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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548675/inducible-bcl-2-gene-rna-interference-mediated-by-aptamer-integrated-hdv-ribozyme-switch
#1
Yuanyuan Zhang, Jine Wang, Hui Cheng, Na Sun, Min Liu, Zhengyan Wu, Renjun Pei
The regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) could be a powerful method for the study of temporal and dose dependent effects of gene expression. In this study, we designed the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme with an embedded theophylline aptamer as the sensor domain and the pri-miRNA of endogenous gene Bcl-2 as the effector domain to engineer an RNAi-regulatory device in MCF-7 cells. The system allowed us to control gene expression by adding theophylline into the culture media in a dose dependent fashion...
May 26, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548637/high-infection-rates-for-adult-macaques-after-intravaginal-or-intrarectal-inoculation-with-zika-virus
#2
Andrew D Haddow, Aysegul Nalca, Franco D Rossi, Lynn J Miller, Michael R Wiley, Unai Perez-Sautu, Samuel C Washington, Sarah L Norris, Suzanne E Wollen-Roberts, Joshua D Shamblin, Adrienne E Kimmel, Holly A Bloomfield, Stephanie M Valdez, Thomas R Sprague, Lucia M Principe, Stephanie A Bellanca, Stephanie S Cinkovich, Luis Lugo-Roman, Lisa H Cazares, William D Pratt, Gustavo F Palacios, Sina Bavari, M Louise M Pitt, Farooq Nasar
Unprotected sexual intercourse between persons residing in or traveling from regions with Zika virus transmission is a risk factor for infection. To model risk for infection after sexual intercourse, we inoculated rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with Zika virus by intravaginal or intrarectal routes. In macaques inoculated intravaginally, we detected viremia in 75% of macaques and virus RNA in 100%, followed by seroconversion. In macaques inoculated intrarectally, we detected viremia, virus RNA, or both, in 100% of both species, followed by seroconversion...
August 17, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548627/combined-single-molecule-experimental-and-computational-approaches-for-understanding-the-unfolding-pathway-of-a-viral-translation-enhancer-that-participates-in-a-conformational-switch
#3
My-Tra Le, Wojciech K Kasprzak, Bruce A Shapiro, Anne E Simon
How plus-strand [+]RNA virus genomes transition from translation templates to replication templates is a matter of much speculation. We have previously proposed that, for Turnip crinkle virus, binding of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to the 3'UTR of the [+]RNA template promotes a regional wide-spread conformational switch to an alternative structure that disassembles the cap-independent translation element (CITE) in the 3'UTR. The active 3'CITE folds into a tRNA-like T-shaped structure (TSS) that binds to 80S ribosomes and 60S subunits in the P-site...
May 26, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548042/new-insights-into-reovirus-evolution-implications-from-a-newly-characterized-mycoreovirus
#4
Lijiang Liu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Huiquan Liu, Daohong Jiang, Jiatao Xie
We performed molecular cloning and complete genome sequencing of a novel mycoreovirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorumreovirus 1 (SsReV1), isolated from an isolate of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. SsReV1 has a genome of 28 055 bp and is composed of 11 double-stranded RNA segments. With a combination of unique molecular features, virion shape and composition, and phylogenetic analysis, SsReV1 is significantly distinct from all known reoviruses and defines a novel genus in the family Reoviridae...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548037/moonlighting-glycolytic-enzyme-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-gapdh-is-required-for-efficient-hepatitis-c-virus-and-dengue-virus-infections-in-human-huh-7-5-1-cells
#5
Meera Raj, Mary Langley, Steven J McArthur, François Jean
Hijacking of cellular biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses is a shared molecular event essential for the viral lifecycle. In this study, the accumulating evidence of the importance of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the host secretory pathway led us to hypothesize that this moonlighting enzyme could play a key role in the lifecycle steps of two important Flaviviridae members, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue virus (DENV). We used short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of human GAPDH in Huh-7...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547892/hospital-acquired-rotavirus-and-norovirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-a-pediatric-unit-in-2014-2015
#6
D Valentini, G Ianiro, I Di Bartolo, C Di Camillo, E Boccuzzi, A C Vittucci, F M Ruggeri, M Monini
The occurrence of hospital-acquired acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major concern for public health. RotavirusA (RVA) and norovirus (NoV) are common causes of viral AGE in the pediatric population, and their role in nosocomial infections has been proven, remaining poorly investigated. To investigate RVA and NoV in hospital-acquired AGE, 55 stool samples from children with nosocomial AGE were collected between May 2014 and May 2015. To evaluate virus spreading routes, 51 environmental swabs were collected from staff and patients' rooms...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547890/influence-of-various-stressors-on-the-expression-of-core-genes-of-the-small-interfering-rna-pathway-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#7
Yi-Fei Xie, Jin-Zhi Niu, Xuan-Zhao Jiang, Wen-Jia Yang, Guang-Mao Shen, Dong Wei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B...
June 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547581/gender-disparity-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-multiple-underlying-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Bo Zheng, Yan-Jing Zhu, Hong-Yang Wang, Lei Chen
On the global scale, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in regions of Asia where HBV infection is endemic. Epidemiological studies show that the incidence of inflammation-driven HCC in males is three times as high as in females. Recent studies suggest that sex hormones have a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of HBV-induced HCC. We found that the estrogen/androgen signaling pathway is associated with decreased/increased transcription and replication of HBV genes and can promote the development of HBV infections by up/downregulating HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels, which in turn slow down the progression of HBV-induced HCC...
May 23, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547384/a-new-putative-deltapartitivirus-recovered-from-dianthus%C3%A2-amurensis
#9
Hongliu An, Guanlin Tan, Guihong Xiong, Meirong Li, Shouguo Fang, Saif Ul Islam, Songbai Zhang, Fan Li
Two double stranded RNAs (dsRNA), likely representing the genome of a novel deltapartitivirus, provisionally named carnation cryptic virus 3 (CCV3), were recovered from Dianthus amurensis. The two dsRNAs were 1,573 (dsRNA1) and 1,561 (dsRNA2) bp in size, each containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 475- and 411-aa protein, respectively. The 475-aa protein contains a conserved RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain which shows significant homology to RdRps of established or putative partitiviruses, particularly those belonging to the genus Deltapartitivirus...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546965/ribonuclease-from-bacillus-acts-as-an-antiviral-agent-against-negative-and-positive-sense-single-stranded-human-respiratory-rna-viruses
#10
Raihan Shah Mahmud, Christin Müller, Yulia Romanova, Ahmed Mostafa, Vera Ulyanova, Stephan Pleschka, Olga Ilinskaya
Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease (binase) was shown to be a promising antiviral agent in animal models and cell cultures. However, the mode of its antiviral action remains unknown. To assess the binase effect on intracellular viral RNA we have selected single stranded negative- and positive-sense RNA viruses, influenza virus, and rhinovirus, respectively, which annually cause respiratory illnesses and are characterized by high contagious nature, mutation rate, and antigen variability. We have shown that binase exerts an antiviral effect on both viruses at the same concentration, which does not alter the spectrum of A549 cellular proteins and expression of housekeeping genes...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546026/the-crustin-like-peptide-plays-opposite-role-in-shrimp-immune-response-to-vibrio-alginolyticus-and-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#11
Baozhen Sun, Zhi Wang, Fei Zhu
Crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans. In this study, we cloned the entire 660 bp crustin-like sequence with a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a 168 amino acid from Marsupenaeus japonicus. The crustin-like gene was primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus. After knockdown crustin-like gene using specific double-stranded RNA (CRU-dsRNA), IMD, Rab7, L-lectin, mitogen-activated protein kinase, p53, prophenoloxidase and Rho were down-regulated and nitric oxide synthase, myosin and tumor necrosis factor-α were up-regulated in hemocytes at 24 h post dsRNA treatment...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545959/serpin-14-negatively-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activation-and-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-in-chinese-oak-silkworm-antheraea-pernyi
#12
Saima Kausar, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Cen Qian, Baojian Zhu, Yu Sun, Yuxuan Sun, Lei Wang, Guoqing Wei, Iram Maqsood, Chao-Liang Liu
Genes encoding proteins of serpins superfamily are widely distributed in invertebrates. In insects, serpins play important roles in regulating immune responses and other physiological processes. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of cDNA of Apserpin-14 from Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi). The Apserpin-14 gene contains 1206 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 401 amino acid residue protein. We expressed the recombinant Apserpin-14 protein in Escherichia coli and then purified protein was used to prepare rabbit anti-Apserpin-14 polyclonal antibodies...
May 22, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545854/transcriptome-wide-identification-of-host-genes-targeted-by-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-derived-small-interfering-rnas
#13
Shunmugiah V Ramesh, Sarah Williams, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Hanu R Pappu
RNA silencing mechanism functions as a major defense against invading viruses. The caveat in the RNA silencing mechanism is that the effector small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) act on any RNA transcripts with sequence complementarity irrespective of target's origin. A subset of highly expressed viral small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) derived from the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae) genome was analyzed for their propensity to downregulate the tomato transcriptome. A total of 11898 putative target sites on tomato transcripts were found to exhibit a propensity for down regulation by TSWV-derived vsiRNAs...
May 22, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545349/exploring-different-mutations-at-a-single-amino-acid-position-of-cucumber-green-mottle-mosaic-virus-replicase-to-attain-stable-symptom-attenuation
#14
Liming Liu, Bin Peng, Zhenwei Zhang, Yang Wu, Manuel Miras, Miguel A Aranda, Qinsheng Gu
Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a member of the genus Tobamovirus (family Virgaviridae) which causes serious economic losses in cucurbit crops. A possibility for CGMMV control is the use of cross-protection, for which stable attenuated isolates are required. In this study, an infectious clone was constructed for the hn isolate of CGMMV. Unexpectedly, this clone carried a non-conserved mutation involving a single nucleotide change resulting in the replacement of Arg to Cys at residue 284 of the replicase protein; this mutation correlated with delayed symptom induction and RNA accumulation, as shown in time course experiments...
May 25, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545090/neotropical-bats-that-co-habit-with-humans-function-as-dead-end-hosts-for-dengue-virus
#15
Amanda Vicente-Santos, Andres Moreira-Soto, Claudio Soto-Garita, Luis Guillermo Chaverri, Andrea Chaves, Jan Felix Drexler, Juan Alberto Morales, Alejandro Alfaro-Alarcón, Bernal Rodríguez-Herrera, Eugenia Corrales-Aguilar
Several studies have shown Dengue Virus (DENV) nucleic acids and/or antibodies present in Neotropical wildlife including bats, suggesting that some bat species may be susceptible to DENV infection. Here we aim to elucidate the role of house-roosting bats in the DENV transmission cycle. Bats were sampled in households located in high and low dengue incidence regions during rainy and dry seasons in Costa Rica. We captured 318 bats from 12 different species in 29 households. Necropsies were performed in 205 bats to analyze virus presence in heart, lung, spleen, liver, intestine, kidney, and brain tissue...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545059/uggt1-enhances-enterovirus-71-pathogenicity-by-promoting-viral-rna-synthesis-and-viral-replication
#16
Peng-Nien Huang, Jia-Rong Jheng, Jamie J Arnold, Jen-Ren Wang, Craig E Cameron, Shin-Ru Shih
Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543916/hcv-rna-genomic-sequences-and-hcv-e2-glycoprotein-in-sural-nerve-biopsies-from-hcv-infected-patients-with-peripheral-neuropathy
#17
Sabino Russi, Domenico Sansonno, Salvatore Monaco, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Fabio Pavone, Gianfranco Lauletta, Franco Dammacco
AIMS: Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the major neurological complication of chronic HCV infection, is frequently associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and small-vessel systemic vasculitis. While humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms are suspected to act together in an aberrant immune response that results in peripheral nerve damage, the role of HCV remains largely speculative. The possible demonstration of HCV in peripheral nerve tissue would obviously assume important pathogenic implications...
May 24, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543644/detection-of-viral-hepatitis-e-in-clinical-liver-biopsies
#18
Sandrine Prost, Claire L Crossan, Harry R Dalton, Robert A De Man, Nassim Kamar, Janick Selves, Catharine Dhaliwal, Linda Scobie, Christopher O C Bellamy
AIMS: to determine the relative utility of in situ testing for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and paraffin section PCR to diagnose HEV infection in paraffin-embedded clinical liver biopsies, and to correlate with clinico-pathological characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated in situ and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based approaches to identifying HEV in clinical liver biopsies from infected patients from multiple centers, correlating with clinical setting (immunocompetent, allograft or immunosuppressed native liver) and histologic findings...
May 24, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542624/pathogenic-seedborne-viruses-are-rare-but-phaseolus-vulgaris-endornaviruses-are-common-in-bean-varieties-grown-in-nicaragua-and-tanzania
#19
Noora Nordenstedt, Delfia Marcenaro, Daudi Chilagane, Beatrice Mwaipopo, Minna-Liisa Rajamäki, Susan Nchimbi-Msolla, Paul J R Njau, Deusdedith R Mbanzibwa, Jari P T Valkonen
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542611/no-molecular-or-serological-evidence-of-zikavirus-infection-among-healthy-blood-donors-living-in-or-travelling-to-regions-where-aedes-albopictus-circulates
#20
Wegene Borena, Tamara Hofer, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Manfred Gaber, Dorothee von Laer, Harald Schennach
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that Zika virus can infect and be transmitted by A. albopictus. The World Health organization (WHO) has raised concerns of autochthonous transmission of the virus in regions where the vector is endemic. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the occurrence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in western Austria (Tyrol) especially after a history of travel to A. albopictus endemic regions. METHODS: The study participants were healthy blood donors at randomly selected donation sites in the west Austrian region Tyrol...
2017: PloS One
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