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antiepileptic drug

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040828/neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-energetics-of-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#1
Camila Moreira Osório, Alexandra Latini, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Helena Dresch Vascouto, Aline Pertile Remor, Mark William Lopes, Marcelo Neves Linhares, Juliana Ben, Roberta de Paula Martins, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Hans Joachim Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Kátia Lin, Roger Walz
Interictal hypometabolism is commonly measured by 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in the temporal lobe of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE-HS). Left temporal lobe interictal FDG-PET hypometabolism has been associated with verbal memory impairment, while right temporal lobe FDG-PET hypometabolism is associated with nonverbal memory impairment. The biochemical mechanisms involved in these findings remain unknown. In comparison to healthy controls (n=21), surgically treated patients with MTLE-HS (n=32, left side=17) had significant lower scores in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT retention and delayed), Logical Memory II (LMII), Boston Naming test (BNT), Letter Fluency and Category Fluency...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036235/-medicaments-and-oral-healthcare-5-adverse-effects-of-medications-and-over-the-counter-drugs-on-teeth
#2
C de Baat, P G M A Zweers, C van Loveren, A Vissink
Intrinsic tooth discoloration may occur as an adverse effect of fluoride and tetracyclines. Extrinsic tooth discoloration may occur as superficial staining or as discoloration of the superficial pellicle and/or biofilm due to chlorhexidine, liquid iron salts, essential oils, some antibiotics and stannous fluoride. Inhibition of orthodontic tooth movement has been reported due to the use of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. If medications or over-the-counter drugs induce hyposalivation or contain much sucrose, caries may develop...
October 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033486/topiramate-induced-acute-liver-injury-a-rare-adverse-effect
#3
Archish Khivsara, Jeffrey Pradeep Raj, Divya Hegde, Mangala Rao
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is damage to liver occurring at recommended dose of a drug in contrast to toxic or predictable DILI. Although it is common in first-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is rare in newer AEDs such as topiramate. Topiramate commonly causes neurological adverse effects such as psychomotor slowing and somnolence. Hepatotoxicity by topiramate is rare and has been previously reported in combination with other drugs such as valproate and carbamazepine. Here, we report a case of topiramate-induced asymptomatic elevation of liver enzymes in an adult man diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome and alcohol withdrawal complicated with seizures...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031194/the-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-nordland-county-norway
#4
Espen Benjaminsen, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Karl B Alstadhaug
PURPOSE: The prevalence of epilepsy among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been found higher than in the general population. Although cortical pathology may be involved, the causal link between MS and epileptic seizures is still unclear. We aimed to identify and describe the patients with active epilepsy in a previously described population based MS-cohort. METHODS: Medical records of all patients with MS in Nordland County on January 1, 2010, were scrutinizing for evidence of comorbid seizures and epilepsy...
October 6, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030894/pooled-efficacy-and-safety-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-add-on-treatment-in-patients-with-focal-onset-seizures-data-from-four-double-blind-placebo-controlled-pivotal-phase-iii-clinical-studies
#5
Christian Elger, Mathias Koepp, Eugen Trinka, Vicente Villanueva, João Chaves, Elinor Ben-Menachen, Pedro A Kowacs, António Gil-Nagel, Joana Moreira, Helena Gama, José-Francisco Rocha, Patrício Soares-da-Silva
PURPOSE: Pooled evaluation of the key efficacy and safety profile of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) added-on to stable antiepileptic therapy in adults with focal-onset seizures. METHODS: Data from 1703 patients enrolled in four phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were pooled and analyzed. Following a 2 week titration period, ESL was administered at 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1200 mg once-daily doses for 12 weeks (maintenance period). Pooled efficacy variable was standardized (/4 weeks) seizure frequency (SSF) analyzed over the maintenance period as reduction in absolute and relative SSF and proportion of responders (≥50% reduction in SSF)...
October 13, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030718/lacosamide-in-patients-with-gliomas-and-uncontrolled-seizures-results-from-an-observational-study
#6
Roberta Rudà, Alessia Pellerino, Federica Franchino, Cinzia Bertolotti, Francesco Bruno, Francesca Mo, Enrica Migliore, Gianni Ciccone, Riccardo Soffietti
To report the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide as an add-on treatment in patients with gliomas and uncontrolled seizures despite conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). We conducted an observational study on 71 patients to describe patterns of response to lacosamide and the association between clinico-pathological factors and seizure control. We observed at 3, 6 and 9 months a seizure reduction ≥ 50% in 74.6, 76 and 86.2% of patients and a seizure freedom in 42.2, 43 and 50%, respectively. The median number of seizures in the 3 months before treatment was 13, and decreased to 3 between baseline and 6 months, and to 0...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030176/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-disposition-and-drug-drug-interactions-for-valproic-acid-and-divalproex
#7
Todd M Conner, Vahagn C Nikolian, Patrick E Georgoff, Manjunath P Pai, Hasan B Alam, Duxin Sun, Ronald C Reed, Tao Zhang
Valproic acid (VPA) is an older first-line antiepileptic drug with a complex pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, currently under investigation for several novel neurologic and non-neurologic indications. Our study objective was to design and validate a mechanistic model of VPA disposition in adults and children; and evaluate its predictive performance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study expands upon existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for VPA by incorporating UGT enzyme kinetics and an advanced dissolution, absorption, and metabolism (ADAM) model for extended-release (ER) formulation...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030037/solid-phase-extraction-based-on-porous-magnetic-graphene-oxide-%C3%AE-cyclodextrine-composite-coupled-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-determination-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-plasma-samples
#8
Jingyi Zhang, Donghao Liu, Xiaoyan Meng, Yi Shi, Ruya Wang, Deli Xiao, Hua He
In this study, a novel solid phase extraction based on porous magnetic graphene oxide-cyclodextrin polymers (MGO-CD) was developed with aromatic linker and used for the simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of trace antiepileptic drugs in plasma. The characteristics of MGO-CD were assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas (BET), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027197/the-risk-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-new-users-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#9
Noel Frey, Michael Bodmer, Andreas Bircher, Stephan Rüegg, Susan S Jick, Christoph R Meier, Julia Spoendlin
OBJECTIVE: Older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). However, evidence for newer AED is sparse. We quantified risks of SJS/TEN in association with use of all AEDs in the United Kingdom. METHODS: In a matched case-control study of 480 previously validated SJS/TEN cases (1995-2013) we used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and calculated absolute risks of SJS/TEN within separate cohorts of new users of 28 AEDs...
October 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026345/tolerated-drugs-in-subjects-with-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-scars-induced-by-anticonvulsants-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Fabrizio De Luca, Laura Michelina Losappio, Corrado Mirone, Jan Walter Schroeder, Antonella Citterio, Maria Gloria Aversano, Joseph Scibilia, Elide Anna Pastorello
BACKGROUND: Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome represents a rare but potentially fatal kind of adverse drug reaction. This clinical picture often hampers the flexibility with which alternative anticonvulsants or even other classes of drugs are prescribed in these patients, negatively affecting the efficacy of treatment and the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse a group of six patients with severe cutaneous drug reactions induced by anticonvulsants and to report which alternative antiepileptic drugs and which drugs of other classes were tolerated...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024726/the-antiepileptic-drug-levetiracetam-promotes-neuroblast-differentiation-and-expression-of-superoxide-dismutase-in-the-mouse-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-via-pi3k-akt-signalling
#11
Bing Chun Yan, Hui Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xiaolu Zhu, Jie Wang, Pei Xu, Dan Jiang, Xing Yu
Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, is commonly prescribed to treat certain types of seizures. Few studies have investigated the effects of LEV on hippocampal neurogenesis and its related mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LEV on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We here demonstrate a dose-dependent increase in Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in the subgranular zone of the DG in LEV-treated mice, and doublecortin-immunoreactive cells were also significantly increased in the hippocampal DG of mice treated with LEV...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023170/ampa-receptors-and-perampanel-behind-selected-epilepsies-current-evidence-and-future-perspectives
#12
Carlo Di Bonaventura, Angelo Labate, Marta Maschio, Stefano Meletti, Emilio Russo
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are the major mediators of glutamate-mediated excitatory neurotransmission, and are critical for synchronization and spread of epileptic activity. Areas covered: AMPA receptor antagonists have been also developed as antiepileptic drugs and perampanel (PER) is the first highly selective, non-competitive AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist that is available on the market. It is approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in patients aged ≥ 12 years...
October 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020805/intravenous-carbamazepine-for-adults-with-seizures
#13
P Brittany Vickery, Erika E Tillery, Alicia Potter DeFalco
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, potential drug-drug interactions, and place in therapy of the intravenous (IV) formulation of carbamazepine (Carnexiv) for the treatment of seizures in adult patients. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive PubMed and EBSCOhost search (1945 to August 2017) was performed utilizing the keywords carbamazepine, Carnexiv, carbamazepine intravenous, IV carbamazepine, seizures, epilepsy, and seizure disorder...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992560/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-perampanel-in-children-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-refractory-epilepsy-a-uk-national-multicentre-study
#14
N Swiderska, H J Tan, A Rajai, A Silwal, A Desurkar, T Martland
PURPOSE: Perampanel is one of the latest antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) approved for the treatment of focal and generalised epilepsy in individuals with epilepsy aged 12 years and older. There is sparse data on the use of Perampanel in children under 12. We conducted a study amongst paediatric neurologists in the United Kingdom to investigate its effectiveness and tolerability as an adjunctive therapy in children of all ages with refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Data was collected via an online questionnaire sent to paediatric neurologists in the UK...
September 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991361/withdrawn-anticonvulsants-for-fibromyalgia
#15
REVIEW
Nurcan Üçeyler, Claudia Sommer, Brian Walitt, Winfried Häuser
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving HRQoL. Anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs) are drugs frequently used for the treatment of chronic pain syndromes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of anticonvulsants for treating FM symptoms...
October 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990527/epilepsy-comorbidities-and-treatments
#16
Alla Guekht
BACKGROUND: An increasing amount of evidence suggests an association between epilepsy and multiple somatic and psychiatric conditions, which is more significant than in the general population. Furthermore, a bidirectional association has been established between epilepsy and several conditions, notably depression and suicide, cerebrovascular disease, stroke, dementia and migraine, which is best explained by the presence of common underlying mechanisms and risk factors. Gaining knowledge about these common mechanisms can provide insight into new therapeutic targets, screening and preventive measures...
October 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988516/quinine-and-carbenoxolone-enhance-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-some-classical-antiepileptic-drugs
#17
Javier Franco-Pérez, Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Cesar Rodríguez-Balderas, Nelly Castro, Paola Ballesteros-Zebadua
Objective Quinine (QUIN) and carbenoxolone (CNX) elicit anticonvulsant effects typically characterized by the reduction of the epileptiform activity as well as changes in behavioral parameters related to seizures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of these molecules on the anticonvulsant activity of some classical antiepileptic drugs. Methods Male Wistar rats were used. Valproate (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), or carbamazepine (CBZ) was administered at sub-therapeutic doses for intraperitoneal via...
October 8, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985614/complement-system-dysregulation-in-patients-affected-by-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-and-the-effect-of-antiepileptic-treatment
#18
Claudio Liguori, Andrea Romigi, Francesca Izzi, Fabio Placidi, Marzia Nuccetelli, Alberto Cordella, Sergio Bernardini, Mercuri Nicola Biagio
Complement system dysregulation has been hypothesized as a possible pathogenetic factor triggering epileptogenesis in both animal models and human studies. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the complement system in adult patients affected by idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), either untreated or treated by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Thirty-seven IGE patients were compared to a population of 20 matched healthy controls. IGE patients underwent neurological investigation, epilepsy diary, 24-h EEG recording, and blood sample for the assessment of the complement factors C3 and C4, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels...
September 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983274/ranking-the-leading-risk-factors-for-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Christopher M DeGiorgio, Daniela Markovic, Rajarshi Mazumder, Brian D Moseley
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is rare in well-controlled epilepsy. However, SUDEP is a common cause of death in drug-resistant epilepsy. Over the last 30 years, multiple cohort and population studies have identified clinical risk factors associated with an increased risk for SUDEP. OBJECTIVE: To identify and rank the leading SUDEP risk factors from major cohort and population-based studies. The incidence of SUDEP is also evaluated in special clinical situations, including antiepileptic drug treatment, epilepsy surgery, devices, and assignment to placebo in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982809/understanding-the-health-economic-burden-of-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-tsc-with-epilepsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-the-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink-cprd
#20
Charles Shepherd, Matthias Koepp, Melissa Myland, Keyur Patel, Cristiana Miglio, Vathani Siva, Elizabeth Gray, Maureen Neary
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is highly prevalent in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a multi-system genetic disorder. The clinical and economic burden of this condition is expected to be substantial due to treatment challenges, debilitating co-morbidities and the relationship between TSC-related manifestations. This study estimated healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) and costs for patients with TSC with epilepsy (TSC+E) in the UK. METHODS: Patients with TSC+E in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) linked to Hospital Episodes Statistics were identified from April 1997 to March 2012...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
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