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Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Guoying Deng, Fei Zhang, Shufeng Yang, Jian Kang, Shanshan Sha, Yufang Ma
Tuberculosis remains a global major problem. The immune responses of host against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are complicated. M. tuberculosis lives mainly within host cells, usually macrophages which constitute the first line of host defense. Mycobacterial proteins, especially cell wall-associated proteins, interact with macrophages of host to regulate the functions and cytokine production. Recent studies indicate that glycoproteins are involved in this process. Here, we investigated the function of Rv0431, a cell wall-associated protein in the M...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ravely Casarotti Orlandelli, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da Silva, Ana Flora Dalberto Vasconcelos, Igor Vivian de Almeida, Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini, Alicia Prieto, Maria Dolores Diaz Hernandez, João Lúcio de Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
This study reports the characterization and antiproliferative activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by submerged cultures of the endophytes Diaporthe sp. JF766998 and Diaporthe sp. JF767007 isolated from the medicinal plant Piper hispidum Sw. Both strains secreted a crude EPS that, upon size exclusion chromatography, showed to contain a heteropolysaccharide (galactose, glucose and mannose) and a high-molecular weight glucan. Data from methylation analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, COSY, TOCSY and HSQC-DEPT) indicated that the purified glucan consisted of a main chain of glucopyranosyl β-(1→3) linkages substituted at O-6 by glucosyl residues...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yingze Wei, Danyang Liu, Xiaoxia Jin, Pan Gao, Qingying Wang, Jiawen Zhang, Nong Zhang
Acquired resistance to doxorubicin in breast cancer is a serious therapeutic problem. In this study, we investigated whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) could inhibit the growth of doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. We found that the expressions of Nrf2 and p62 in breast cancer were higher than that in the corresponding adjacent normal tissues and benign breast epithelial cell. The expressions of Nrf2 and p62 in breast cancer doxorubicin-resistant cells MCF-7/ADR were higher than that in doxorubicin-sensitive cells MCF-7...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Bing-Huo Zhang, Nimaichand Salam, Juan Cheng, Han-Quan Li, Jian-Yuan Yang, Dai-Ming Zha, Qi-Gen Guo, Wen-Jun Li
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 01(T), was isolated from a mucilaginous sheath of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Lake Dianchi, south-west China. Taxonomic position of the isolate was determined by polyphasic approaches. Strain JXJ CY 01(T) shared 16S rRNA sequence similarities of 98.9 and 98.0% with Microbacterium marinilacus YM11-607(T) and Microbacterium paludicola US15(T), and less than 98% with other members of the genus Microbacterium. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains JXJ CY 01(T) and M...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Alejandra Itzel González-Ramírez, Adrián Ramírez-Granillo, María Gabriela Medina-Canales, Aída Verónica Rodríguez-Tovar, María Angeles Martínez-Rivera
BACKGROUND: Biofilms are a highly structured consortia of microorganisms that adhere to a substrate and are encased within an extracellular matrix (ECM) that is produced by the organisms themselves. Aspergillus fumigatus is a biotechnological fungus that has a medical and phytopathogenic significance, and its biofilm occurs in both natural and artificial environments; therefore, studies on the stages observed in biofilm formation are of great significance due to the limited knowledge that exists on this specific topic and because there are multiple applications that are being carried out...
October 18, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Emeline Puissant, Marielle Boonen
Osteoclasts are giant bone-resorbing cells originating from monocytes/macrophages. During their differentiation, they overexpress two lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin K and TRAP, which are secreted into the resorption lacuna, an acidified sealed area in contact with bone matrix where bone degradation takes place. Here we report that the acid hydrolase HYAL1, a hyaluronidase able to degrade the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate, is also upregulated upon osteoclastogenesis. The mRNA expression and protein level of HYAL1 are markedly increased in osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264...
2016: PloS One
Laura Pöyhönen, Liisa Kröger, Heini Huhtala, Johanna Mäkinen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Jussi Mertsola, Qiushui He, Matti Korppi
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a key cytokine in defense against mycobacteria, including Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognizing molecules of innate immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in MBL, TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 encoding genes and stimulated IFN-γ and interleukin-12 (IL-12) ex vivo production in BCG osteitis survivors. METHODS: Data on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MBL2 gene and TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes were available from 132 former BCG osteitis patients, and data on ex vivo IFN-γ and IL-12 production were available from 115 and 118 patients, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Dayoung Park, Narine Arabyan, Cynthia C Williams, Ting Song, Anupam Mitra, Bart C Weimer, Emanual Maverakis, Carlito B Lebrilla
Although gut host-pathogen interactions are glycan-mediated processes, few details are known about the participating structures. Here we employ high-resolution mass spectrometric profiling to comprehensively identify and quantitatively measure the exact modifications of native intestinal epithelial cell surface N-glycans induced by S. Typhimurium infection. Sixty minutes post-infection, select sialylated structures showed decreases in terms of total number and abundances. To assess the effect of cell surface mannosylation, we selectively rerouted glycan expression on the host using the alpha-mannosidase inhibitor, kifunensine, toward overexpression of high mannose...
October 17, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Matthias Brunner, Jens Fricke, Paul Kroll, Christoph Herwig
Understanding process parameter interactions and their effects on mammalian cell cultivations is an essential requirement for robust process scale-up. Furthermore, knowledge of the relationship between the process parameters and the product critical quality attributes (CQAs) is necessary to satisfy quality by design guidelines. So far, mainly the effect of single parameters on CQAs was investigated. Here, we present a comprehensive study to investigate the interactions of scale-up relevant parameters as pH, pO2 and pCO2 on CHO cell physiology, process performance and CQAs, which was based on design of experiments and extended product quality analytics...
October 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Khamphone Yelithao, Utoomporn Surayot, Ju Hun Lee, SangGuan You
Water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum and fractionated using ion-exchange chromatography were investigated to determine their structure and immunostimulating activity. Crude and fractions (F1 and F2) consisted of carbohydrates (85.1~88.3%) with proteins (4.51~11.9%) and uronic acid (1.79~7.47%), and included different levels of mannose (62.3~76.3%), glucose (15.2~20.3%), galactose (4.35~15.3%), and arabinose (4.00~7.65%). The crude contained two peaks with molecular weights (Mw) of 151×10(3) and 31...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Carol A Casey, Ganapati Bhat, Melissa S Holzapfel, Armen Petrosyan
BACKGROUND: It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi; however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation...
October 17, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chao Deng, Yuanyuan Sun, Haitian Fu, Sixiu Zhang, Jinghua Chen, Xin Xu
In the present study, the physiochemical and biological properties of crude mycelium polysaccharide (CMCP) and purified mycelium polysaccharide (MCP) extracted from the Tremella aurantialba mycelium were investigated. A series of physiochemical properties were determined, including the total sugar, uronic acid and protein content, monosaccharide composition and structure, and molecular weight. The reducing power and scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals were determined to investigate the antioxidant activity of CMCP and MCP...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Alexander K Andrianov, Alexander Marin, Thomas R Fuerst
Two macromolecular immunoadjuvants - poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP and poly[di(carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene], PCEP have been investigated for their molecular interactions with model and bio-pharmaceutically important proteins in solutions, as well as for their TLR stimulatory effects and pH-dependent membrane disruptive activity in cellular assays. Solution interactions between polyphosphazenes and proteins, including antigens and soluble immune receptor proteins, have been studied using Asymmetric Flow Field Flow Fractionation (AF4) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) at near physiological conditions - phosphate buffered saline, pH 7...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Eun-Ju Choi, Trishna Debnath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Bae Ryu, Sang-Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions and has been used as a vegetable and in traditional medicine. In this study, the anti-atopic dermatitis activity of the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaf was investigated in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For the in vitro study, HaCaT human keratinocytes were used for cytokines and MAPKinase assay. In the in vivo study, M. oleifera leaf ethanolic extract (MO) was topically applied to BALB/c mice with Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE; house dust mite extract)- and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)...
October 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Giacomo M Lari, Olivier G Gröninger, Qiang Li, Cecilia Mondelli, Núria López, Javier Pérez-Ramírez
Sugar alcohols are applied in the food, pharmaceutical, polymer, and fuel industries and are commonly obtained by reduction of the corresponding saccharides. In view of the rarity of some sugar substrates, epimerization of a readily available monosaccharide has been proposed as a solution, but an efficient catalytic system has not yet been identified. Herein, a molybdenum heteropolyacid-based catalyst is developed to transform glucose, arabinose, and xylose into less-abundant mannose, ribose, and lyxose, respectively...
October 14, 2016: ChemSusChem
Hajime Abe, Tetsuhiro Yoneda, Yuki Ohishi, Masahiko Inouye
Hexagonal shape-persistent macrocycles (SPMs) consisted of three pyridine and three phenol rings linked with acetylene bonds were developed as a preorganized host for saccharide recognition by push-pull-type hydrogen bonding. Three tert-butyl or 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl substituents were introduced on the host to suppress self-aggregation by steric hindrance. In spite of the simple architecture, association constants Ka of the host with alkyl glycoside guests reached the order of 106 M-1 on the basis of UV-vis titration experiments...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Isabel Cristina da Silva Haas, Isabela Maia Toaldo, Jefferson Santos de Gois, Daniel L G Borges, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Marilde T Bordignon-Luiz
Grape and grape derivatives contain a variety of antioxidants that have gain increasing interest for functional foods applications. The chemical composition of grapes is mainly related to grape variety and cultivation factors, and each grape constituent exhib its unique characteristics regarding its bioactive properties. This study investigated the chemical composition and the effect of drying on the bioactive content of the non-pomace constituent obtained in the processing of organic and conventional grape juices from V...
October 13, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Katarzyna Sidoryk, Lucie Rárová, Jana Oklešťková, Zbigniew Pakulski, Miroslav Strnad, Piotr Cmoch, Roman Luboradzki
A practical synthesis of 28a-homo-28a-selenolupane triterpenes and the corresponding selenosaponins containing d-mannose, l-arabinose, l-rhamnose, and d-idose moieties is described. Selenium containing triterpenes were obtained from the readily available 3-O-allyl-homobetulin mesylate by nucleophilic substitution with the selenocyanate ion which upon reduction of the -SeCN group afforded the free selenol. Glycosylation using classical Schmidt donors gave 1,2-trans selenosaponins as the main product as well as minute amounts of 1,2-cis isomers...
October 13, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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