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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691845/establishment-of-a-new-fish-cell-line-from-the-caudal-fin-of-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-and-its-susceptibility-to-iridovirus
#1
S Wei, Y Yu, Q Qin
A new cell line derived from the caudal fin of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus (TOCF) was successfully established and characterized. TOCF cells grew well at 28° C in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The cell line has been subcultured in more than 100 passages. Molecular characterization of 18S ribosomal (r)RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) confirmed that the TOCF cells were derived indeed from T. ovatus. TOCF cells have a modal chromosome number of 54. It was further showed that TOCF cells were transfected successfully with pEGFP-N3 and pDsRED-N1 plasmid, suggesting that TOCF cells could be used to research gene functions in vitro...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691774/evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-specific-pathogen-free-rabbits-in-korea
#2
Sang-Hoon Han, Byung-Joo Park, Hee-Seop Ahn, Yong-Hyun Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Go, Dong-Hwi Kim, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Won Lee, In-Soo Choi
Rabbits are considered a new natural reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, HEV infection was verified by the detection of partial genomic sequence of HEV and anti-HEV antibodies in specific pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits. HEV RNA was found in 6.4% serum and 13.5% fecal samples from 126 SPF rabbits. Anti-HEV antibodies were also detected in 4.0% of the SPF rabbits. HEV genetic sequences isolated from the rabbits were clustered into a rabbit HEV clade with other rabbit HEV isolates; they were found to be most closely related with a rabbit HEV sequence previously reported in Korea...
April 24, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691483/a-traditional-evolutionary-history-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-viruses-in-southeast-asia-challenged-by-analyses-of-non-structural-protein-coding-sequences
#3
Barbara Brito, Steven J Pauszek, Ethan J Hartwig, George R Smoliga, Le T Vu, Pham V Dong, Carolina Stenfeldt, Luis L Rodriguez, Donald P King, Nick J Knowles, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Ngo T Long, Do H Dung, Jonathan Arzt
Recombination of rapidly evolving RNA-viruses provides an important mechanism for diversification, spread, and emergence of new variants with enhanced fitness. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an important transboundary disease of livestock that is endemic to most countries in Asia and Africa. Maintenance and spread of FMDV are driven by periods of dominance of specific viral lineages. Current understanding of the molecular epidemiology of FMDV lineages is generally based on the phylogenetic relationship of the capsid-encoding genes, with less attention to the process of recombination and evolution of non-structural proteins...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691416/virus-encoded-mirnas-in-ebola-virus-disease
#4
Janice Duy, Anna N Honko, Louis A Altamura, Sandra L Bixler, Suzanne Wollen-Roberts, Nadia Wauquier, Aileen O'Hearn, Eric M Mucker, Joshua C Johnson, Joshua D Shamblin, Justine Zelko, Miriam A Botto, James Bangura, Moinya Coomber, M Louise Pitt, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Randal J Schoepp, Arthur J Goff, Timothy D Minogue
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative-strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm and causes an often-fatal hemorrhagic fever. EBOV, like other viruses, can reportedly encode its own microRNAs (miRNAs) to subvert host immune defenses. miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that can regulate gene expression by hybridizing to multiple mRNAs, and viral miRNAs can enhance viral replication and infectivity by regulating host or viral genes. To date, only one EBOV miRNA has been examined in human infection. Here, we assayed mouse, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, and human samples infected with three EBOV variants for twelve computationally predicted viral miRNAs using RT-qPCR...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691336/a-viral-suppressor-modulates-the-plant-immune-response-early-in-infection-by-regulating-microrna-activity
#5
Robert Pertermann, Selvaraj Tamilarasan, Torsten Gursinsky, Giorgio Gambino, Jana Schuck, Claus Weinholdt, Hauke Lilie, Ivo Grosse, Ralph Peter Golbik, Vitantonio Pantaleo, Sven-Erik Behrens
Many viral suppressors (VSRs) counteract antiviral RNA silencing, a central component of the plant's immune response by sequestration of virus-derived antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we addressed how VSRs affect the activities of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) during a viral infection by characterizing the interactions of two unrelated VSRs, the Tombusvirus p19 and the Cucumovirus 2b, with miRNA 162 (miR162), miR168, and miR403. These miRNAs regulate the expression of the important silencing factors Dicer-like protein 1 (DCL1) and Argonaute proteins 1 and 2 (AGO1 and AGO2), respectively...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690568/mycoviruses-as-triggers-and-targets-of-rna-silencing-in-white-mold-fungus-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum
#6
Pauline Mochama, Prajakta Jadhav, Achal Neupane, Shin-Yi Lee Marzano
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes ( dcl-1, dcl-2 , and both dcl-1 / dcl-2 ) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections...
April 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690553/pirna-profiling-of-dengue-virus-type-2-infected-asian-tiger-mosquito-and-midgut-tissues
#7
Yanhai Wang, Binbin Jin, Peiwen Liu, Jing Li, Xiaoguang Chen, Jinbao Gu
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration...
April 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690531/detection-of-the-invasive-mosquito-species-aedes-stegomyia-albopictus-diptera-culicidae-in-portugal
#8
Hugo Costa Osório, Líbia Zé-Zé, Maria Neto, Sílvia Silva, Fátima Marques, Ana Sofia Silva, Maria João Alves
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito originating from the Asia-Pacific region. This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. In Portugal, a National Vector Surveillance Network (REde de VIgilância de VEctores—REVIVE) is responsible for the surveillance of autochthonous, but also invasive, mosquito species at points of entry, such as airports, ports, storage areas, and specific border regions with Spain...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689569/microrna-223-regulates-cardiac-fibrosis-after-myocardial-infarction-by-targeting-rasa1
#9
Xiaoxiao Liu, Yifeng Xu, Yunfei Deng, Hongli Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Percutaneous coronary intervention reduces acute myocardial infarction (MI)-induced mortality to a great extent, but effective treatments for MI-induced cardiac fibrosis and heart failure are still lacking. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a variety of roles in cells and have thus been investigated extensively. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) expression has been reported to be altered in post-MI heart failure in humans; however, the roles of miR-223 in MI remain unknown. Our study aimed to elucidate the roles of miR-223 in cardiac fibrosis...
April 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689073/liver-disease-burden-and-required-treatment-expenditures-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-infection-in-thailand-implications-for-hcv-elimination-in-the-new-therapeutic-era-a-population-based-study
#10
Rujipat Wasitthankasem, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Nipaporn Siripon, Nawarat Posuwan, Chompoonut Auphimai, Sirapa Klinfueng, Napha Thanetkongtong, Viboonsak Vuthitanachot, Supapith Saiyatha, Chaiwat Thongmai, Saowakon Sochoo, Natnada Pongsuwan, Kittiyod Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich, Yong Poovorawan
The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been decreasing globally, but the growing effects of HCV-related morbidity and mortality remain of concern. Advances in curative medicine, involving direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), have led many countries to aim to eradicate HCV. Information on epidemiology and disease burden is essential for national policy development. Thus, this study aimed to determine the HCV-related hepatic disease burden in areas of Thailand with high and average HCV prevalence in order to extrapolate the viral burden across Thailand...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688542/rates-of-mutation-and-recombination-in-siphoviridae-phage-genome-evolution-over-three-decades
#11
Anne Kupczok, Horst Neve, Kun D Huang, Marc P Hoeppner, Knut J Heller, Charles M A P Franz, Tal Dagan
The evolution of asexual organisms is driven not only by the inheritance of genetic modification but also by the acquisition of foreign DNA. The contribution of vertical and horizontal processes to genome evolution depends on their rates per year and is quantified by the ratio of recombination to mutation. These rates have been estimated for bacteria; however, no estimates have been reported for phages. Here, we delineate the contribution of mutation and recombination to dsDNA phage genome evolution. We analyzed 34 isolates of the 936 group of Siphoviridae phages using a Lactococcus lactis strain from a single dairy over 29 years...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686974/sirt6-acts-as-a-negative-regulator-in-dengue-virus-induced-inflammatory-response-by-targeting-the-dna-binding-domain-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#12
Pengcheng Li, Yufei Jin, Fei Qi, Fangyi Wu, Susu Luo, Yuanjiu Cheng, Ruth R Montgomery, Feng Qian
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated NF-κB activation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686423/clonal-cd4-t-cells-in-the-hiv-1-latent-reservoir-display-a-distinct-gene-profile-upon-reactivation
#13
Lillian B Cohn, Israel T da Silva, Renan Valieris, Amy S Huang, Julio C C Lorenzi, Yehuda Z Cohen, Joy A Pai, Allison L Butler, Marina Caskey, Mila Jankovic, Michel C Nussenzweig
Despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), latent HIV-1 proviruses persist in patients. This latent reservoir is established within 48-72 h after infection, has a long half-life1,2 , enables viral rebound when ART is interrupted, and is the major barrier to a cure for HIV-1 3 . Latent cells are exceedingly rare in blood (∼1 per 1 × 106 CD4+ T cells) and are typically enumerated by indirect means, such as viral outgrowth assays4,5 . We report a new strategy to purify and characterize single reactivated latent cells from HIV-1-infected individuals on suppressive ART...
April 23, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686252/micro-rnas-from-dna-viruses-are-found-widely-in-plasma-in-a-large-observational-human-population
#14
Milka Koupenova, Eric Mick, Heather A Corkrey, Tianxiao Huan, Lauren Clancy, Ravi Shah, Emelia J Benjamin, Daniel Levy, Evelyn A Kurt-Jones, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Jane E Freedman
Viral infections associate with disease risk and select families of viruses encode miRNAs that control an efficient viral cycle. The association of viral miRNA expression with disease in a large human population has not been previously explored. We sequenced plasma RNA from 40 participants of the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, Offspring Cohort, Visit 8) and identified 3 viral miRNAs from 3 different human Herpesviridae. These miRNAs were mostly related to viral latency and have not been previously detected in human plasma...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686040/innate-immunity-to-enteric-hepatitis-viruses
#15
Zongdi Feng, Stanley M Lemon
Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, there are important differences in the ways they induce and counteract host innate immune responses. HAV is remarkably stealthy because of its ability to evade and disrupt innate signaling pathways that lead to interferon production. In contrast, HEV does not block interferon production. Instead, it persists in the presence of an interferon response. These differences may provide insight into HEV persistence in immunocompromised patients, an emerging health problem in developed countries...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685921/role-of-exosomes-as-a-proinflammatory-mediator-in-the-development-of-ebv-associated-lymphoma
#16
Hiroshi Higuchi, Natsuko Yamakawa, Ken-Ichi Imadome, Takashi Yahata, Ryutaro Kotaki, Jun Ogata, Masatoshi Kakizaki, Koji Fujita, Jun Lu, Kazuaki Yokoyama, Kazuki Okuyama, Ai Sato, Masako Takamatsu, Natsumi Kurosaki, Syakira Mohamad Alba, Azran Azhim, Ryouichi Horie, Toshiki Watanabe, Toshio Kitamura, Kiyoshi Ando, Takao Kashiwagi, Toshimitsu Matsui, Akinao Okamoto, Hiroshi Handa, Masahiko Kuroda, Naoya Nakamura, Ai Kotani
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes various diseases in the elderly including B-cell lymphoma such as Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we show that EBV acts in trans on non-infected macrophages in the tumor through exosome secretion and augments the development of lymphomas. In a humanized mouse model, the different formation of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) between two EBV strains (Akata and B95-8) was evident. Furthermore, injection of Akata derived exosomes affected LPD severity possibly through the regulation of macrophage phenotype in vivo...
April 22, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685225/n-halamine-incorporated-antimicrobial-nonwoven-fabrics-for-use-against-avian-influenza-virus
#17
Tian Ren, Teresa V Dormitorio, Mingyu Qiao, Tung-Shi Huang, Jean Weese
Airborne pathogens are one of the most common avenues leading to poultry diseases. Preventing the avian influenza (AI) virus from entering the chicken hatchery house is critical for reducing the spread and transmission of AI disease. Many studies have investigated the incorporation of antimicrobials into air filters to prevent viruses from entering the indoor environment. N-halamines are one of the most effective antimicrobial agents against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. In this study, 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC, a variety of N-halamine) was coated on nonwoven fabrics to give the fabric antimicrobial activity against the AI virus...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685168/role-of-bmi1-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-investigated-via-the-crispr-cas9-system-and-rna-sequencing
#18
Qianying Zhao, Qiuhong Qian, Dongyan Cao, Jiaxin Yang, Ting Gui, Keng Shen
BACKGROUND: B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) might be an appropriate biomarker in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, the biological role of BMI1 and its relevant molecular mechanism needs further elaboration. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is an excellent genome-editing tool and is scarcely used in EOC studies. METHODS: We first applied CRISPR/Cas9 technique to silence BMI1 in EOC cells; thereafter we accomplished various in vivo and in vitro experiments to detect biological behaviors of ovarian cancer cells, including MTT, flow cytometry, Transwell, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays, etc...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685158/ebolavirus-diagnosis-made-simple-comparable-and-faster-than-molecular-detection-methods-preparing-for-the-future
#19
Ameh S James, Shawn Todd, Nina M Pollak, Glenn A Marsh, Joanne Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The 2014/2015 Ebolavirus outbreak resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,323 reported deaths, as of March 2016. Domestic transmission of the Guinea strain associated with the outbreak occurred mainly in six African countries, and international transmission was reported in four countries. Outbreak management was limited by the inability to rapidly diagnose infected cases. A further fifteen countries in Africa are predicted to be at risk of Ebolavirus outbreaks in the future as a consequence of climate change and urbanization...
April 23, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684608/recombinant-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-expressing-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-vp2-protein-induces-immunity-against-both-pathogens
#20
Mengting Guo, Wen Shi, Yanxue Wang, Yuting Wang, Yaping Chen, Dechuan Li, Xuanyu Ren, Xiaojing Hua, Lijie Tang, Yijing Li, Min Liu
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) are typical pathogens of rainbow trout. Their co-infection is also common, which causes great economic loss in juvenile salmon species. Although vaccines against IHNV and IPNV have been commercialized in many countries, the prevalence of IHNV and IPNV is still widespread in modern aquaculture. In the present study, two IHNV recombinant viruses displaying IPNV VP2 protein (rIHNV-IPNV VP2 and rIHNV-IPNV VP2COE) were generated using the RNA polymerase Ⅱ system to explore the immunogenicity of IHNV and IPNV...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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