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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356014/impact-of-carbohydrates-on-autoinducer-2-secretion-of-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-bbmn68
#1
Jingyi Song, Qian Qin, Tong Li, Fazheng Ren, Hongxing Zhang, Yuanhong Xie, Junhua Jin
In this study, the regularity of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) secretion during growth and the effect of the addition of various carbohydrates on AI-2 secretion in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68 were investigated. The results indicated that the AI-2 concentration reached its highest level (2536.60 nmol l-1 ) at the early stationary growth phase, and then decreased to 1263.72 nmol l-1 at the late stationary growth phase in Bifidobacterium cultures. When the density of the cultures which mannose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose had been added to reached an OD600 nm of 1...
January 22, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355635/extraction-characterisation-and-antioxidant-activity-of-polysaccharides-from-chinese-watermelon
#2
Yang Liu, Gangliang Huang, Jinchuan Hu
Extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the Chinese watermelon was investigated. The polysaccharides were obtained by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and deproteinization with HCl, respectively. The molecular weight was 3.02 × 104. It showed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TLC that Chinese watermelon polysaccharides consisted of six monosaccharides, namely glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. The polysaccharides contained the β-glycosidic bond...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355427/stannous-fluoride-effects-on-gene-expression-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-actinomyces-viscosus
#3
Y Shi, R Li, D J White, A R Biesbrock
A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed to elucidate the bacterial cellular response of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus to NaF and SnF2. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SnF2 were predetermined before microarray study. Gene expression profiling microarray experiments were carried out in the absence (control) and presence (experimental) of 10 ppm and 100 ppm Sn2+ (in the form of SnF2) and fluoride controls for 10-min exposures (4 biological replicates/treatment)...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354920/-effect-of-heat-reinforcing-needling-on-serum-metabolite-profiles-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-rabbits-with-cold-syndrome
#4
Xiaozheng Du, Bo Yuan, Jinhai Wang, Xinghua Zhang, Liang Tian, Tingzhuo Zhang, Xinglan Li, Fengfan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore heat-reinforcing needling for the metabolite profiling changes in serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rabbits with liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) technique, and to investigate its mechanisms. METHODS: Forty clean purple blue rabbits were randomized into a normal group, a model group, a reinforcing-reducing needling (RRN) group, a twirling-reinforcing needling (TRN) group, and a heat-reinforcing needling (HRN) group, 8 cases in each group...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352938/dmtmm-mediated-amidation-of-alginate-oligosaccharides-aimed-at-modulating-their-interaction-with-proteins
#5
Flavien Labre, Sophie Mathieu, Patricia Chaud, Pierre-Yves Morvan, Romuald Vallée, William Helbert, Sébastien Fort
Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) with a weight average molecular weight of 5 kDa were efficiently amidated with amino acids and carbohydrates in aqueous media in the presence of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMTMM). Here, alanine, leucine, serine, as well as mannose and rhamnose, were amidated at high yields with a good control of the degree of substitution (DS). Amino acid- and carbohydrate-grafted AOS showed improved stability against degradation by alginate lyases having different specificities...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352929/structural-characterization-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-polysaccharides-from-sophorae-tonkinensis-radix
#6
Liangliang Cai, Shanshan Zou, Dengpan Liang, Libiao Luan
In current study we present two polysaccharides, STRP1 and STRP2, purified from Sophorae tonkinensis Radix via column chromatography. Structural analyses indicated that STRP1 and STRP2 were consisted of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose in a similar molar ratio with main backbones of (1 → 3)-linked-α-d-Gal and (1 → 4)-linked-α-d-Glc, while average molecular weights were 1.30 × 104 and 1.98 × 105 Da, respectively. We observed a strong chelating ability on ferrous ions; substantial radical scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals in vitro; and significant attenuation on acetaminophen-induced hepatic oxidative damage in mice for STRP1 and STRP2...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352918/structural-characteristics-and-anticancer-activity-in-vitro-of-fucoidan-from-brown-alga-padina-boryana
#7
Roza V Usoltseva, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Irina A Ishina, Vladimir V Isakov, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Pham Duc Thinh, Pavel A Zadorozhny, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Svetlana P Ermakova
The sulfated and acetylated fucoidan fraction, containing fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose and uronic acid residues, was isolated from the brown alga Padina boryana. The structure of galactofucan part was studied after different modifications by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. It was shown that galactofucan contained the main chain of alternating 1,4-linked α-l-fucopyranose and 1,3-linked β-d-Galactopyranose. Single fucose residues were found as branches at C4 of galactose residues. Also, fucoidan contained 1,3- or 1,4-linked Fuc-Fuc and Gal-Gal fragments...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352879/structural-characterization-and-in-vitro-fermentation-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-sargassum-thunbergii-and-its-impact-on-gut-microbiota
#8
Xiong Fu, Changliang Cao, Beibei Ren, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang, Chao Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate structural characteristic and in vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide named ST-P2 from Sargassum thunbergii by human fecal inoculums, and its impact on human colonic microbiota. The results showed that ST-P2 was homogeneous with molecular weight of 48,788 Da, and consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose. The main linkage types were identified as (1 → 5)-α-L-Araf, (1 → 3)-α-L-Manp, (1 → 3,6)-β-D-Galp, (1 → 6)-α-D-Glcp, and (1 → 3)-β-D-Xylp, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352865/antihyperlipidemic-and-hepatoprotective-activities-of-polysaccharide-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-in-high-fat-emulsion-induced-hyperlipidaemic-mice
#9
Zhanwei Yang, Jin Wang, Jingen Li, Lei Xiong, Hui Chen, Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Kehui Ouyang, Wenjun Wang
The objective of this study was to analyse the structure of CPP-2, and to observe the pharmacological effects of CPP-2 on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. CPP-2, eluted as two main fractions comprised of two polysaccharides with Mw of 307 and 3.7kDa, was mainly consisted of rhamnose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.00:0.78:3.22:0.45. The results showed that treatment with CPP-2 could improve blood lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C), liver lipid levels (TC and TG) and antioxidant status (SOD, T-AOC, GSH-PX, MDA and LPO)...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349857/a-diazido-mannose-analog-as-a-chemoenzymatic-synthon-for-synthesizing-di-n-acetyllegionaminic-acid-containing-glycosides
#10
Abhishek Santra, An Xiao, Hai Yu, Wanqing Li, Yanhong Li, Linh Ngo, John B McArthur, Xi Chen
A novel strategy is developed to expand the scope of chemoenzymatic synthetic products by designing a chemoenzymatic synthon. The synthon is enzymatically converted to carbohydrate analogs which are readily derivatized chemically to produce desired targets. The strategy is demonstrated for synthesizing glycosides containing 7,9-di-N-acetyllegionaminic acid (Leg5,7Ac2), a bacterial nonulosonic acid (NulO) analog of sialic acid. A versatile library of a2-3/6-linked Leg5,7Ac2- glycosides is built using chemically synthesized 2,4-diazido-2,4,6-trideoxy mannose as a chemoenzymatic synthon for highly efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) sialylation followed by a downstream chemical conversion of the azido group to an acetamido group...
January 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346774/mannose-receptor-1-restricts-hiv-particle-release-from-infected-macrophages
#11
Sayaka Sukegawa, Eri Miyagi, Fadila Bouamr, Helena Farkašová, Klaus Strebel
Human mannose receptor 1 (hMRC1) is expressed on the surface of most tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, and select lymphatic or liver endothelial cells. HMRC1 contributes to the binding of HIV-1 to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and is involved in the endocytic uptake of HIV-1 into these cells. Here, we identify hMRC1 as an antiviral factor that inhibits virus release through a bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2)-like mechanism. Virions produced in the presence of hMRC1 accumulated in clusters at the cell surface but were fully infectious...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344948/glycation-of-ovalbumin-after-high-intensity-ultrasound-pretreatment-effects-on-conformation-igg-ige-binding-ability-and-antioxidant-activity
#12
Wenhua Yang, Zongcai Tu, Hui Wang, Lu Zhang, Qidong Song
BACKGROUND: Ovalbumin (OVA), a protein with excellent nutritional and processing properties, is the major allergen of hen egg white. Previous study showed that high-intensity ultrasound treatment increased the IgG and IgE binding abilities by unfolding the conformational structure of OVA. It may allow modifying the IgG and IgE binding of OVA by combining high-intensity ultrasound with other methods, such as glycation, a promising method for the improvement of protein properties. RESULTS: Glycation with mannose (M) after ultrasound pretreatment at 0-600 W significantly reduced the IgG and IgE binding abilities and dramatically enhanced the antioxidant activity of OVA-M conjugates, with the lowest values of IgG and IgE binding and highest values of antioxidant capacity observed at 600W...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344374/cardioprotection-by-an-anti-masp-2-antibody-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#13
James E Clark, Thomas Dudler, Michael S Marber, Wilhelm Schwaeble
Background: Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. Many approaches have been investigated to counteract the pathological consequences associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiac remodelling. It is accepted that inflammation, and therefore activation of the complement pathway, is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of this injury, and many attempts have been made to ameliorate the infarction and consequent dysfunction using anticomplement therapy, with mixed success...
2018: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342936/structure-characterization-of-honey-processed-astragalus-polysaccharides-and-its-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-vitro
#14
Jingzhu Liao, Chanyi Li, Jing Huang, Wuping Liu, Hongce Chen, Shuangye Liao, Hongyuan Chen, Wen Rui
Honey-processed Astragalus is a dosage form of Radix Astragalus mixed with honey by a traditional Chinese medicine processing method which strengthens the tonic effect. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), perform its immunomodulatory effects by relying on the tonic effect of Radix Astragalus, therefore, the improved pharmacological activity of honey-processed Astragalus polysaccharide (HAPS) might be due to structural changes during processing. The molecular weights of HAPS and APS were 1,695,788 Da, 2,047,756 Da, respectively, as determined by high performance gel filtration chromatography combined with evaporative light scattering detection (HPGFC-ELSD)...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340594/keratan-sulphate-a-complex-glycosaminoglycan-with-unique-functional-capability
#15
Bruce Caterson, James Melrose
From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulphate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumour development of diagnostic and prognostic utility...
January 11, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337104/bioactive-potential-and-composition-analysis-of-sulfated-polysaccharide-from-acanthophora-spicifera-vahl-borgeson
#16
Javee Anand, Malairaj Sathuvan, Gopal Venkatesh Babu, Muthu Sakthivel, Perumal Palani, Subramani Nagaraj
Marine seaweeds contain a valuable source of functional bioactive polysaccharide and it plays main role for effective anticancer activity. The structural feature of SPs was studied through FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra analysis. The isolated SPs from A. spicifera contain 63.3% of total sugar, 21.9% of total sulfate and 12.6% of total uranic acid was found. The active F2 fraction molecular weight of SP was found to be 420 kDa. The sugar was composed of galactose (73.5%), xylose (9.2%), mannose (1.9%) and arabinose (10...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336357/distinctive-roles-of-rac1-and-rab29-in-lrrk2-mediatedmembrane-trafficking-and-neurite-outgrowth
#17
Min Feng, Xin Hu, Na Li, Fan Hu, Fei Chang, Hong-Fei Xu, Yong-Jian Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) associated leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutants have shown pathogenic effects on variety of subcellular processes.Two small GTPases Rac1 and Rab29 have been indicated as possible downstream effectors participating in LRRK2 signaling but their detail mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we have used biochemical and cell biology approaches to address whether two GTPases interact with LRRK2 and hence function differently in LRRK2 mediated pathogenesis.Here we show thatRac1 and Rab29 specifically interact with LRRK2with higher affinity for Rab29and with different preference in functional domain binding...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335800/enrichment-and-characterization-of-a-bacterial-mixture-capable-of-utilizing-c-mannosyl-tryptophan-as-a-carbon-source
#18
Tanim J Hossain, Shino Manabe, Yukishige Ito, Toshiya Iida, Saori Kosono, Kenji Ueda, Akira Hosomi, Daishi Inoue, Tadashi Suzuki
C-Mannosylation, a protein-modification found in various eukaryotes, involves the attachment of a single mannose molecule to selected tryptophan residues of proteins. Since C-mannosyl tryptophan (CMW) was detected in human urine, it is generally thought that CMW is not catabolized inside our body and instead is excreted via the urine. This paper reports enrichment of a bacterial consortium from soil that degrades CMW. The bacteria grew in minimal medium supplemented with CMW as the carbon source. Interestingly, even after successive clonal picks of individual colonies, several species were still present in each colony as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, indicating that a single species may not be responsible for this activity...
January 15, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334321/biosynthesis-of-galactomannans-found-in-filamentous-fungi-belonging-to-pezizomycotina
#19
Takuji Oka
The galactomannans (GMs) that are produced by filamentous fungi belonging to Pezizomycotina, many of which are pathogenic for animals and plants, are polysaccharides consisting of α-(1→2)-/α-(1→6)-mannosyl and β-(1→5)-/β-(1→6)-galactofuranosyl residues. GMs are located at the outermost layer of the cell wall. When a pathogenic fungus infects a host, its cell surface must be in contact with the host. The GMs on the cell surface may be involved in the infection mechanism of a pathogenic fungus or the defense mechanism of a host...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331889/l-ascorbic-acid-metabolism-in-an-ascorbate-rich-kiwifruit-actinidia-eriantha-benth-cv-white-during-postharvest
#20
Zhen-Ye Jiang, Yu Zhong, Jian Zheng, Maratab Ali, Guo-Dong Liu, Xiao-Lin Zheng
Kiwifruit (Actinidia eriantha Benth.) 'White', a novel cultivar with higher L-ascorbic acid (AsA) level, is registered in China. Changes in AsA, related metabolites, enzymatic activity, and gene expression associated with AsA biosynthesis and recycling process were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that AsA biosynthesis through L-galactose pathway supplemented by D-galacturonic acid pathway and AsA recycling collectively contributed to accumulating and remaining higher AsA level in kiwifruit cv...
January 6, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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