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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165235/synthesis-of-n-acetyl-d-quinovosamine-in-rhizobium-etli-ce3-is-completed-after-its-4-keto-precursor-is-linked-to-a-carrier-lipid
#1
Tiezheng Li, K Dale Noel
Bacterial O-antigens are synthesized on lipid carriers before being transferred to lipopolysaccharide core structures. Rhizobium etli CE3 lipopolysaccharide is a model for understanding O-antigen biological function. CE3 O-antigen structure and genetics are known. However, proposed enzymology for CE3 O-antigen synthesis has been examined very little in vitro, and even the sugar added to begin the synthesis is uncertain. A model based on mutagenesis studies predicts that 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (QuiNAc) is the first O-antigen sugar and that genes wreV, wreQ and wreU direct QuiNAc synthesis and O-antigen initiation...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164051/anti-inflammatory-microglia-macrophages-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-brain-metastasis
#2
Kleopatra E Andreou, Manuel Sarmiento Soto, Danny Allen, Vasiliki Economopoulos, Axel de Bernardi, James R Larkin, Nicola R Sibson
Brain metastasis is a common complication of cancer patients and is associated with poor survival. Histological data from patients with brain metastases suggest that microglia are the major immune population activated around the metastatic foci. Microglia and macrophages have the ability to polarize to different phenotypes and to exert both tumorigenic and cytotoxic effects. However, the role of microglia/macrophages during the early stages of metastatic growth in the brain has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to profile microglial/macrophage activation in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastasis during the early stages of tumor growth, and to assess the role of the anti-inflammatory microglial/macrophage population, specifically, during this phase...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163426/sugar-metabolism-of-the-first-thermophilic-planctomycete-thermogutta-terrifontis-comparative-genomic-and-transcriptomic-approaches
#3
Alexander G Elcheninov, Peter Menzel, Soley R Gudbergsdottir, Alexei I Slesarev, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Anders Krogh, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Xu Peng, Ilya V Kublanov
Xanthan gum, a complex polysaccharide comprising glucose, mannose and glucuronic acid residues, is involved in numerous biotechnological applications in cosmetics, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, food and petroleum industries. Additionally, its oligosaccharides were shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and few other properties. Yet, despite its extensive usage, little is known about xanthan gum degradation pathways and mechanisms. Thermogutta terrifontis, isolated from a sample of microbial mat developed in a terrestrial hot spring of Kunashir island (Far-East of Russia), was described as the first thermophilic representative of the Planctomycetes phylum...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162315/mannose-binding-lectin-deficiency-associated-with-numerous-paraspinal-neurofibromas
#4
Jason Schend, Rayna Doll, Monica Sandhu, Mark Rodgers, Robert Hostoffer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160717/reprogramming-tumor-associated-macrophages-to-reverse-egfr-t790m-resistance-by-dual-targeting-codelivery-of-gefitinib-vorinostat
#5
Huige Peng, Binfan Chen, Wei Huang, Yubo Tang, Yifan Jiang, Wenyuan Zhang, Yongzhuo Huang
Gefitinib is a first-line therapy in the EGFR-mutated nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the development of drug resistance is almost unavoidable, thus leading to an unsustainable regimen. EGFR(T790M) mutation is the major cause responsible for the molecular-targeting therapy failure in NSCLC. Although the recently approved osimertinib is effective for the EGFR(T790M)-positive NSCLC, the osimertinib-resistant EGFR mutation is rapidly developed, too. In this study, we proposed a tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) reprogramming strategy for overcoming the EGFR(T790M)-associated drug resistance via a dual-targeting codelivery system of gefitinib/vorinostat that acted on both TAM with overexpression of mannose receptors and the HER-2 positive NSCLC cells...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160198/herbidospora-soli-sp-nov-isolated-from-soil
#6
Nantawan Niemhom, Chitti Thawai
A novel actinomycete strain PS42-9(T), which formed short chains of spores borne on the tip of long sporophores arising from the substrate mycelium, was isolated from soil in Phu-Sang National Park, Phayao province, Thailand. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars of strain PS42-9(T) were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose. The characteristic phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159657/polysaccharides-from-dolichos-biflorus-linn-and-trachyspermum-ammi-linn-seeds-isolation-characterization-and-remarkable-antimicrobial-activity
#7
Shibani Basu, Manojit Ghosh, Rupam Kumar Bhunia, Jhuma Ganguly, Bimal K Banik
Polysaccharides are structurally complex and essential constituents of life, and therefore, studies directed to these kinds of molecules have received scientific attention. Despite an easy availability of Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds isolation, characterization and antimicrobial studies of polysaccharides derived from these two natural sources have not been investigated. Therefore, we report here isolation of polysaccharides, their purification and characterization from Dolichos biflorus Linn and Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) seeds...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157724/differential-n-glycan-patterns-identified-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-n-glycan-profiling-of-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-ffpe-tissue-sections
#8
Xiaoning Wang, Zaian Deng, Chuncui Huang, Tong Zhu, Jiatao Lou, Lin Wang, Yan Li
N-glycan profiling is a powerful approach for analyzing the functional relationship between N-glycosylation and cancer. Current methods rely on either serum or fresh tissue samples; however, N-glycan patterns may differ between serum and tissue, as the proteins of serum originate from a variety of tissues. Furthermore, fresh tissue samples are difficult to ship and store. Here, we used a profiling method based on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from lung adenocarcinoma patients. We found that our method was highly reproducible...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155159/purification-characterization-and-anti-tumor-activities-of-polysaccharides-extracted-from-wild-russula-griseocarnosa
#9
Yang Liu, Jinjin Zhang, Zhaoli Meng
The anti-tumor activity of a novel polysaccharide, PRG1-1, obtained from Russula griseocarnosa sporocarp was investigated in this paper. PRG1-1 has a molecular weight of 630kDa and was extracted and purified using DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration chromatography from crude polysaccharide extract of R. griseocarnosa sporocarp. PRG1-1 was composed of glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and fructose, in a molar ratio of 66.5:29.2:3.17: 0.663:0.447, respectively. Purified PRG1-1 significantly reduced cell viability, increased the production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced the apoptotic rate in HeLa and SiHa cells...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154855/identification-and-characterization-of-a-calcium-dependent-lily-type-lectin-from-black-rockfish-sebastes-schlegelii-molecular-antennas-are-involved-in-host-defense-via-pathogen-recognition
#10
Roopasingam Kugapreethan, Qiang Wan, Jehanathan Nilojan, Jehee Lee
Lily-type lectins (LTLs) are soluble pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that contain one or more characteristic carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), through which LTLs bind reversibly and specifically to cognate sugar moieties present on the invading pathogen membrane and trigger the host innate immune responses. In this study, we identified a LTL homolog (SsLTL) from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) transcriptome database and its functional roles in innate immunity was investigated in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150912/sustaining-an-efficient-and-effective-cho-cell-line-development-platform-by-incorporation-of-24-deep-well-plate-screening-and-multivariate-analysis
#11
Alessandro Mora, Sheng Sam Zhang, Gerald Carson, Bernard Nabiswa, Patrick Hossler, Seongkyu Yoon
Efficient and effective cell line screening is paramount towards a successful biomanufacturing program. Here we describe the implementation of 24-deep well plate screening of CHO lines as part of the cell line development platform at AbbVie. Incorporation of this approach accelerated the identification of the best candidate lines for process development. In an effort to quantify and predict process performance comparability, we compared cell culture performance in 24-deep well plates (24-DWP) and in shake flasks, for a panel of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell lines expressing a monoclonal antibody...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150512/a-genetic-system-for-the-thermophilic-acetogenic-bacterium-thermoanaerobacter-kivui
#12
Mirko Basen, Irina Geiger, Laura Henke, Volker Müller
Thermoanaerobacter kivui is one of the very few thermophilic acetogenic microorganisms. It grows optimally at 66°C on sugars but also lithotrophically with H2 + CO2 or with CO, producing acetate as major product. While a genome-derived model of acetogenesis has been developed, only few physiological or biochemical experiments towards the function of important enzymes in carbon and energy metabolism have been carried out. To address this issue, we developed a method for targeted, markerless gene deletions and for integration of genes into the genome of T...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149729/functionalized-gold-nanoparticles-as-affinity-nanoprobes-for-multiple-lectins
#13
Karuppuchamy Selvaprakash, Yu-Chie Chen
Glycan-lectin interactions are commonly observed in nature. Analytical methods, which are used to detect lectins that rely on the use of glycan ligand-modified nanoprobes as affinity probes, have been developed. Most of the existing methods are focused on the use of synthetic glycan ligands. Nevertheless, naturally available glycoproteins, such as ovalbumin in chicken egg whites, are good sources for fabricating glycan-immobilized nanoprobes. In this study, we generated functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) from a one-pot reaction by reacting chicken egg white (cew) proteins with aqueous tetrachloroaurate...
November 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147524/manipulation-of-cytokine-secretion-in-human-dendritic-cells-using-glycopolymers-with-picomolar-affinity-for-dc-sign
#14
Daniel A Mitchell, Qiang Zhang, Lenny Voorhaar, David M Haddleton, Shan Herath, Anne S Gleinich, Harpal S Randeva, Max Crispin, Hendrik Lehnert, Russell Wallis, Steven Patterson, C Remzi Becer
The human C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is a significant receptor on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) - crucial components of host defense that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. A range of linear glycopolymers, constructed via controlled radical polymerization techniques have been shown to interact with DC-SIGN with affinities in the physiologically active range. However, these first generation glycopolymers possess limited structural definition and their effects on DCs were not known. Here we report the development of star-shaped mannose glycopolymers with the aim of targeting the clustered domain arrangement of DC-SIGN and these were shown to bind with picomolar affinity...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146342/detection-of-coffee-adulteration-with-soybean-and-corn-by-capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Daniela Daniel, Fernando Silva Lopes, Vagner Bezerra Dos Santos, Claudimir Lucio do Lago
The detection of coffee adulteration with soybean and corn by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry was accomplished by evaluating the monosaccharides profile obtained after acid hydrolysis of the samples. The acid hydrolysis, using H2SO4 as a catalyst, increases the ionic strength of the sample impairing the electrophoretic separation. Therefore, Ba(OH)2 was used to both neutralize the medium and reduce the content of sulfate by precipitation of BaSO4. The best separation of nine determined monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, xylose, mannose, fructose and ribose) plus inositol as internal standard was obtained in 500 mmol·L(-1) triethylamine, pH 12...
March 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143814/structural-basis-of-nucleotide-sugar-transport-across-the-golgi-membrane
#16
Joanne L Parker, Simon Newstead
Glycosylation is a fundamental cellular process that, in eukaryotes, occurs in the lumen of both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are an essential component of the glycosylation pathway, providing the diverse range of substrates required for the glycosyltransferases. NSTs are linked to several developmental and immune disorders in humans, and in pathogenic microbes they have an important role in virulence. How NSTs recognize and transport activated monosaccharides, however, is currently unclear...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140078/molecular-recognition-and-immobilization-of-ligand-conjugated-redox-responsive-polymer-nanocontainers
#17
Wilke De Vries, Matthias Tesch, Armido Studer, Bart Jan Ravoo
We present the preparation of ligand conjugated redox-responsive polymer nanocontainers by the supramolecular decoration of cyclodextrin vesicles with a thin redox-cleavable polymer shell that displays molecular recognition units on its surface. Two widely different recognition motifs (mannose-Concanavalin A and biotin-streptavidin) are compared and the impact of ligand density is studied using aggregation assays, dynamic light scattering, and a fluorometric quantification of ligands. Microcontact printing is used to prepare streptavidin-patterned surfaces and the specific immobilization of biotin conjugated nanocontainers is demonstrated...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137999/structural-and-functional-changes-of-fibrinogen-due-to-aging
#18
Nikola Gligorijević, Martina Zámorová Križáková, Ana Penezić, Jaroslav Katrlík, Olgica Nedić
Different factors affect coagulation process. Since fibrinogen is the main coagulation factor, the influence of aging on fibrinogen structure and function was investigated in this study. Fibrinogen was isolated from plasma obtained from healthy persons in the age range 21-83 and examined. Lectin microarray analysis demonstrated increased glycosylation of fibrinogen due to aging, with predominant increase in high-mannose or hybrid type N-glycans, as well as tri-/tetraantennary complex N-glycans with greater content of galactose and N-acetylglucosamine residues...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135085/retromer-and-the-cimpr-time-for-a-trial-separation
#19
Matthew N J Seaman
The retromer cargo-selective complex (CSC) comprising Vps35, Vps29 and Vps26 mediates the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR). Or does it? Recently published data has questioned the validity of this long established theory. Here the evidence for and against a role for the retromer CSC in CIMPR endosome-to-Golgi retrieval is examined in the light of the new data that the SNX-BAR dimer is actually responsible for CIMPR retrieval.
November 14, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133101/antioxidant-antiproliferative-and-immunostimulatory-effects-of-cell-wall-%C3%AE-d-mannan-fractions-from-kluyveromyces-marxianus
#20
Éder Galinari, Jailma Almeida-Lima, Gorete Ribeiro Macedo, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
This study evaluated the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties of cell wall α-D-mannan fractions from yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT7735. Filter centrifugation was used to obtain four fractions (KMM-1, KMM-2, KMM-3, and KMM-4) with molecular weight ranging from 7.6 to 75.1kDa. KMM-1 and KMM-2 comprised D-mannose with traces of D-glucose, whereas other fractions contained only D-mannose. Total sugar found in samples ranged from 85.9% to 96.1%, while protein and phenolic contents were 1...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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