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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329726/folate-biofortification-in-food-crops
#1
REVIEW
Simon Strobbe, Dominique Van Der Straeten
Folates are essential vitamins in the human diet. Folate deficiency is still very common, provoking disorders such as birth defects and anemia. Biofortification via metabolic engineering is a proven powerful means to alleviate folate malnutrition. A variety of metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully implemented in different crops and tissues. Furthermore, ensuring folate stability is crucial for long-term storage of crop products. However, the current strategies, shown to be successful in rice and tomato, will need to be fine-tuned to enable adequate biofortification of other staples such as potato, wheat and cassava...
March 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034892/how-i-treat-anemia-in-pregnancy-iron-cobalamin-and-folate
#2
REVIEW
Maureen M Achebe, Anat Gafter-Gvili
Anemia of pregnancy, an important risk factor for fetal and maternal morbidity, is considered a global health problem, affecting almost 50% of pregnant women. In this article, diagnosis and management of iron, cobalamin, and folate deficiencies, the most frequent causes of anemia in pregnancy, are discussed. Three clinical cases are considered. Iron deficiency is the most common cause. Laboratory tests defining iron deficiency, the recognition of developmental delays and cognitive abnormalities in iron-deficient neonates, and literature addressing the efficacy and safety of IV iron in pregnancy are reviewed...
February 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982368/nutrition-situation-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-current-scenario-past-trends-and-data-gaps
#3
Luis Galicia, Rubén Grajeda, Daniel López de Romaña
Objective: To determine the current nutritional status in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and identify data gaps and trends in nutrition surveillance. Methods: A systematic Internet search was conducted to identify official sources that allowed for monitoring of LAC countries' nutritional status, including progress toward World Health Organization Global Nutrition Targets 2025. Reports from national nutrition surveillance systems and reports on nationally representative surveys were collected and collated to 1) analyze nutritional status, based on life-course anthropometric indicators and biomarkers, and 2) identify gaps in data availability and trends in nutritional deficiencies...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780269/comparative-assessment-of-vitamin-b12-folic-acid-and-homocysteine-levels-in-relation-to-p53-expression-in-megaloblastic-anemia
#4
Manish K Yadav, Nandini M Manoli, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula
BACKGROUND: Megaloblastic anemia (MBA), also known as macrocytic anemia, is a type of anemia characterized by decreased number of RBCs as well as the presence of unusually large, abnormal and poorly developed erythrocytes (megaloblasts), which fail to enter blood circulation due to their larger size. Lack of vitamin-B12 (VB12) and / or folate (Vitamin-B9, VB9) with elevated homocysteine is the key factor responsible for megaloblastic anemia. Prior studies have demonstrated the induction of apoptosis in these abnormal under-developed erythrocytes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715070/-clinically-relevant-possibilities-and-limits-of-differential-diagnosis-of-megaloblastic-anemia-and-myelodysplastic-syndrome%C3%A2-refractory-anemia-type-in-bone-marrow-biopsies
#5
Petra Vašeková, Peter Szépe, Ján Marcinek, Tomáš Balhárek, Lukáš Plank
INTRODUCTION: Megaloblastic anemia (MA) represents a subtype of macrocytic anemia caused by impaired DNA synthesis, mostly due to folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. Its mildest forms lead to macrocytosis without concomitant anemia, but more severe forms to thrombocytopenia and/or leucopenia as well. In majority of the cases, the diagnosis of MA dose not represent a serious clinical problem, however, other causes of macrocytosis including myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) must be excluded...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707659/precision-molecular-diagnosis-defines-specific-therapy-in-combined-immunodeficiency-with-megaloblastic-anemia-secondary-to-mthfd1-deficiency
#6
Kesava A Ramakrishnan, Reuben J Pengelly, Yifang Gao, Mary Morgan, Sanjay V Patel, E Graham Davies, Sarah Ennis, Saul N Faust, Anthony P Williams
BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) deficiency has recently been reported to cause a folate-responsive syndrome displaying a phenotype that includes megaloblastic anemia and severe combined immunodeficiency. OBJECTIVE: To describe our investigative approach to the molecular diagnosis and evaluation of immune dysfunction in a family with MTHFD1 deficiency. METHODS: The methods used were exome sequencing and analysis of variants in genes involved in the folate metabolic pathway in a family with 2 affected siblings...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680995/applying-inappropriate-cutoffs-leads-to-misinterpretation-of-folate-status-in-the-us-population
#7
Christine M Pfeiffer, Maya R Sternberg, Heather C Hamner, Krista S Crider, David A Lacher, Lisa M Rogers, Regan L Bailey, Elizabeth A Yetley
BACKGROUND: Folate cutoffs for risk of deficiency compared with possible deficiency were originally derived differently (experimental compared with epidemiologic data), and their interpretations are different. The matching of cutoffs derived from one assay with population-based data derived from another assay requires caution. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the extent of folate-status misinterpretation with the use of inappropriate cutoffs. DESIGN: In the cross-sectional NHANES, serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate were first measured with the use of a radioprotein-binding assay (RPBA) (1988-2006) and, afterwards, with the use of a microbiologic assay (2007-2010)...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630560/long-term-dietary-folate-deficiency-accelerates-progressive-hearing-loss-on-cba-ca-mice
#8
Raquel Martínez-Vega, Silvia Murillo-Cuesta, Teresa Partearroyo, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Isabel Varela-Nieto, María A Pajares
Dietary folic acid deficiency induced early hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice after 2-months, corroborates the epidemiological association previously described between vitamin deficiency and this sensory impairment. However, this strain is prone to early hearing loss, and hence we decided to analyze whether the effects exerted by folate deprivation follow the same pattern in a mouse strain such as CBA/Ca, which is resistant to hearing impairment. Here, we show results of a long-term study on hearing carried out on CBA/Ca mice subjected to dietary folate deprivation...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486122/supplementation-of-vitamin-b12-or-folic-acid-on-hemoglobin-concentration-in-children-6-36-months-of-age-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Tivendra Kumar, Sunita Taneja, H P S Sachdev, Helga Refsum, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Nita Bhandari, Tor A Strand
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The main objective of this report is to measure to what extent folate or vitamin B12 given daily for 6 months to young North Indian Children improves hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. METHODS: In a randomized placebo controlled trial in low-to-middle income neighborhoods in New Delhi, India, children were randomized into four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and supplemented daily for 6 months with 2 RDAs of vitamin B12, folic acid, both, or placebo. All children with anemia at baseline were given iron supplementation daily for 2 months...
July 18, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338469/nutritional-intake-and-status-of-cobalamin-and-folate-among-non-pregnant-women-of-reproductive-age-in-bhaktapur-nepal
#10
Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Halvor Sommerfelt, Jørn Schneede, Per M Ueland, Tor A Strand
Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women...
June 22, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27310832/erythropoietin-levels-in-elderly-patients-with-anemia-of-unknown-etiology
#11
Zachary Gowanlock, Swetha Sriram, Alison Martin, Anargyros Xenocostas, Alejandro Lazo-Langner
BACKGROUND: In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of "anemia of unknown etiology" and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. METHODS: This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient's anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221100/readmission-and-mortality-one-year-after-acute-hospitalization-in-older-patients-with-explained-and-unexplained-anemia-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#12
Jenny Foss Abrahamsen, Anne-Lise Bjorke Monsen, Francesco Landi, Cathrine Haugland, Roy Miodini Nilsen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined whether specific subtypes of anemia in older persons are more related to adverse outcomes such as hospital readmissions and death after acute hospitalization and post-acute care. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between 2011 and 2014. A total of 884 community-dwelling patients, ≥70 years of age were transferred from acute medical and orthopaedic hospital departments to a skilled nursing home where they were examined by comprehensive geriatric assessment and had laboratory tests taken for the investigation of anemia...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212091/evaluation-of-anemia
#13
REVIEW
Jody L Kujovich
Anemia is a common problem in primary care. Classification based on mean cell volume narrows the differential diagnosis and directs testing. A marked macrocytosis is characteristic of vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies, certain medications, and primary bone marrow disorders. The three most common causes of microcytic anemia are iron deficiency, thalassemia trait, and anemia of inflammation. Additional laboratory testing is required for diagnosis. Determination of the rate of development of anemia and examination of a blood smear may provide diagnostic clues to guide more specialized testing...
June 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158434/cutaneous-hyperpigmentation-in-megaloblastic-anemia-a-five-year-retrospective-review
#14
Somanath Padhi, RajLaxmi Sarangi, Anita Ramdas, Kandasamy Ravichandran, Renu G'Boy Varghese, Thomas Alexander, George Kurian, Sudhagar Mookkappan
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is an often overlooked clinical sign in megaloblastic anemia (MA) which has been sporadically reported in the literature. METHODS: We describe the bone marrow (BM) changes and clinicolaboratory characteristics of 25 of 198 adult cases (>16 years) with cutaneous hyperpigmentation who underwent BM evaluation for cytopenia (s). RESULTS: Twenty-one of 25 cases (84%) had MA, while MA without hyperpigmentation occurred only in 12 of remainder 173 cases (P<0...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131640/excessive-folic-acid-intake-and-relation-to-adverse-health-outcome
#15
REVIEW
Jacob Selhub, Irwin H Rosenberg
The recent increase in the intake of folic acid by the general public through fortified foods and supplements, has raised safety concern based on early reports of adverse health outcome in elderly with low B12 status who took high doses of folic acid. These safety concerns are contrary to the 2015 WHO statement that "high folic acid intake has not reliably been shown to be associated with negative healeffects". In the folic acid post-fortification era, we have shown that in elderly participants in NHANES 1999-2002, high plasma folate level is associated with exacerbation of both clinical (anemia and cognitive impairment) and biochemical (high MMA and high Hcy plasma levels) signs of vitamin B12 deficiency...
July 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121530/iron-supplementation-affects-hematologic-biomarker-concentrations-and-pregnancy-outcomes-among-iron-deficient-tanzanian-women
#16
Ajibola I Abioye, Said Aboud, Zulfiqar Premji, Analee J Etheredge, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Christopher R Sudfeld, Robert Mongi, Laura Meloney, Anne Marie Darling, Ramadhani A Noor, Donna Spiegelman, Christopher Duggan, Wafaie Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient abnormality and the most common cause of anemia globally, worsening the burden of adverse pregnancy and child outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the response of hematologic biomarkers to iron supplementation and to examine the predictors of the response to iron supplementation among iron-deficient pregnant women. METHODS: We identified 600 iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤12 μg/L) pregnant women, aged 18-45 y, presenting to 2 antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania using rapid ferritin screening tests, and prospectively followed them through delivery and postpartum...
June 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101536/anemia-and-iron-deficiency-in-children-with-potential-celiac-disease
#17
Marleena Repo, Katri Lindfors, Markku Mäki, Heini Huhtala, Kaija Laurila, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Päivi Saavalainen, Katri Kaukinen, Kalle Kurppa
OBJECTIVES: Active screening for celiac disease frequently detects seropositive children with normal villous morphology (potential celiac disease). It remains unclear whether these subjects should be treated. We here investigated the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in children with potential and mucosal atrophy celiac disease. METHODS: The prospective study involved 19 children with potential disease, 67 with partial or subtotal villous atrophy (P/SVA), and 16 with total villous atrophy (TVA)...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068282/the-basis-for-folinic-acid-treatment-in-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#18
REVIEW
V T Ramaekers, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults...
July 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926814/iron-deficiency-and-other-types-of-anemia-in-infants-and-children
#19
REVIEW
Mary Wang
Anemia, defined as a hemoglobin level two standard deviations below the mean for age, is prevalent in infants and children worldwide. The evaluation of a child with anemia should begin with a thorough history and risk assessment. Characterizing the anemia as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic based on the mean corpuscular volume will aid in the workup and management. Microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the World Health Organization recommend routine screening for anemia at 12 months of age; the U...
February 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901219/anemia-and-micronutrient-status-of-women-of-childbearing-age-and-children-6-59-months-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#20
Sarah Harvey-Leeson, Crystal D Karakochuk, Meaghan Hawes, Pierrot L Tugirimana, Esto Bahizire, Pierre Z Akilimali, Kristina D Michaux, Larry D Lynd, Kyly C Whitfield, Mourad Moursi, Erick Boy, Jennifer Foley, Judy McLean, Lisa A Houghton, Rosalind S Gibson, Tim J Green
Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity...
February 17, 2016: Nutrients
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