(ethylene-alt-maleic anhydride)...
May 16, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Alison Fixsen
BACKGROUND:  Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their complications are the most frequent cause of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. With multi-resistant organisms proliferating, appropriate alternative treatments to these conditions are urgently required. Homeopathy presents one solution; however, there are many methods of homeopathic prescribing. This review of the literature considers firstly whether homeopathy offers a viable alternative therapeutic solution for acute URTIs and their complications, and secondly how such homeopathic intervention might take place...
May 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
N Jendrzejewska, E Karwowska
The influence of antibiotics, namely doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, nitrofurantoin, and rifampicin, on wastewater treatment was assessed. The presence of 100-300 μg/L of antibiotics (63.52-134.41 mg/g.d.w·d) marginally influenced organic matter degradation, without impacting nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations. However, a significant increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was observed, which varied with different antibiotics. The largest number of bacteria became resistant to nitrofurantoin and penicillin...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Baker Syed, M N Nagendra Prasad, K Mohan Kumar, S Satish
The present study emphasizes the need for novel antimicrobial agents to combat the global drug resistant crisis. The development of novel nanomaterials is reported to be of the alternative tool to combat drug resistant pathogens. In present investigation, bioconjugated nano-complex was developed from secondary metabolite secreted from endosymbiont. The endosymbiont capable of secreting antimicrobial metabolite was subjected to fermentation and the culture supernatant was assessed for purification of antimicrobial metabolite via bio-assay guided fraction techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and column chromatography...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pauline Savignac, Marie-Joëlle Menu, Marie Gressier, Bastien Denat, Yacine El Khadir, Stephan Manov, Florence Ansart
Corrosion is a major problem for durability of many metals and alloys. Among the efficient classical surface treatments, chromate-based treatments must be banished from industrial use due to their toxicity. At the same time, sol-gel routes have demonstrated high potential to develop an efficient barrier effect against aggressive environments. By this process, the anti-corrosion property can be also associated to others in the case of the development of multi-functional hybrid coatings. In this paper, the main goal is precisely to improve both the corrosion resistance and the adhesion properties of phosphated zinc substrates by the deposition of a hybrid (organic-inorganic) sol-gel layer...
May 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Gang Han, Jiang Tao Liu, Kangjia Lu, Tai-Shung Chung
A facile and versatile approach was demonstrated for the fabrication of low-fouling pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes for osmotic power generation from highly polluted wastewater. A water-soluble zwitterionic random copolymer with superior hydrophilicity and unique chemistry was molecularly designed and synthesized via a single-step free-radical polymerization between 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride (AEMA). The P[MPC-co-AEMA] copolymer was then chemically grafted onto the surface of PES&Torlon hollow fibers via amino groups coupling of poly(AEMA) with the polyimide structures of Torlon, leaving the zwitterions of poly(MPC) in the feed solution...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Antonio Riva, Shilpa Chokshi
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an escalating global problem accounting for more than 3 million deaths annually. Bacterial infections are diagnosed in 25-47% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and represent the most important trigger for acute decompensation, multi-organ failure, septic shock and death. Current guidelines recommend intensive antibiotic therapy, but this has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, there is a pressing need to explore new paradigms for anti-infective therapy and host-directed immunomodulatory therapies are a promising approach...
May 8, 2018: Hepatology International
Yuji Sun, Jianglin Zhang, Yuanbin Zhang, Jiyong Liu, Stijn van der Veen, Simon Duttwyler
The synthesis and application of icosahedral boron cluster compounds has been studied extensively since their discovery several decades ago; however, two aspects of their chemistry have received little attention: The possibility to form inorganic/organic fused boraheterocycles and their potential to act as antimicrobial agents. This work comprises the preparation of a class of three-dimensional diborabenzoxazole analogues with the closo-dodecaborate in place of the benzene moiety. The presented synthetic procedures provide access to a wide range of diboraheterocycles under mild conditions...
May 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tobias Schilling, Sascha Dietrich, Michael Hoppert, Robert Hertel
Phages are currently under discussion as a solution for the antibiotic crisis, as they may cure diseases caused by multi-drug-resistant pathogens. However, knowledge of phage biology and genetics is limited, which impedes risk assessment of therapeutic applications. In order to enable advances in phage genetic research, the aim of this work was to create a toolkit for simple and fast genetic engineering of phages recruiting Bacillus subtilis as host system. The model organism B. subtilis represents a non-pathogenic surrogate of its harmful relatives, such as Bacillus anthracis or Bacillus cereus ...
May 4, 2018: Viruses
Selim Bozkurt
Neurological complications in continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients are the second-leading risk of death after multi-organ failure. They are associated with altered blood flow in the cardiovascular system because of CF-LVAD support. Moreover, an impaired cerebral autoregulation function may also contribute to complications such as hyperperfusion in the cerebral circulation under mechanical circulatory support. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of cerebral autoregulatory function on cerebral blood flow rate under CF-LVAD support...
May 3, 2018: Artificial Organs
Cindy Toms, Richard Stapledon, Chris Coulter, Paul Douglas
In 2014, the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,339 tuberculosis (TB) notifications, representing a rate of 5.7 per 100,000 population. Australia has achieved and maintained good tuberculosis (TB) control since the mid-1980s, sustaining a low annual TB incidence rate of approximately 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 population. The number of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases diagnosed in Australia is low by international standards, with approximately 1-2% of notifications per year being classified as MDR-TB...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Roger Estrada-Tejedor, Gerhard F Ecker
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a pivotal role in drug elimination, particularly on several types of cancer in which these proteins are overexpressed. Due to their promiscuous ligand recognition, building computational models for substrate classification is quite challenging. This study evaluates the use of modified Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) for predicting drug resistance associated with P-gp, MPR1 and BCRP activity. Herein, we present a novel multi-labelled unsupervised classification model which combines a new clustering algorithm with SOM...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tara K Ortiz, Nermarie Velazquez, Laura Ding, Jonathan C Routh, John S Wiener, Patrick C Seed, Sherry S Ross
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection is more common in children with spina bifida (SB) than neurologically intact children, and Escherichiacoli is the most common urinary pathogen in the general pediatric population. Less is known of the pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections (UTI) in the pediatric SB population or their evolving antimicrobial resistance patterns. The goal of this study is to determine the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of SB-associated urinary pathogens...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
D R MacFadden, B Coburn, N Shah, A Robicsek, R Savage, M Elligsen, N Daneman
OBJECTIVES: Early empiric antibiotic therapy in patients can improve clinical outcomes in Gram-negative bacteraemia. However, the widespread prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens compromises our ability to provide adequate therapy while minimizing use of broad antibiotics. We sought to determine whether readily available electronic medical record data could be used to develop predictive models for decision support in Gram-negative bacteraemia. METHODS: We performed a multi-centre cohort study, in Canada and the USA, of hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infection from April 2010 to March 2015...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Charles J Norsigian, Erol Kavvas, Yara Seif, Bernhard O Palsson, Jonathan M Monk
Acinetobacter baumannii has become an urgent clinical threat due to the recent emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. There is thus a significant need to discover new therapeutic targets in this organism. One means for doing so is through the use of high-quality genome-scale reconstructions. Well-curated and accurate genome-scale models (GEMs) of A. baumannii would be useful for improving treatment options. We present an updated and improved genome-scale reconstruction of A. baumannii AYE, named iCN718, that improves and standardizes previous A...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Marianne N Skov, Gitte Nyvang Hartmeyer, Michael Kemp, Thøger Gorm Jensen, Anette Holm
Rapid diagnostics within clinical microbiology is more required, as hospitals need to be more effective. Tests for multi-resistant organisms, influenza virus and life-threatening diseases such as malaria and meningitis are warranted. This review describes the advances within rapid diagnostics and the impact on patient care. To achieve the full potential of rapid diagnostics, logistics such as transportation and personnel around the clock is necessary. However, with the right set-up, clinical microbiology rapid diagnostics will contribute to better and more effective patient care...
April 16, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
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