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Rna virus

D Goindin, A Cannet, C Delannay, C Ramdini, J Gustave, C Atyame, A Vega-Rúa
Guadeloupe islands are threatened by several mosquito-borne viruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and West Nile virus. It appears essential to look for alternative mosquito control methods such as the incompatible insect technique (ITT) aiming at sterilizing wild females by inundative releases of incompatible males. Before considering the implementation of such a strategy, the characterization of genetic diversity of the endocellular bacterium Wolbachia regarding the local mosquito populations is a critical issue...
June 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Henrique Pott Junior, Guilherme Bricks, Giuliano Grandi, Jorge Figueiredo Senise, Adauto Castelo Filho
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir (SOF+DCV) or simeprevir (SOF+SMV) in a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial of patients infected with hepatitis c virus (HCV) genotype 1, who were previously unresponsive to pegylated interferon and ribavirin or were treatment-naïve. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive SOF (400 mg once daily) plus DCV (60 mg once daily) or SMV (150 mg once daily) for 12 weeks...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
P A van Rijn, J Boonstra, H G P van Gennip
Since February 1st 2011, rinderpest (RP) has been officially declared eradicated worldwide. National authorities have been requested to destroy all their RP related materials. Nonetheless, their national reference laboratories performing real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays (PCR diagnostics) need RP positive control samples, since some countries still prefer to maintain diagnostic capability for RP for several reasons. In the future, a similar situation will arise for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) as the ambition has been expressed to eradicate PPR...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Johanna Huchting, Evelien Vanderlinden, Matthias Winkler, Hiba Nasser, Lieve Naesens, Chris Meier
We here disclose chemical synthesis of ribonucleoside 5'-mono- (RMP), -di- (RDP), and -triphosphate (RTP), and cycloSal-, DiPPro-, and TriPPPro-nucleotide-prodrugs of the antiviral pseudobase T-1105. Moreover, we include one nucleoside-diphosphate-prodrug of the chemically less stable T-705. We demonstrate efficient T-1105-RDP- and -RTP-release from the DiPPro- and TriPPPro-compounds by esterase activation. Using crude enzyme extracts, we saw rapid phosphorylation of T-1105-RDP into T-1105-RTP. In sharp contrast, phosphorylation of T-1105-RMP was not seen, indicating a yet unrecognized bottleneck in T-1105's metabolic activation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sumit Sharma, Marie Hagbom, Johan Nordgren, Jonas Frodlund, Jorma Hinkula, Torbjörn Ledin, Lennart Svensson
Since rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, tonsils due to their location within the oropharynx may sample or become infected with these viruses. We investigated if RV and NoV RNA/antigen, or virus specific memory/plasma B cells can be detected in the tonsils. While neither RV/NoV antigen, nor genomic RNA was detected, 90% (27/30) of tonsils tested had RV and NoV specific IgG memory B cells. However, the mechanism explaining how these cells get there (whether due to local induction and homing following induction at other sites) and the role these cells might play during active infection is not yet clear...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
O Ogunsemowo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes high morbidity and mortality in infants and young children. Although a high prevalence of HRSV has been reported in Nigeria, the subtype of the virus circulating in the country is not known. This crosssectional study was therefore designed to determine the subtypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan. Two hundred and thirty-one nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children presenting with respiratory infections in Secondary Health Facility (SHF) as well as those attending immunization centers in Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in Ibadan, Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Piotr M Stępień, Katarzyna Paluch, Paweł Pabjan
A 52-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection developed clinically symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinemia. She started pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy and in week 12 became negative for HCV RNA with resolution of clinical signs of cryoglobulinemia. The dual treatment was discontinued due to interferon-related bilateral retinopathy. After therapy cessation, relapse of HCV RNA and recurrence of symptomatic cryoglobulinemia were observed. While waiting for the antiviral retreatment option she developed glomerulonephritis with renal impairment...
June 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Pierce Radecki, Mirko Ledda, Sharon Aviran
High-throughput structure profiling (SP) experiments that provide information at nucleotide resolution are revolutionizing our ability to study RNA structures. Of particular interest are RNA elements whose underlying structures are necessary for their biological functions. We previously introduced patteRNA , an algorithm for rapidly mining SP data for patterns characteristic of such motifs. This work provided a proof-of-concept for the detection of motifs and the capability of distinguishing structures displaying pronounced conformational changes...
June 14, 2018: Genes
Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases ( n = 40) and non-fatal cases ( n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes...
June 14, 2018: Viruses
Di Xin, Haiyan Gu, Enping Liu, Qinmiao Sun
Chronic neuroinflammation is a characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous investigations have shown that Parkin gene mutations are related to the early-onset recessive form of PD and isolated juvenile-onset PD. Further, Parkin plays important roles in mitochondrial quality control and cytokine-induced cell death. However, whether Parkin regulates other cellular events is still largely unknown. In this study, we performed overexpression and knockout experiments, and found that Parkin negatively regulates antiviral immune responses against RNA and DNA viruses...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kevin Tsai, David G Courtney, Edward M Kennedy, Bryan R Cullen
While the issue of whether RNA interference (RNAi) ever forms part of the antiviral innate immune response in mammalian somatic cells remains controversial, there is considerable evidence demonstrating that few, if any, viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in infected cells. Moreover, inhibition of RNAi by mutational inactivation of key RNAi factors, such as Dicer or Argonaute 2, fails to enhance virus replication. One potential explanation for this lack of inhibitory effect is that mammalian viruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) that are so effective that viral siRNAs are not produced in infected cells...
June 14, 2018: RNA
Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Imran Amin, Amir Hameed, Shahid Mansoor
CRISPR-Cas13a is an efficient RNA targeting and editing tool characterized recently in prokaryotes. This system can be recruited to engineer resistance against plant RNA viruses and regulate gene expression. We discuss some important achievements in using the CRISPR-Cas13a system to confer resistance against plant RNA viruses.
June 11, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Parvaneh Mehrbod, Muna Ali Abdalla, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Masoumeh Heidarzadeh, Abimbola O Aro, Jacobus N Eloff, Lyndy J McGaw, Folorunso O Fasina
BACKGROUND: Influenza infection is a major public health threat. The role of influenza A virus-induced inflammatory response in severe cases of this disease is widely recognized. Drug resistance and side effects of chemical treatments have been observed, resulting in increased interest in alternative use of herbal medications for prophylaxis against this infection. The South African medicinal plant, Rapanea melanophloeos (RM) (L.) Mez of the family Myrsinaceae was selected owing to its traditional use for the treatment of several diseases such as respiratory ailments and also previous preliminary studies of anti-influenza activity of its methanolic extract...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Fabienne Laraque, Ann Winters
OBJECTIVES: The care cascade, a method for tracking population-level progression from diagnosis to cure, is an important tool in addressing and monitoring the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic. However, little agreement exists on appropriate care cascade steps or how best to measure them. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) sought to construct a care cascade by using laboratory surveillance data with clinically relevant categories that can be readily updated over time...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
Gabriela Vera-Lozada, Priscilla Segges, Claudio Gustavo Stefanoff, Mário Henrique M Barros, Gerald Niedobitek, Rocio Hassan
The search for clinically relevant molecular markers in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is hampered by the histopathological complexity of the disease, resulting from the admixture of a small number of neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells with an abundant and heterogeneous microenvironment. In this study, we evaluated gene expression profiles of 11 selected genes previously proposed as a molecular score for adult cHL, aiming to validate its application in the pediatric setting. Assays were performed by RT-qPCR from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lymph nodes in 80 patients with cHL...
June 14, 2018: Hematological Oncology
Xin Zhao, Cuicui Zhang, Zhiliang Le, Suyun Zeng, Chaobin Pan, Jianjie Shi, Jianguang Wang, Xiaopeng Zhao
Tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand (TRAIL) is known to induce cell apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. However, some malignant cells still exhibit anti‑apoptosis features induced by TRAIL; thus the underlying mechanisms that regulate sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL‑induced apoptosis remain unclear. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is overexpressed in most types of human tumors and is mostly inactive in somatic cells. The present study aimed to investigate the endogenous effects and mechanisms of hTERT inhibition and TRAIL overexpression on TRAIL‑induced apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
L Cedillo-Barrón, J García-Cordero, G Shrivastava, S Carrillo-Halfon, M León-Juárez, J Bustos Arriaga, Pc León Valenzuela, B Gutiérrez Castañeda
Flaviviruses are positive, single-stranded, enveloped cytoplasmic sense RNA viruses that cause a variety of important diseases worldwide. Among them, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and Dengue virus have the potential to cause severe disease. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the structure and replication strategies of flaviviruses, and current studies are aiming to unravel the complex molecular interactions between the virus and host during the very early stages of infection...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jānis Rūmnieks, Kaspars Tārs
Bacteriophages of the Leviviridae family are small viruses with short single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genomes. Protein-RNA interactions play a key role throughout the phage life cycle, and all of the conserved phage proteins - the maturation protein, the coat protein and the replicase - are able to recognize specific structures in the RNA genome. The phage-coded replicase subunit associates with several host proteins to form a catalytically active complex. Recognition of the genomic RNA by the replicase complex is achieved in a remarkably complex manner that exploits the RNA-binding properties of host proteins and the particular three-dimensional structure of the phage genome...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Selvaraj Muniyandi, Georgia Pangratiou, Thomas A Edwards, John N Barr
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a non-segmented negative stranded RNA virus and is recognized as the most important viral agent of lower respiratory tract infection worldwide, responsible for up to 199,000 deaths each year. The only FDA-approved regime to prevent HRSV-mediated disease is pre-exposure administration of a humanized HRSV-specific monoclonal antibody, which although being effective, is not in widespread usage due to its cost. No HRSV vaccine exists and so there remains a strong need for alternative and complementary anti-HRSV therapies...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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