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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653413/influence-of-propafenone-on-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-various-novel-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-mouse-maximal-electroshock-model
#1
Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt, Monika Popławska, Monika Banach, Dorota Wróblewska
BACKGROUND: The main mechanism of action of propafenone (antiarrhythmic drug) involves the inhibition of the fast inward sodium current during phase 0 of the action potential. Sodium channel-blocking activity is also characteristic for some antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, it could be assumed that propafenone may also affect seizures. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of propafenone on the protective effect of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin against the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice...
November 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653338/long-term-effects-of-adjunctive-perampanel-on-cognition-in-adolescents-with-partial-seizures
#2
Jesus E Piña-Garza, Lieven Lagae, Vicente Villanueva, J Ben Renfroe, Antonio Laurenza, Betsy Williams, Dinesh Kumar, Kimford J Meador
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition, efficacy, growth, safety, and tolerability in adolescents with inadequately controlled partial seizures. METHODS: Study 235, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase II study with an open-label extension phase (NCT01161524), was primarily designed to assess the effects of adjunctive perampanel on cognition. Patients (aged ≥12 to <18years) had a diagnosis of epilepsy with inadequately controlled partial seizures, with or without secondary generalization, despite receiving 1-3 antiepileptic drugs...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653328/a-pragmatic-study-on-efficacy-tolerability-and-long-term-acceptance-of-ketogenic-diet-therapy-in-74-south-indian-children-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#3
Neena Baby, Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan, Nivedita Pavithran, Arun Grace Roy
PURPOSE: Significant challenges exist for Ketogenic Diet (KD) programs in many populations, mainly due to the variations in local dietary preferences. Here we report a single center experience of KD therapy in a cohort of South Indian children with pharmaco-resistant epilepsies. METHODS: Children aged 0-18 years, enrolled in the KD program for pharmacoresistant epilepsies of Amrita institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India (2010 - 2015) were included in this pragmatic study...
March 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651961/the-benefit-of-prescribing-vitamin-d-as-add-on-therapy-on-the-electrocardiographic-changes-in-epileptic-patients
#4
Marwan S M Al-Nimer
BACKGROUND: Epileptic children and adolescent have a significantly low serum level of vitamin D due to the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the vitamin D metabolism. Those patients are at risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged < 18 years of both genders with a history of idiopathic generalized tonic clonic seizure...
April 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651881/oxidative-stress-in-epilepsy
#5
Ursula Geronzi, Federica Lotti, Salvatore Grosso
The brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress being the most aerobically active organ in the body due to its high metabolic demands. There is evidence that neuronal hyperexcitability and oxidative injury produced by an excessive production of free radicals may play a role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in epileptogenesis is essential to delineate appropriate therapeutic strategies. Neuroprotectant or antioxidant compounds may exert positive effects when associated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
April 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649672/leading-up-to-saying-yes-a-qualitative-study-on-the-experience-of-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy-regarding-presurgical-investigation-for-resective-surgery
#6
Patti Shih, Armin Nikpour, Andrew Bleasel, Geoffrey Herkes, Rebecca Mitchell, Rebecca Seah, Virginia Mumford, Jeffrey Braithwaite, Sanjyot Vagholkar, Frances Rapport
OBJECTIVES: Adult patients with refractory epilepsy who are potential candidates for resective surgery undergo a period of presurgical investigation in tertiary epilepsy centers (TECs), where they engage extensively with healthcare professionals and receive a range of treatment-related information. This qualitative study aimed to examine the experiences of adult patients with refractory epilepsy leading up to and during presurgical investigation and how their perceptions of resective surgery are shaped...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649671/trends-in-resource-utilization-and-prescription-of-anticonvulsants-for-patients-with-active-epilepsy-in-germany-from-2003-to-2013-a-ten-year-overview
#7
Laurent M Willems, Saskia Richter, Nina Watermann, Sebastian Bauer, Karl Martin Klein, Jens-Peter Reese, Oliver Schöffski, Hajo M Hamer, Susanne Knake, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
This study evaluated trends in resource use and prescription patterns in patients with active epilepsy over a 10-year period at the same outpatient clinic of a German epilepsy center. We analyzed a cross-sectional patient sample of consecutive adults with active epilepsy over a 3-month period in 2013 and compared them with equally acquired data from the years 2003 and 2008. Using validated patient questionnaires, data on socioeconomic status, course of epilepsy, as well as direct and indirect costs were recorded...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649093/comparison-of-cyp3a4-inducing-capacity-of-enzyme-inducing-antiepileptic-drugs-using-4%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-as-biomarker
#8
Kristine Hole, Birgit M Wollmann, Camilla Nguyen, Tore Haslemo, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) are among the clinically most important inducers of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, but there is limited evidence regarding the comparative potency of each EIAED in raising CYP3A4 activity. The aim of this study was to estimate CYP3A4-inductive potency of EIAEDs by comparing CYP3A4 activity in patients treated with carbamazepine, phenobarbital, or phenytoin. METHODS: Residual serum samples from patients treated with EIAEDs or levetiracetam were collected from a therapeutic drug monitoring service for analysis of 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βOHC), which is an indicator of CYP3A4 activity...
April 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643749/deciding-when-less-is-more-the-crossroads-of-withdrawing-antiepileptic-drugs
#9
COMMENT
Naymee Velez Ruiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643517/-application-of-scalp-recorded-high-frequency-oscillations-in-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-continuous-spike-and-wave-during-sleep
#10
P Gong, Z X Yang, J Xue, P Qian, H P Yang, X Y Liu, K G Bian
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) on scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (CSWS). METHODS: Twenty-one CSWS patients treated for epilepsy from January 2006 to December 2016 in Pediatric Department of Peking University First Hospital were enrolled into the study. Selected clinical variables including gender, age parameters, seizure frequencies and antiepileptic drugs were compared between (a)...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643084/factors-associated-with-treatment-delays-in-pediatric-refractory-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#11
I Sánchez Fernández, M Gaínza-Lein, N S Abend, A E Anderson, R Arya, J N Brenton, J L Carpenter, K E Chapman, J Clark, W D Gaillard, T A Glauser, J L Goldstein, H P Goodkin, A R Helseth, M C Jackson, K Kapur, Y-C Lai, T L McDonough, M A Mikati, A Nayak, K Peariso, J J Riviello, R C Tasker, D Tchapyjnikov, A A Topjian, M S Wainwright, A Wilfong, K Williams, T Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with treatment delays in pediatric patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (rSE). METHODS: This prospective, observational study was performed from June 2011 to March 2017 on pediatric patients (1 month to 21 years of age) with rSE. We evaluated potential factors associated with increased treatment delays in a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: We studied 219 patients (53% males) with a median (25th-75th percentiles [p25 -p75 ]) age of 3...
April 11, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629658/comparative-study-of-the-effects-exerted-by-n-valproyl-l-phenylalanine-and-n-valproyl-l-tryptophan-on-ca1-hippocampal-epileptiform-activity-in-rat
#12
Fabio Carletti, Valerio Rizzo, Giuditta Gambino, Viviana De Caro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Libero Italo Giannola, Giuseppe Ferraro, Pierangelo Sardo
BACKGROUND: Research about improvement of epilepsy therapy is constantly growing. Valproyl-L-Phenylalanine (VPA-Phen) and N-valproyl-L-tryptophan (VPA-Tryp) were synthesized to increase the antiepileptic valproic acid efficacy. METHODS: VPA-Phen and VPA-Tryp were comparatively tested on CA1 hippocampal epileptiform bursting activity obtained by increasing potassium and lowering calcium and magnesium concentrations in the fluid perfusing rat brain slices. Each slice was treated with a single concentration (0...
April 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628024/the-association-between-cyp2c9-2c19-polymorphisms-and-phenytoin-maintenance-doses-in-asian-epileptic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Kai Liao, Yong Liu, Chun-Zhi Ai, Xi Yu, Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic response to phenytoin (PHT), a first-line antiepileptic drug (AED), is highly variable, in part likely due to genetic factors. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and CYP2C19 are expected to affect the metabolism of PHT and consequently affect its maintenance doses. We aimed to clarify the effects of genetic polymorphisms in both enzymes on daily PHT maintenance dosage in Asian epileptic patients by meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant studies published prior to April 14, 2017...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627680/carbamazepine-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-and-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-physicochemical-characterization-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#14
S Scioli Montoto, M L Sbaraglini, A Talevi, M Couyoupetrou, M Di Ianni, G O Pesce, V A Alvarez, L E Bruno-Blanch, G R Castro, M E Ruiz, G A Islan
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent promising alternatives for drug delivery to the central nervous system. In the present work, four different nanoformulations of the antiepileptic drug Carbamazepine (CBZ) were designed and prepared by the homogenization/ultrasonication method, with encapsulation efficiencies ranging from 82.8 to 93.8%. The formulations remained stable at 4 °C for at least 3 months. Physicochemical and microscopic characterization were performed by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM); thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TGA) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD)...
March 31, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626789/determination-of-plasma-levetiracetam-level-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-lc-ms-ms-and-its-application-in-pharmacokinetics-studies-in-neonates
#15
Nuttawut Jenjirattithigarn, Nattha Worachat, Suchawadee Horsuwan, Apichaya Puangpetch, Chatchay Prempunpong, Chaiyos Khongkhatithum, Lunliya Thampratankul, Santirat Prommas, Anannit Visudtibhan, Chonlaphat Sukasem
BACKGROUND: Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug which has good safety and efficacy in neonatal seizure (NS), a common incident in neonates with weight <1500 g. The pharmacokinetics for LEV in neonatal populations is yet to be clearly understood. In this study, we developed and validated a method for determination of LEV in plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the purpose of pharmacokinetic study. METHODS: Plasma LEV was spiked with Lamivudine as internal standard before extraction by C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625812/scn2a-mutation-in-an-infant-presenting-with-migrating-focal-seizures-and-infantile-spasm-responsive-to-a-ketogenic-diet
#16
Da-Jyun Su, Jyh-Feng Lu, Li-Ju Lin, Jao-Shwann Liang, Kun-Long Hung
SCN2A mutations have been identified in various encephalopathy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial neonatal-infantile seizure (BFNIS) to more severe forms of epileptic encephalopathy such as Ohtahara syndrome or epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizure (EIMFS). Thus far, no particularly effective treatment is available for severe epileptic encephalopathy caused by SCN2A mutations in children. We present the case of a boy who developed seizures on the third day of life and received a diagnosis of EIMFS based on his clinical presentations and electroencephalography reports...
April 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625554/antiepileptic-drug-exposure-in-pregnancy-and-pregnancy-outcome-from-national-drug-usage-data
#17
Noni Richards, David Reith, Michael Stitely, Alesha Smith
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used by pregnant women to manage conditions such as epilepsy and bipolar disorder even though they pose a risk to the developing foetus. This study aimed to determine the overall use of AEDs by women during their childbearing years and women who are pregnant and the association between AED use and rates of pregnancy termination and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: Retrospective population based cohort study using administrative databases in New Zealand between 2008 and 2014...
April 6, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625363/off-label-use-and-manipulations-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-analysis-of-the-outpatient-prescriptions-in-a-tertiary-center
#18
Mathieu Kuchenbuch, Nicole Chemaly, Kassem Mb Henniene, Anna Kaminska, Catherine Chiron, Rima Nabbout
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about off-label use and manipulations to achieve the prescribed dose of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in outpatient prescriptions. This study aimed to evaluate this practice in a tertiary center for child epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed off-label use and manipulations of AEDs delivered to the outpatient's epilepsy clinic. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine the factors associated with off-label and manipulated uses. RESULTS: Five hundred eleven consultations generated 897 AED deliveries (1...
April 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625273/botany-ethnomedicines-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-himalayan-paeony-paeonia-emodi-royle
#19
REVIEW
Mushtaq Ahmad, Khafsa Malik, Akash Tariq, Guolin Zhang, Ghulam Yaseen, Neelam Rashid, Shazia Sultana, Muhammad Zafar, Kifayat Ullah, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Himalayan paeony (Paeonia emodi Royle.) is an important species used to treat various diseases. This study aimed to compile the detailed traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicological investigations on P. emodi. This study also highlights taxonomic validity, quality of experimental designs and shortcomings in previously reported information on Himalayan paeony. METHODS: The data was extracted from unpublished theses (Pakistan, China, India and Nepal), and different published research articles confined to pharmacology, phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities using different databases through specific keywords...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624640/why-we-prefer-levetiracetam-over-phenytoin-for-treatment-of-status-epilepticus
#20
G Zaccara, F S Giorgi, A Amantini, G Giannasi, R Campostrini, F Giovannelli, M Paganini, P Nazerian
Over last fifty years, intravenous (iv) phenytoin (PHT) loading dose has been the treatment of choice for patients with benzodiazepine-resistant convulsive status epilepticus and several guidelines recommended this treatment regimen with simultaneous iv diazepam. Clinical studies have never shown a better efficacy of PHT over other antiepileptic drugs. In addition, iv PHT loading dose is a complex and time-consuming procedure which may expose patients to several risks, such as local cutaneous reactions (purple glove syndrome), severe hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias up to ventricular fibrillation and death, and increased risk of severe allergic reactions...
April 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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