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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933686/heparan-sulfate-as-a-receptor-for-poxvirus-infections-and-as-a-target-for-antiviral-agents
#1
Mayank Khanna, Charani Ranasinghe, Ronald Jackson, Christopher Richard Parish
To establish the importance of virus-heparan sulfate (HS) interactions in virus infectivity, the poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) was used, as it binds HS and has both enveloped virus (EV) and non-enveloped mature virus (MV) forms. Initial studies showed that heparin inhibited plaque formation by both MV-rich WR and EV-rich IHD-J strains of VACV, with the EV-rich strain also losing trademark 'comet'-shaped plaques. However, using GFP-tagged EV and MV forms of VACV, based on IC50 values, heparin was 16-fold more effective at inhibiting the infectivity of the EV form compared to the MV form...
September 21, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933324/photobacterium-toruni-sp-nov-a-bacterium-isolated-from-diseased-farmed-fish
#2
Alejandro M Labella, David R Arahal, Teresa Lucena, Manuel Manchado, Dolores Castro, Juan J Borrego
Three bacterial strains were isolated from liver and spleen of diseased farmed redbanded seabream (Pagrus auriga) in south-west Spain. Their partial 16S rRNA gene sequences clustered within those of the genus Photobacterium, showing high similarity (98.6-99.3 %) to the type strains of Photobacterium iliopiscarium, P. piscicola, P. kishitanii, P. aquimaris and P. phosphoreum. Multilocus sequence analysis using six housekeeping genes (gapA, topA, mreB, ftsZ, gyrB and 16S rRNA) confirmed the new strains as forming an independent branch with a bootstrap value of 100, likely to represent a novel species...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931061/binding-of-a-c-type-lectin-s-coiled-coil-domain-to-the-domeless-receptor-directly-activates-the-jak-stat-pathway-in-the-shrimp-immune-response-to-bacterial-infection
#3
Jie-Jie Sun, Jiang-Feng Lan, Xiao-Fan Zhao, Gerardo R Vasta, Jin-Xing Wang
C-type lectins (CTLs) are characterized by the presence of a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain (CTLD) that by recognizing microbial glycans, is responsible for their roles as pattern recognition receptors in the immune response to bacterial infection. In addition to the CTLD, however, some CTLs display additional domains that can carry out effector functions, such as the collagenous domain of the mannose-binding lectin. While in vertebrates, the mechanisms involved in these effector functions have been characterized in considerable detail, in invertebrates they remain poorly understood...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930225/vochysia-rufa-stem-bark-extract-protects-endothelial-cells-against-high-glucose-damage
#4
Neire Moura de Gouveia, Sonia Ramos, María Ángeles Martín, Foued Salmen Espindola, Luis Goya, Olga M Palomino
Background: Increased oxidative stress by persistent hyperglycemia is a widely accepted factor in vascular damage responsible for type 2 diabetes complications. The plant Vochysia rufa (Vr) has been used in folk medicine in Brazil for the treatment of diabetes. Thus; the protective effect of a Vr stem bark extract against a challenge by a high glucose concentration on EA.hy926 (EA) endothelial cells is evaluated. Methods: Vegetal material is extracted with distilled water by maceration and evaporated until dryness under vacuum...
February 21, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928836/preoperative-serum-macrophage-activated-biomarkers-soluble-mannose-receptor-smr-and-soluble-haemoglobin-scavenger-receptor-scd163-as-novel-markers-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-gastric-cancer
#5
Dongbing Ding, Yang Song, Yao Yao, Songbai Zhang
Soluble mannose receptor (sMR) and soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) are macrophage activation markers which have previously been demonstrated to be increased in patients with inflammation, auto-immunity and malignancies. To investigate the clinical diagnostic and prognostic significance of preoperative serum sMR and sCD163, the present study investigated 143 gastric cancer (GC) patients, 66 subjects with benign gastric disease and 59 healthy controls, using an ELISA assay. Preoperative serum levels of sMR and sCD163 ranged from 0...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927632/extraction-preliminary-characterization-and-antioxidant-properties-of-polysaccharides-from-the-testa-of-salicornia-herbacea
#6
Hongjun Wang, Ziheng Xu, Xinguo Li, Jian Sun, Dan Yao, Hong Jiang, Tiezhong Zhou, Yingzi Liu, Jianguo Li, Chunqiang Wang, Wanbing Wang, Rufeng Yue
Response surface methodology and central composite design based on single-factor experiments were used to optimize the extraction parameters (i.e., extraction time, extraction temperature, and solid-liquid ratio) of polysaccharides from the testa of Salicornia herbacea (STP). The optimal conditions included a liquid-solid ratio of 57:1 (volume/mass), an extraction time of 300min and an extraction temperature of 87°C. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of crude STP was 1.30±0.06%, which agreed with model predictions...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927234/metabolic-profiling-of-central-nervous-system-disease-in-trypanosoma-brucei-rhodesiense-infection
#7
Sabrina D Lamour, Vincent P Alibu, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy M Sternberg
Background: The progression of Human African Trypanosomiasis from the early hemolymphatic stage to the late meningoencephalitic stage is of critical diagnostic importance as it determines the choice of potentially toxic drug regimens. Current diagnostic criteria involving analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for parasites and/or pleiocytosis are sensitive, but recent evidence suggests that specificity may be poor. Methods: We used an untargeted global metabolic profiling approach for the discovery of novel candidate stage diagnostic markers in CSF from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925553/dispersal-and-inhibitory-roles-of-mannose-2-deoxy-d-glucose-and-n-acetylgalactosaminidase-on-the-biofilm-of-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#8
Venkata G Poosarla, Thammajun L Wood, Lei Zhu, Daniel S Miller, Bei Yin, Thomas K Wood
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are often the major cause of microbiologically influenced corrosion. The representative SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris has previously been shown to have a biofilm that consists primarily of protein. In this study, by utilizing lectin staining, we identified that the biofilm of D. vulgaris also consists of the matrix components mannose, fucose, and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), with mannose predominating. Based on these results, we found that the addition of mannose and the non-metabolizable mannose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose inhibits the biofilm formation of D...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923563/characterization-antioxidant-and-antiglycation-properties-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-the-medicinal-halophyte-carpobrotus-edulis-l
#9
Jawhar Hafsa, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Didier Le Cerf, Khalifa Limem, Hatem Majdoub, Bassem Charfeddine
In this study, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of Carpobrotus edulis polysaccharides (CEP), and the effect of time, extraction temperature and water to material ratio was evaluated. Optimum conditions were 1.77h, 78.0°C and 33.04mL/g to improved CEP yield (7.84%), which is in good agreement with the predicted yield 7.77%. Then, the physico-chemical, antioxidant and antiglycation properties of optimized CEP were studied, and the total sugar and galacturonic acid content were 89...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922762/three-myb-genes-co-regulate-the-phloem-based-defence-against-english-grain-aphid-in-wheat
#10
Yan Zhai, Ping Li, Yu Mei, Mingye Chen, Xiaochen Chen, Heng Xu, Xuan Zhou, Hansong Dong, Chunling Zhang, Weihua Jiang
Plant phloem-based defence (PBD) against phloem-feeding insects is characteristic of the sieve occlusion by phloem lectins and β-1,3-glucan callose, both of which are produced under regulation by ethylene and MYB transcription factors. Wheat PBD requires β-1,3-glucan synthase-like proteins GSL2, GSL10, and GSL12, and may also require insect-resistant mannose-binding lectins Hfr-1 and Wci-1, which can accumulate in the phloem upon aphid feeding. This study elucidates whether any of the 73 MYB genes identified previously in the common wheat Triticum aestivum genome plays a role in wheat PBD activation with regard to the GSLs and lectins...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922469/one-pot-synthesis-of-gdp-mannose-by-a-multi-enzyme-cascade-for-enzymatic-assembly-of-lipid-linked-oligosaccharides
#11
Thomas F T Rexer, Anna Schildbach, Jan Klapproth, Angelika Schierhorn, Reza Mahour, Markus Pietzsch, Erdmann Rapp, Udo Reichl
Glycosylation of proteins is a key function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Glycosylated proteins play a crucial role in cell trafficking and signaling, cell-cell adhesion, blood-group antigenicity, and immune response. In addition, the glycosylation of proteins is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies. In vitro glycoengineering of proteins requires glycosyltransferases as well as expensive nucleotide sugars...
September 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920834/streptomyces-xylanilyticus-sp-nov-isolated-from-soil
#12
Duangtip Moonmangmee, Pawina Kanchanasin, Wongsakorn Phongsopitanun, Somboon Tanasupawat, Somporn Moonmangmee
A novel actinomycete, strain SR2-123T, belonging to the genus Streptomyces, was isolated from a soil sample collected from the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The taxonomic position of the strain was characterized using a polyphasic study. Strain SR2-123T contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, mannose and ribose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. Menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4)...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920164/purification-and-characterization-of-a-naringinase-from-cryptococcus-albidus
#13
Nataliya Borzova, Olena Gudzenko, Lyudmila Varbanets
Naringinase which was extracted from the fermented broth of Cryptococcus albidus was purified about 42-folds with yield 0.7% by sulfate fractionation and chromatography on Toyopearl HW-60, Fractogel DEAE-650-s, and Sepharose 6B columns. Molecular weight of protein determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was 50 kDa. Naringinase of C. albidus includes high content of the dicarbonic and hydrophobic amino acids. Enzyme contains also carbohydrate component, represented by mannose, galactose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, and glucose...
September 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918775/frankia-asymbiotica-sp-nov-a-non-infective-actinobacterium-isolated-from-morella-californica-root-nodule
#14
Imen Nouioui, Abdellatif Gueddou, Faten Ghodhbane-Gtari, Manfred Rhode, Maher Gtari, Hans-Peter Klenk
The taxonomic status of strain M16386T, a nitrogen-fixing but non-nodulating isolate from Morella californica, was established on the basis of a polyphasic approach. The strain grows as branched hyphae, with vesicles and non-motile productive multilocular sporangia. It metabolizes short fatty acids, TCA cycle intermediates and carbohydrates as carbon sources, and fixes nitrogen in the absence of combined nitrogen source in the growth media. Chemotaxonomic traits of strain M16386T are consistent with its affiliation to the genus Frankia...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917925/synthesis-of-synthetic-mannan-backbone-polysaccharides-found-on-the-surface-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant-and-their-immunological-properties
#15
Chakree Wattanasiri, Jiraporn Paha, Marisa Ponpuak, Somsak Ruchirawat, Siwarutt Boonyarattanakalin
Surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) play crucial roles in modulating host immune responses. Thorough understandings of immunological properties of the Mtb's surface components are essential for the development of tuberculosis treatment and prevention. Unfortunately, the accessibility to the molecules on the surface of Mtb is limited by the structural complexity due to their various macromolecular nature and the hazard of culturing Mtb. In this study, we reveal a practical synthesis of lipomannan (LM) backbone polysaccharides - the core glycans found on Mtb's surface...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917894/structural-functional-and-ph-sensitive-release-characteristics-of-water-soluble-polysaccharide-from-the-seeds-of-albizia-lebbeck-l
#16
Chekuri Ashok Kumar Varma, K Jayaram Kumar
Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10(2)kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917881/structural-characterization-and-rheological-properties-of-a-galactomannan-from-astragalus-gombo-bunge-seeds-harvested-in-algerian-sahara
#17
T Chouana, G Pierre, C Vial, C Gardarin, A Wadouachi, D Cailleu, D Le Cerf, Z Boual, M D Ould El Hadj, P Michaud, C Delattre
A water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) was extracted and purified from Astragalus gombo seeds (Fabaceae) harvested in Septentrional Sahara (Ouargla, Algeria) with a yield of 6.8% (w/w of the dry seed ground). It was characterized by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometry (GC-MS), size exclusion chromatography with Multi-Angle Light Scattering analysis (SEC-MALLS), high-resolution (1)H and (13)C NMR, and rheological measurements. The structural characterization indicated that this WSP fraction is a galactomannan with a mannose/galactose ratio of 1...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917863/purification-characterization-and-biological-effect-of-reversing-the-kidney-yang-deficiency-of-polysaccharides-from-semen-cuscutae
#18
Song Yang, Xinfang Xu, Hefang Xu, Shuya Xu, Qinghua Lin, Zhe Jia, Ting Han, Hui Zhang, Ying Zhang, Huan Liu, Yan Gao, Xiangri Li
Semen cuscutae is a well-known Chinese medicine which has been used to nourish kidney. It is the first study to demonstrate that the polysaccharides from semen cuscutae showed significant activity of nourishing kidney-yang by increasing the levels of testosterone and estradiol, decreasing the level of blood urea nitrogen, improving immune function, possessing antioxidant effect. Three homogeneous polysaccharides were obtained by DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-400 which were named as C-7WR1, C-7WR2 and C-7WR3 with average molecular weight of 7...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906588/surface-glycan-pattern-of-canine-equine-and-ovine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#19
Salvatore Desantis, Gianluca Accogli, Antonio Crovace, Edda G Francioso, Alberto Maria Crovace
The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for clinical and experimental studies is increasing, but full characterization of MSCs in veterinary species is hindered by the variability in species-specific cell surface marker expression and antibody cross reactivity. Recent studies demonstrated that the glycans in the glycocalyx of MSCs are promising candidates as cell biomarkers. In the present study, we analyzed the glycocalyx of canine MSCs (cMSCs), ovine MSCs (oMSCs), and equine MSCs (eMSCs) using a cell microarray procedure in which MSCs were spotted on microarray slides and incubated with a panel of 14 biotinylated lectins and Cy3-conjugated streptavidin...
September 14, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905148/building-a-pgc-lc-ms-n-glycan-retention-library-and-elution-mapping-resource
#20
Jodie L Abrahams, Matthew P Campbell, Nicolle H Packer
Porous graphitised carbon-liquid chromatography (PGC-LC) has been proven to be a powerful technique for the analysis and characterisation of complex mixtures of isomeric and isobaric glycan structures. Here we evaluate the elution behaviour of N-glycans on PGC-LC and thereby provide the potential of using chromatographic separation properties, together with mass spectrometry (MS) fragmentation, to determine glycan structure assignments more easily. We used previously reported N-glycan structures released from the purified glycoproteins Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin, α1-acid glycoprotein, Ribonuclease B (RNase B), fetuin and ovalbumin to profile their behaviour on capillary PGC-LC-MS...
September 13, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
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