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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908374/clomiphene-citrate-increases-nitric-oxide-interleukin-10-and-reduces-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Angel Mercy Sylus, Hanumanthappa Nandeesha, Magadi Gopalakrishna Sridhar, Thyagaraju Chitra, Karli Sreenivasulu
OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Nitric oxide and inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Even though these parameters are altered in PCOS, the effect of clomiphene citrate on them has not been studied till date. The present study was done to assess the effect of clomiphene citrate on matrix metalloproteinase-9, nitric oxide and interleukin-10 levels in women with PCOS. STUDY DESIGN: 72 women diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in the study...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908307/caga-and-vaca-allelic-combination-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-gastroduodenal-disorders
#2
Farajzadah Sheikh Ahmad, Mohammad Jaafar Yadyad, Hamed Goodarzi, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad-Ali Assarzadegan, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation of the virulence genes, vacA and cagA, as the most important virulence associated genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the diversity of the virulence genes in patients with Gastric Cancer (GC), who were referred to the gastro-endoscopy unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical science, Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from 301 patients suspected to gastrointestinal disorders, were analyzed for H...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908296/sonographically-guided-plantaris-tendon-release-a-cadaveric-validation-study
#3
Jay Smith, Håkan Alfredson, Lorenzo Masci, Jacob L Sellon, Charonn D Woods
BACKGROUND: The plantaris tendon (PT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of symptoms in a subset of patients with Achilles region pain syndromes and has been traditionally managed via open surgical resection. Although the PT can be visualized on ultrasound, a minimally invasive technique for sonographically guided PT release has not been formally described. OBJECTIVE: To validate a technique to perform sonographically guided PT release in an unembalmed cadaveric model...
June 13, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908281/ltbp2-knockdown-and-oxidative-stress-affect-glaucoma-features-including-tgf%C3%AE-pathways-ecm-genes-expression-and-apoptosis-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#4
Fatemeh Suri, Shahin Yazdani, Elahe Elahi
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although the etiology of glaucoma is incompletely understood, it is known that the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork, oxidative stress, TGFβ signaling pathways, and apoptosis are important components of glaucoma pathogenesis. These components appear to be interrelated, but knowledge on their interactions remains incomplete. Relevant to this gap in knowledge, LTBP2, glaucoma causing gene, may also be related to the mentioned components of glaucoma pathogenesis because of its putative roles in TGFβ signaling and ECM functions...
June 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908223/unidirectional-transport-of-igg-by-neonatal-fc-receptor-in-human-thyrocytes-varies-across-different-igg-subclasses
#5
Chenxu Zhao, Ying Gao, Nan Yu, Tiancheng Li, Yang Zhang, Hong Zhang, Guizhi Lu, Yanming Gao, Xiaohui Guo
Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is down-regulated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) thyrocytes and mediates IgG endocytosis in thyrocytes. The serum distribution of IgG subclasses (of TgAb and TPOAb) differs between HT patients and normal individuals. We aimed to explore the direction and regulation of FcRn-mediated IgG transport in thyrocyte monolayers and the difference between various IgG subclass transport. IgG was transported by FcRn from the basolateral to apical side in the thyrocyte monolayers grown on Transwell filters and the transport was inhibited by IFN-γ and TNF-α...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908161/autophagy-attenuates-compression-induced-apoptosis-of-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-mek-erk-nrf1-atg7-signaling-pathways-during-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#6
Shuai Li, Wenbin Hua, Kun Wang, Yong Gao, Songfeng Chen, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Xinghuo Wu, Ji Tu, Liang Kang, Kangcheng Zhao, Liming Xiong, Yukun Zhang, Cao Yang
Autophagy dysfunction has been observed in intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) cells, a main contributing factor to cell death, but the precise role of autophagy during IVDD is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy involved in the pathogenesis of human IVDD and determine the signal transduction pathways responsible for compression-induced autophagy in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Autophagy, suppressing the induction of apoptosis, was activated in NP cells exposed to compression...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908130/designed-macrocyclic-peptides-as-nanomolar-amyloid-inhibitors-based-on-minimal-recognition-elements
#7
Anna Spanopoulou, Luzia Heidrich, Hong-Ru Chen, Christina Frost, Dean Hrle, Eleni Malideli, Kathleen Hille, Alexandros Grammatikopoulos, Jürgen Bernhagen, Martin Zacharias, Gerhard Rammes, Aphrodite Kapurniotu
Amyloid self-assembly is linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but so far none of the anti-amyloid molecules has reached the clinic. Macrocyclic peptides belong to the most attractive drug candidates. Here we present macrocyclic peptides (MCIPs) designed using minimal IAPP-derived recognition elements as a novel class of nanomolar amyloid inhibitors of both Abeta40(42) and IAPP or Abeta40(42) alone and show that chirality controls inhibitor selectivity. Sequence optimization led to the discovery of an Abeta40(42)-selective MCIP exhibiting high proteolytic stability in human plasma and human blood-brain-barrier (BBB) crossing ability in a cell model, two highly desirable properties for anti-amyloid drugs in AD...
June 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908121/pathological-manifestations-of-farber-disease-in-a-new-mouse-model
#8
Nadine Beckmann, Stephanie Kadow, Fabian Schumacher, Joachim R Göthert, Stefanie Kesper, Annette Draeger, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Jiang Wang, Jan U Becker, Melanie Kramer, Claudine Kühn, Burkhard Kleuser, Katrin Anne Becker, Erich Gulbins
Farber disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from acid ceramidase deficiency and subsequent ceramide accumulation. No treatments are clinically available and affected patients have a severely shortened lifespan. Due to the low incidence, the pathogenesis of Farber Disease is still poorly understood. Here, we report a novel acid ceramidase mutant mouse model that enables the study of pathogenic mechanisms of Farber Disease and ceramide accumulation. Asah1tmEx1 mice were generated by deletion of the acid ceramidase signal peptide sequence...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908099/pathogenesis-of-primordial-odontogenic-tumour-based-on-tumourigenesis-and-odontogenesis
#9
Toshinari Mikami, Ronell Bologna-Molina, Adalberto Mosqueda-Taylor, Ikuko Ogawa, Vanesa Pereira-Prado, Naoki Fujiwara, Fabio Ramoa Pires, Roman Carlos, Takashi Takata, Yasunori Takeda
OBJECTIVE: Primordial odontogenic tumour (POT) is a rare benign mixed epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic tumour. POT is composed of dental papilla-like tissue covered with cuboidal to columnar epithelium that resembles to inner and outer enamel epithelium of the enamel organ without dental hard tissue formation. The aim of this study was to examine pathogenesis of POT based on tumourigenesis and odontogenesis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six cases of POT were submitted for study...
June 16, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908092/a-novel-ptch1-mutation-underlies-non-syndromic-cleft-lip-and-or-palate-in-a-han-chinese-family
#10
Huaxiang Zhao, Wenjie Zhong, Chuntao Leng, Jieni Zhang, Mengqi Zhang, Wenbin Huang, Yunfan Zhang, Weiran Li, Peizeng Jia, Jiuxiang Lin, Gulibaha Maimaitili, Feng Chen
OBJECTIVES: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is the most common craniofacial congenital disease, and it has a complex aetiology. This study aimed to identify the causative gene mutation of a Han Chinese family with CL/P. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was conducted on the proband and her mother, who exhibited the same phenotype. A Mendelian dominant inheritance model, allele frequency, mutation regions, functional prediction and literature review were used to screen and filter the variants...
June 16, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908046/sepsis-induced-acute-kidney-injury-a-disease-of-the-microcirculation
#11
Shuai Ma, Roger G Evans, Naoya Iguchi, Marianne Tare, Helena C Parkington, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May, Yugeesh R Lankadeva
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and is significantly associated with mortality. Sepsis accounts for more than 50% of the cases of AKI, with a mortality rate of up to 40%. The pathogenesis of septic AKI is complex, but there is emerging evidence that, at least in the first 48 hours, the defects may be functional rather than structural in nature. For example, septic AKI is associated with an absence of histopathological changes, but with microvascular abnormalities and tubular stress...
June 16, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907895/feasibility-of-analysis-of-the-scn5a-gene-in-paraffin-embedded-samples-in-sudden-infant-death-cases-at-the-pretoria-medico-legal-laboratory-south-africa
#12
Barbara Ströh van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo, Chantal van Niekerk
To determine variations in the SCN5A gene linked to inherited cardiac arrhythmogenic disorders in sudden, unexplained infant death (SUID) cases examined at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa. A retrospective study was conducted on SUID cases and controls, analyzing DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) myocardial tissue samples as well as blood samples. A total of 48 FFPE tissue samples (cases), 10 control FFPE tissue samples and nine control blood samples were included...
June 16, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907890/impact-of-mast-cells-in-depression-disorder-inhibitory-effect-of-il-37-new-frontiers
#13
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Alessandro Caraffa, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Chiara M Conti, Spiros K Kritas, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Lucia Tettamanti, Theoharis C Theoharides
The purpose of this article is to study the involvement of inflammatory mast cells (MCs) in depression which may be inhibited by IL-37. We evaluate mast cells in depression on the basis of our previous experimental data, and using the most relevant studies reported in the literature. Dysfunction of mood, feelings, and thoughts is a major risk factor for several metabolic diseases and may influence the physiology of the body leading to depression. Depression, present in mastocytosis, is an important endogenous process that promotes the activation of meningeal cell receptors through a low-grade neurogenic chronic inflammation, and MCs...
June 16, 2018: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907872/the-current-state-of-the-art-for-biological-therapies-and-new-small-molecules-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
REVIEW
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Adam K Rosenstein, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frederic Colombel
The emergence of biologic therapies is arguably the greatest therapeutic advance in the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to date, allowing directed treatments targeted at highly specific molecules shown to play critical roles in disease pathogenesis, with advantages in potency and selectivity. Furthermore, a large number of new biologic and small-molecule therapies in IBD targeting a variety of pathways are at various stages of development that should soon lead to a dramatic expansion in our therapeutic armamentarium...
June 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907673/role-of-mir-98-and-its-underlying-mechanisms-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#15
Lin Xie, Jinhua Xu
OBJECTIVE: T-lymphocyte apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis in SLE remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of miR-98 in SLE and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to analyze miR-98 and Fas expression. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to identify miR-98 targets...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907670/the-lectin-pathway-of-complement-activation-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
Anne Troldborg, Steffen Thiel, Marten Trendelenburg, Justa Friebus-Kardash, Josephine Nehring, Rudi Steffensen, Søren Werner Karlskov Hansen, Magdalena Janina Laska, Bent Deleuran, Jens Christian Jensenius, Anne Voss, Kristian Stengaard-Pedersen
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involves complement activation. Activation of complement through the classical pathway (CP) is well established. However, complement activation through pattern recognition not only happens through the CP, but also through the lectin pathway (LP). We investigated the hypothesis that the LP is activated in SLE and involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Using immunoassays developed in-house, we measured concentrations of LP proteins in a cohort of 372 patients with SLE and 170 controls...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907650/jak2-is-dispensable-for-maintenance-of-jak2-mutant-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemias
#17
Sang-Kyu Kim, Deborah A Knight, Lisa R Jones, Stephin Vervoort, Ashley P Ng, John F Seymour, James E Bradner, Michaela Waibel, Lev Kats, Ricky W Johnstone
Activating JAK2 point mutations are implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies, including high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In preclinical studies, treatment of JAK2 mutant leukemias with type I JAK2 inhibitors (e.g., Food and Drug Administration [FDA]-approved ruxolitinib) provided limited single-agent responses, possibly due to paradoxical JAK2Y1007/1008 hyperphosphorylation induced by these agents. To determine the importance of mutant JAK2 in B-ALL initiation and maintenance, we developed unique genetically engineered mouse models of B-ALL driven by overexpressed Crlf2 and mutant Jak2, recapitulating the genetic aberrations found in human B-ALL...
June 15, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907458/taci-deletion-protects-against-progressive-murine-lupus-nephritis-induced-by-baff-overexpression
#18
Tanvi Arkatkar, Holly M Jacobs, Samuel W Du, Quan-Zhen Li, Kelly L Hudkins, Charles E Alpers, David J Rawlings, Shaun W Jackson
B cells are known to promote the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) via the production of pathogenic anti-nuclear antibodies. However, the signals required for autoreactive B cell activation and the immune mechanisms whereby B cells impact lupus nephritis pathology remain poorly understood. The B cell survival cytokine B cell activating factor of the TNF Family (BAFF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE and lupus nephritis in both animal models and human clinical studies. Although the BAFF receptor has been predicted to be the primary BAFF family receptor responsible for BAFF-driven humoral autoimmunity, in the current study we identify a critical role for signals downstream of Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor (TACI) in BAFF-dependent lupus nephritis...
June 12, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907389/the-possible-role-of-an-autoimmune-mechanism-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Savvas Dalitis, Natalia Filippidou, George Krashias, Christina Christodoulou, Marios Pantzaris, Anastasia Lambrianides
The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is established through clinical signs such as bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor. Recently, immune system involvement has been implicated as a major pathogenic factor in the onset and progression of PD. We examine the presence of autoantibodies against phosphatidylserine (PS), cardiolipin (CL) and dsDNA in 45 PD patients and 38 healthy controls and provide evidence to the possible connection to oxidative stress. We report higher frequency of IgG anti-PS and anti-dsDNA in PD patients (24...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907217/hydrogen-rich-water-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury-via-nrf2-pathway
#20
Jia Yuan, Difen Wang, Ying Liu, Xianjun Chen, Hailing Zhang, Feng Shen, Xu Liu, Jiangquan Fu
BACKGROUND: Several studies have recently found that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may represent a target in TBI treatment. Hydrogen-rich water was recently shown to exert neuroprotective effects in various neurological diseases through its antioxidant properties. However, the mechanisms underlying its effects in TBI are not clearly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the neuroprotective role of hydrogen-rich water in rats with TBI and to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying its effects...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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