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Sandra Junglen
Arthropod-borne viruses have a dual-host tropism and their transmission requires the infection of two disparate hosts, arthropods and vertebrates. Arboviruses occur in several RNA families that also contain viruses with a monotropism for either arthropods or vertebrates. The evolutionary origin of the dual-host tropism of arboviruses was recently identified for the family Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviruses were suggested to have evolved from viruses that are restricted to arthropods as hosts (arthropod-specific viruses)...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Esther Schnettler, Vatipally B Sreenu, Timothy Mottram, Melanie McFarlane
Mosquito-borne viruses are known to cause disease in humans and livestock and are often difficult to control due the lack of specific antivirals and vaccines. The Wolbachia endosymbiont has been widely studied for its ability to restrict positive strand RNA virus infection in mosquitoes, although little is known about the precise antiviral mechanism. In recent years, a variety of insect-specific viruses have been discovered in mosquitoes and an interaction with mosquito-borne viruses have been reported for some of them; however nothing is known about the effect of Wolbachia on insect specific virus infection in mosquitoes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Gary P Wormser
In 2008, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) was reported from China. However, the clinical and laboratory findings, including reports of nosocomial transmission, were inconsistent with those reported for HGA in the United States. In 2012, it was demonstrated that the patients described in the 2008 report had all been infected with a newly discovered bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, which causes an illness with the same clinical features described for the patients in the 2008 report...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Jana Těšíková, Yonas Meheretu, Dagmar Čížková, Anna Bryjová, Herwig Leirs, Josef Bryja
Hantaviruses, well-known human pathogens, have only recently been identified on the African continent. Tigray virus (TIGV) was found in Ethiopia in 2012 in a Murinae species, Stenocephalemys albipes, but the genetic data obtained at that time were too limited to correctly assess its phylogenetic position within the hantavirus tree. We used high throughput sequencing to determine the complete genome of TIGV, which showed a typical hantavirus organisation. The large (L), medium (M), and small (S) genome segments were found to be 6532, 3594 and 1908 nucleotides long, respectively, and the 5' and 3' termini for all three segments were predicted to form the panhandle-like structure typical for bunyaviruses...
September 9, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Joyce M Sakamoto, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Yasutsugu Suzuki, Hitoshi Tsujimoto, Xutao Deng, Eric Delwart, Jason L Rasgon
The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the United States and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Recently, several novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae (South Bay virus (SBV) and Blacklegged tick phlebovirus (BTPV)) were identified infecting female I. scapularis ticks collected in New York State. We used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female I. scapularis ticks collected in Centre County, Pennsylvania...
2016: PeerJ
J E Oliver, A E Whitfield
The genus Tospovirus is unique within the family Bunyaviridae in that it is made up of viruses that infect plants. Initially documented over 100 years ago, tospoviruses have become increasingly important worldwide since the 1980s due to the spread of the important insect vector Frankliniella occidentalis and the discovery of new viruses. As a result, tospoviruses are now recognized globally as emerging agricultural diseases. Tospoviruses and their vectors, thrips species in the order Thysanoptera, represent a major problem for agricultural and ornamental crops that must be managed to avoid devastating losses...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Paul J Wichgers Schreur, Jeroen Kortekaas
The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S), medium (M), and large (L) RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Alain Kohl, Benjamin Brennan, Friedemann Weber
In the last 25 years, the scientific and public attention paid to bunyaviruses has increased considerably.[...].
2016: Viruses
Natalia S Akopyants, Lon-Fye Lye, Deborah E Dobson, Julius Lukeš, Stephen M Beverley
We report here the sequences for all three segments of a novel RNA virus (LepmorLBV1) from the insect trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas moramango This virus belongs to a newly discovered group of bunyavirus-like elements termed Leishbunyaviruses (LBV), the first discovered from protists related to arboviruses infecting humans.
2016: Genome Announcements
Marcio Hedil, Richard Kormelink
The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant- and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses, which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. For this reason, they are generally assumed to encounter antiviral RNA silencing in plants and insects. Here we present an overview on how tospovirus nonstructural NSs protein counteracts antiviral RNA silencing in plants and what is known so far in insects...
2016: Viruses
Martin Spiegel, Teresa Plegge, Stefan Pöhlmann
Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells...
2016: Viruses
Ender Dincer, Zeynep Karapinar, Mert Oktem, Merve Ozbaba, Aykut Ozkul, Koray Ergunay
INTRODUCTION: Toscana virus (TOSV) is a sandfly-borne bunyavirus with a significant public health impact. Preliminary studies have revealed TOSV exposure in dogs and they were suggested as potential reservoirs. This study was performed to characterize canine TOSV infections in an endemic region. Sequencing of TOSV small (S) segment in several previously identified specimens was also undertaken to reveal viral genealogy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Canine and feline plasma were collected in several districts of Mersin province, Mediterranean Anatolia, Turkey, during May-September, 2015...
September 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Rong Zhang, Jonathan J Miner, Matthew J Gorman, Keiko Rausch, Holly Ramage, James P White, Adam Zuiani, Ping Zhang, Estefania Fernandez, Qiang Zhang, Kimberly A Dowd, Theodore C Pierson, Sara Cherry, Michael S Diamond
Flaviviruses infect hundreds of millions of people annually, and no antiviral therapy is available. We performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9-based screen to identify host genes that, when edited, resulted in reduced flavivirus infection. Here, we validated nine human genes required for flavivirus infectivity, and these were associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions including translocation, protein degradation, and N-linked glycosylation. In particular, a subset of endoplasmic reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex (SPCS) proteins was necessary for proper cleavage of the flavivirus structural proteins (prM and E) and secretion of viral particles...
July 7, 2016: Nature
Pragya Yadav, Anita Shete, Vijay Bondre, Deepak Patil, Prasad Kokate, Sweena Chaudhari, Sneha Srivastava, Santosh Jadhav, Devendra Mourya
During a study on Japanese encephalitis (JE) from Kolar district of Karnataka state, India in 1986; two virus isolates were obtained in infant Swiss albino mouse from a pig and a human serum sample. For characterization of these virus isolates, they were propagated in Vero CCL-81 cells. These virus isolates were screened for flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Dengue, Kyasanur forest disease) and Alphavirus (Chikungunya) by RT-PCR and found to be negative. Further these they were screened for bunyaviruses using genus-specific primers...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Hoai J Ly, Tetsuro Ikegami
Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that affects both ruminants and humans. The nonstructural (NS) protein, which is a major virulence factor for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), is encoded on the S-segment. Through the cullin 1-Skp1-Fbox E3 ligase complex, the NSs protein promotes the degradation of at least two host proteins, the TFIIH p62 and the PKR proteins. NSs protein bridges the Fbox protein with subsequent substrates, and facilitates the transfer of ubiquitin. The SAP30-YY1 complex also bridges the NSs protein with chromatin DNA, affecting cohesion and segregation of chromatin DNA as well as the activation of interferon-β promoter...
2016: Virology Journal
Ivo Rudolf, Lenka Betášová, Vlastimil Bischof, Kristýna Venclíková, Hana Blažejová, Jan Mendel, Zdeněk Hubálek, Michael Kosoy
In the study, we screened a total of 399 adult sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) for the presence of RNA and DNA specific for arboviral, bacterial, and protozoan vector-borne pathogens. All investigated keds were negative for flaviviruses, phleboviruses, bunyaviruses, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," and Babesia spp. All ked pools were positive for Bartonella DNA. The sequencing of the amplified fragments of the gltA and 16S-23S rRNA demonstrated a 100 % homology with Bartonella melophagi previously isolated from a sheep ked and from human blood in the USA...
October 2016: Parasitology Research
Juan Reguera, Piotr Gerlach, Maria Rosenthal, Stephanie Gaudon, Francesca Coscia, Stephan Günther, Stephen Cusack
Segmented negative strand RNA viruses of the arena-, bunya- and orthomyxovirus families uniquely carry out viral mRNA transcription by the cap-snatching mechanism. This involves cleavage of host mRNAs close to their capped 5' end by an endonuclease (EN) domain located in the N-terminal region of the viral polymerase. We present the structure of the cap-snatching EN of Hantaan virus, a bunyavirus belonging to hantavirus genus. Hantaan EN has an active site configuration, including a metal co-ordinating histidine, and nuclease activity similar to the previously reported La Crosse virus and Influenza virus ENs (orthobunyavirus and orthomyxovirus respectively), but is more active in cleaving a double stranded RNA substrate...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Ling Lin, You-Zu Xu, Xiao-Mai Wu, Hong-Fei Ge, Jia-Xi Feng, Mei-Fang Chen, Dong-Qing Lv, Bo-Li Li, Jian Lin
Herein we describe a rare fatal case of a novel bunyavirus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in a 62-year-old female patient. The novel bunyavirus infects patients with or without HLH who have similar clinical features such as fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia. Therefore, the diagnosis of HLH can be easily missed. When HLH occurs, the disease worsens and the fatality rate rises. Our finding highlights the importance of bone marrow biopsy performed as soon as possible for patients suspected of having a novel bunyavirus infection and showing marked cytopenia in three cell lines...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Qiyu Sun, Xian Qi, Yan Zhang, Xiaodong Wu, Mifang Liang, Chuan Li, Dexin Li, Carol J Cardona, Zheng Xing
Synaptogyrin-2 is a non-neuronal member of the synaptogyrin family involved in synaptic vesicle biogenesis and trafficking. Little is known about the function of synaptogyrin-2. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease characterized by high fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytopenia with high mortality, caused by a novel tick-borne phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Our previous studies have shown that the viral nonstructural protein NSs forms inclusion bodies (IBs) that are involved in viral immune evasion, as well as viral RNA replication...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Brooke Harmon, Sara W Bird, Benjamin R Schudel, Anson V Hatch, Amy Rasley, Oscar A Negrete
UNLABELLED: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus within the Bunyaviridae family capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. To identify host factors involved in bunyavirus replication, we employed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screening and identified 381 genes whose knockdown reduced infection. The Wnt pathway was the most represented pathway when gene hits were functionally clustered. With further investigation, we found that RVFV infection activated Wnt signaling, was enhanced when Wnt signaling was preactivated, was reduced with knockdown of β-catenin, and was blocked using Wnt signaling inhibitors...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
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