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Tick borne encephalitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156399/saliva-of-ixodes-ricinus-enhances-tbe-virus-replication-in-dendritic-cells-by-modulation-of-pro-survival-akt-pathway
#1
Jaroslava Lieskovská, Jana Páleníková, Helena Langhansová, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký
It has been suggested that tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) to vertebrates. The mechanism of this facilitation has not been elucidated yet. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are among first cells attacked by the virus, we examined the amount of virus and changes induced by saliva in TBEV-infected DCs. We found that virus replication was significantly increased by saliva of Ixodes ricinus tick. Next, saliva-induced enhancement of Akt pathway activation was observed in TBEV-infected DCs...
November 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#2
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148377/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-sheep-romania
#3
Jiri Salat, Andrei D Mihalca, Marian Mihaiu, David Modrý, Daniel Ruzek
Little is known about the occurrence of tick-borne encephalitis in Romania. Sheep are an infection source for humans and are useful sentinels for risk analysis. We demonstrate high antibody prevalence (15.02%) among sheep used as sentinels for this disease in 80% of the tested localities in 5 counties of northwestern Romania.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147886/peromyscus-leucopus-mouse-brain-transcriptome-response-to-powassan-virus-infection
#4
Luwanika Mlera, Kimberly Meade-White, Eric Dahlstrom, Rachel Baur, Kishore Kanakabandi, Kimmo Virtaneva, Stephen F Porcella, Marshall E Bloom
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne Flavivirus responsible for life-threatening encephalitis in North America and some regions of Russia. The ticks that have been reported to transmit the virus belong to the Ixodes species, and they feed on small-to-medium-sized mammals, such as Peromyscus leucopus mice, skunks, and woodchucks. We previously developed a P. leucopus mouse model of POWV infection, and the model is characterized by a lack of clinical signs of disease following intraperitoneal or intracranial inoculation...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133662/a-tiny-tick-can-cause-a-big-health-problem
#5
Manuel John, M Raman, Keith Ryan
Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut) with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121976/prevalence-of-tick-borne-pathogens-in-questing-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-in-urban-and-suburban-areas-of-switzerland
#6
Corinne P Oechslin, Daniel Heutschi, Nicole Lenz, Werner Tischhauser, Olivier Péter, Olivier Rais, Christian M Beuret, Stephen L Leib, Sergei Bankoul, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann
BACKGROUND: Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. RESULTS: Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub-) urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), 2...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069610/new-genetic-lineage-within-the-siberian-subtype-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-found-in-western-siberia-russia
#7
Sergey E Tkachev, Galina S Chicherina, Irina Golovljova, Polina S Belokopytova, Artem Yu Tikunov, Oksana V Zadora, Victor V Glupov, Nina V Tikunova
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice...
October 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064333/molecular-detection-and-serological-evidence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-serbia
#8
Aleksandar Potkonjak, Tamaš Petrović, Elizabeta Ristanović, Ivica Lalić, Vuk Vračar, Sara Savić, Vesna Turkulov, Grozdana Čanak, Vesna Milošević, Dejan Vidanović, Aleksandar Jurišić, Aleksandra Petrović, Vladimir Petrović
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic flaviviral infection that is a growing public health concern in European countries. The aims of this research were to detect and characterize tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Ixodes ricinus ticks at presumed natural foci in Serbia, and to determine seroprevalence of TBEV IgG antibodies in humans and animals. A total of 500 I. ricinus ticks were examined for the presence of TBEV by real-time RT-PCR, and conventional nested PCR and sequencing. To determine TBEV seroprevalence, 267 human sera samples were collected, as were 200 sera samples from different animal species...
October 24, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053888/epidemiological-patterns-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-in-lithuania-and-clinical-features-in-adults-in-the-light-of-the-high-incidence-in-recent-years-a-retrospective-study
#9
Daiva Radzišauskienė, Kęstutis Žagminas, Loreta Ašoklienė, Arminas Jasionis, Rūta Mameniškienė, Arvydas Ambrozaitis, Ligita Jančorienė, Dalius Jatužis, Iveta Petraitytė, Evelina Mockienė
BACKGROUND: Lithuania is one of the countries with the highest incidence of TBE in Europe. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE in Lithuania, and characterize clinical features in adults in the light of the high incidence in recent years. METHODS: Surveillance data available on the website of the Center for Communicable Diseases and AIDS of Lithuania were used to describe the epidemiological patterns of TBE. The retrospective study included 712 patients hospitalized in the Center for Infectious Diseases and the Center for Neurology of Vilnius University in the years 2005-2014...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053401/are-we-prepared-for-emerging-flaviviruses-in-europe-challenges-for-vaccination
#10
Patricia Kaaijk, Willem Luytjes
Tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile fever are endemic flavivirus diseases in Europe. Climate change, virus evolution, and social factors may increase the risk of these flavivirus infections and may lead to the emergence of other flaviviruses in Europe that are endemic in (sub)tropical regions of the world. Control of the spread of flaviviruses is very difficult considering the cycling of flaviviruses between arthropod vectors and animal reservoir hosts. The increasing threat of flavivirus infections emphasizes the necessity of a sustainable vector surveillance system, an active animal health surveillance system and an adequate human surveillance system for early detection of flavivirus infections...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046456/viperin-targets-flavivirus-virulence-by-inducing-assembly-of-non-infectious-capsid-particles
#11
Kirstin Vonderstein, Emma Nilsson, Philipp Hubel, Lars Nygård Skalman, Arunkumar Upadhyay, Jenny Pasto, Andreas Pichlmair, Richard Lundmark, Anna K Överby
Efficient antiviral immunity requires interference with virus replication at multiple layers targeting diverse steps in the viral life cycle. Here we describe a novel flavivirus inhibition mechanism that results in interferon-mediated obstruction of tick-borne encephalitis virus particle assembly, and involves release of malfunctional membrane associated capsid (C) particles. This mechanism is controlled by the activity of the interferon-induced protein viperin, a broad spectrum antiviral interferon stimulated gene...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030314/distribution-of-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-and-prevalence-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-among-questing-ticks-in-the-arctic-circle-region-of-northern-norway
#12
A Soleng, K S Edgar, K M Paulsen, B N Pedersen, Y B Okbaldet, I E B Skjetne, D Gurung, R Vikse, Å K Andreassen
This study investigated the geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in northern Norway. Flagging for questing I. ricinus ticks was performed in areas ranging from Vikna in Nord-Trøndelag County, located 190km south of the Arctic Circle (66.3°N), to Steigen in Nordland County, located 155km north of the Arctic Circle. We found that ticks were abundant in both Vikna (64.5°N) and Brønnøy (65.1°N). Only a few ticks were found at locations ∼66°N, and no ticks were found at several locations up to 67...
October 8, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029730/assessing-the-diversity-of-rodent-borne-viruses-exploring-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-classical-amplification-sequencing-approaches
#13
Stephan Drewes, Petra Straková, Jan F Drexler, Jens Jacob, Rainer G Ulrich
Rodents are distributed throughout the world and interact with humans in many ways. They provide vital ecosystem services, some species are useful models in biomedical research and some are held as pet animals. However, many rodent species can have adverse effects such as damage to crops and stored produce, and they are of health concern because of the transmission of pathogens to humans and livestock. The first rodent viruses were discovered by isolation approaches and resulted in break-through knowledge in immunology, molecular and cell biology, and cancer research...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020227/rapid-detection-of-powassan-virus-in-a-patient-with-encephalitis-by-metagenomic-sequencing
#14
Anne Piantadosi, Sanjat Kanjilal, Vijay Ganesh, Arjun Khanna, Emily P Hyle, Jonathan Rosand, Tyler Bold, Hayden C Metsky, Jacob Lemieux, Michael J Leone, Lisa Freimark, Christian B Matranga, Gordon Adams, Graham McGrath, Siavash Zamirpour, Sam Telford, Eric Rosenberg, Tracey Cho, Matthew P Frosch, Marcia B Goldberg, Shibani S Mukerji, Pardis C Sabeti
We describe a patient with severe and progressive encephalitis of unknown etiology. We performed rapid metagenomic sequencing from cerebrospinal fluid and identified Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne flavivirus that has been increasingly detected in the United States.
September 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017579/surveillance-of-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-acari-ixodidae-in-iceland
#15
Matthias Alfredsson, Erling Olafsson, Matthias Eydal, Ester Rut Unnsteinsdottir, Kayleigh Hansford, William Wint, Neil Alexander, Jolyon M Medlock
BACKGROUND: Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3-4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases...
October 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988602/a-new-hot-spot-for-tick-borne-encephalitis-tbe-a-marked-increase-of-tbe-cases-in-france-in-2016
#16
Aurélie Velay, Morgane Solis, Wallys Kack-Kack, Pierre Gantner, Marianne Maquart, Martin Martinot, Olivier Augereau, Dominique De Briel, Pierre Kieffer, Caroline Lohmann, Jean Dominique Poveda, Emmanuelle Cart-Tanneur, Xavier Argemi, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Sylvie de Martino, Benoit Jaulhac, Sophie Raguet, Marie-Josée Wendling, Yves Hansmann, Samira Fafi-Kremer
OBJECTIVES: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis. In 2016, in Northeastern France, we faced a TBEV infection increase, leading to a warning from the Regional Health Agency. Here, we report the confirmed TBE cases diagnosed between January 2013 and December 2016, with particular emphasis on the year 2016. METHODS: A total of 1643 blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from everywhere in France, corresponding to 1460 patients, were prospectively tested for anti-TBEV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA...
September 28, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976562/seroprevalence-of-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-and-ljungan-virus-in-finnish-patients-with-suspected-neurological-infections
#17
Cristina Fevola, Suvi Kuivanen, Teemu Smura, Antti Vaheri, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Heidi C Hauffe, Olli Vapalahti, Anne J Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Directly-transmitted rodent-borne zoonotic viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can cause nervous system infections. Rodent-borne Ljungan virus (LV) is considered potentially zoonotic possibly causing neurological symptoms. Our objective was to understand the role of these two viruses compared to other pathogens in causing neurological infections in Finnish patients. METHODS: Routine screening data were available for 400 patients aged 5-50 years, collected from December 2013-December 2014 with suspected neurological infection...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975470/infections-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-returning-travelers-and-immigrants
#18
REVIEW
Haley Thompson, Kiran Thakur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights current knowledge in travel-related neuroinfectious diseases, providing insight on approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in travelers and immigrants. RECENT FINDINGS: Updates on travel vaccine recommendations including vaccine-specific interactions with immunosuppressive agents, advances in Zika virus and dengue virus vaccine development, new diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, updates on treatment approaches for tuberculosis meningitis...
October 3, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948950/a-mini-review-of-bunyaviruses-recorded-in-india
#19
REVIEW
Pragya D Yadav, Gouri Y Chaubal, Anita M Shete, Devendra T Mourya
Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929088/microbial-invasion-vs-tick-immune-regulation
#20
REVIEW
Daniel E Sonenshine, Kevin R Macaluso
Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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