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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648014/-clinical-efficacy-observation-of-atomization-inhalation-combined-with-oral-administration-of-oseltamivir-in-4-cases-with-h7n9-avian-influenza
#1
Z Li, X Y Fu, X B Fang, J Li, T Chen, L M Qiu, J Cai, W L Wang, Z Q Pan, Y Zhang, J L Zhou
Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of atomization inhalation combined with oral administration of oseltamivir in treatment of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza. Methods: To analyze the clinical data of 4 patients hospitalized from Mar 6th 2017 to Apr 12th 2017 with avian influenza(H7N9) infection treated by conventional therapy(oseltamivir, 150 mg, po, Bid) plus with oseltamivir inhalation(75 mg dissolved in 20 ml N. S, Bid) and administered with antibacterial treatment, blood purification and immunomodulators...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647987/-distribution-of-hiv-1-subtypes-among-foreign-patients-in-guangzhou-between-2008-and-2010-and-in-2015
#2
Z G Han, H Wu, C Y Liang, K Gao, H X Mai, Y S Cai, H F Xu
Objective: To understand the characteristic of subtype distribution among foreigners who were living with HIV-1, in Guangzhou. Methods: HIV-1 RNAs were extracted from 114 serum specimens in foreigners diagnosed with HIV-1 infections between 2008 and 2010, and in 2015. Partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from these RNA samples were amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) with nucleotide sequenced. Subsequently, phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the pol sequences of samples and references...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647541/response-tailored-protocol-versus-the-fixed-12weeks-of-dual-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-treatment-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-infection-a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#3
Mostafa Yakoot, Alaa M Abdo, Siham Abdel-Rehim, Sherine Helmy
BACKGROUND: The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 2016 Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), allowed for shortening the course of treatment for some subsets of patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and with grazoprevir/elbasvir based on cutoff baseline HCV RNA values. We hypothesized that it would be prudent to also consider an objectively assuring very rapid, on-treatment, virologic response to therapy at week 2 (vRVR) before taking the decision of shortening the treatment duration...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647381/leukotriene-receptor-antagonist-attenuated-airway-inflammation-and-hyperresponsiveness-in-a-double-stranded-rna-induced-asthma-exacerbation-model
#4
Mariko Ujino, Naoya Sugimoto, Yuta Koizumi, Shoki Ro, Yasuhiro Kojima, Kamiyama-Hara Asae, Naomi Yamashita, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Nagase
BACKGROUND: Viral infections are the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation, but the key molecules involved in this process have not been fully identified. Although cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) have been postulated as the key mediators, their precise roles remain largely unclear. To investigate the roles of cysLTs in virus-induced asthma exacerbation, we developed a murine model using a viral double-stranded RNA analog, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and analyzed the effect of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) administration...
June 21, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647346/sting-is-involved-in-antiviral-immune-response-against-vzv-infection-via-the-induction-of-type-i-and-iii-ifn-pathways
#5
Ji-Ae Kim, Seul-Ki Park, Seong-Wook Seo, Chan-Hee Lee, Ok Sarah Shin
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) is a human-restricted α-herpesvirus that exhibits tropism for the skin. The VZV host receptors and downstream signaling pathways responsible for the antiviral innate immune response in the skin are not completely understood. Here, we show that stimulator of interferon genes (STING) mediates an important host defense against VZV infection in dermal cells including human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and HaCaT keratinocytes. Inhibition of STING using small interfering RNA (siRNA) or short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated gene disruption resulted in enhanced viral replication but diminished IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646652/influenza-a-virus-cap-snatches-host-rnas-based-on-their-abundance-early-after-infection
#6
Dorota Sikora, Lynda Rocheleau, Earl G Brown, Martin Pelchat
The influenza A virus RNA polymerase cleaves the 5' ends of host RNAs and uses these RNA fragments as primers for viral mRNA synthesis. We performed deep sequencing of the 5' host-derived ends of the eight viral mRNAs of influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus in infected A549 cells, and compared the population to those of A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) and A/WSN/1933 (H1N1). In the three strains, the viral RNAs target different populations of host RNAs. Host RNAs are cap-snatched based on their abundance, and we found that RNAs encoding proteins involved in metabolism are overrepresented in the cap-snatched populations...
June 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646651/use-of-sequence-independent-single-primer-amplification-sispa-for-rapid-detection-identification-and-characterization-of-avian-rna-viruses
#7
Klaudia Chrzastek, Dong-Hun Lee, Diane Smith, Poonam Sharma, David L Suarez, Mary Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R Kapczynski
Current technologies with next generation sequencing have revolutionized metagenomics analysis of clinical samples. To achieve the non-selective amplification and recovery of low abundance genetic sequences, a simplified Sequence-Independent, Single-Primer Amplification (SISPA) technique in combination with MiSeq platform was applied to target negative- and positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral sequences. This method allowed successful sequence assembly of full or near full length avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) viral genome...
June 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646650/requirement-for-eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factors-in-cap-independent-translation-differs-between-bipartite-genomic-rnas-of-red-clover-necrotic-mosaic-virus
#8
Yuri Tajima, Hiro-Oki Iwakawa, Kiwamu Hyodo, Masanori Kaido, Kazuyuki Mise, Tetsuro Okuno
The bipartite genomic RNAs of red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) lack a 5' cap and a 3' poly(A) tail. RNA1 encodes viral replication proteins, and RNA2 encodes a movement protein (MP). These proteins are translated in a cap-independent manner. We previously identified two cis-acting RNA elements that cooperatively recruit eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) complex eIF4F or eIFiso4F to RNA1. Such cis-acting RNA elements and host factors have not been identified in RNA2. Here we found that translation of RNA1 was significantly compromised in Arabidopsis thaliana carrying eif4f mutation...
June 21, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646449/occurrence-of-pepper-mild-mottle-virus-pmmov-in-groundwater-from-a-karst-aquifer-system-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-mexico
#9
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
June 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646219/efficient-and-unbiased-metagenomic-recovery-of-rna-virus-genomes-from-human-plasma-samples
#10
Carmen F Manso, David F Bibby, Jean L Mbisa
RNA viruses cause significant human pathology and are responsible for the majority of emerging zoonoses. Mainstream diagnostic assays are challenged by their intrinsic diversity, leading to false negatives and incomplete characterisation. New sequencing techniques are expanding our ability to agnostically interrogate nucleic acids within diverse sample types, but in the clinical setting are limited by overwhelming host material and ultra-low target frequency. Through selective host RNA depletion and compensatory protocol adjustments for ultra-low RNA inputs, we are able to detect three major blood-borne RNA viruses - HIV, HCV and HEV...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646206/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-via-postnatal-administration-of-aav-vector-cures-haemophilia-b-mice
#11
Tsukasa Ohmori, Yasumitsu Nagao, Hiroaki Mizukami, Asuka Sakata, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Keiya Ozawa, Shin-Ichi Tominaga, Yutaka Hanazono, Satoshi Nishimura, Osamu Nureki, Yoichi Sakata
Haemophilia B, a congenital haemorrhagic disease caused by mutations in coagulation factor IX gene (F9), is considered an appropriate target for genome editing technology. Here, we describe treatment strategies for haemophilia B mice using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vector harbouring Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) and single guide RNA (sgRNA) to wild-type adult mice induced a double-strand break (DSB) at the target site of F9 in hepatocytes, sufficiently developing haemophilia B...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646195/structural-alteration-of-a-bydv-like-translation-element-bte-that-attenuates-p35-expression-in-three-mild-tobacco-bushy-top-virus-isolates
#12
Deya Wang, Chengming Yu, Shanshan Liu, Guolu Wang, Kerong Shi, Xiangdong Li, Xuefeng Yuan
To identify the molecular effects of Tobacco bushy top virus (TBTV) evolution on the degeneration of tobacco bushy top disease, three TBTV isolates with mild virulence were compared with wild-type TBTV to assess the translation of p35, which relies on a BYDV-like translation element (BTE) in a cap-independent manner. The in vitro expression of p35 in the mild isolates was only 20% to 40% of the expression observed in wt TBTV. Based on translation data from chimeric TBTV RNA, low-level p35 expression in the three mild isolates was associated with two regions: the 5' terminal 500 nt region (RI) and the 3' internal region (RV), which included the BTE...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646094/immune-mediated-effects-targeting-hepatitis-c-virus-in-a-syngeneic-replicon-cell-transplantation-mouse-model
#13
Sepideh Levander, Fredrik Holmström, Lars Frelin, Gustaf Ahlén, Daniel Rupp, Gang Long, Ralf Bartenschlager, Matti Sällberg
OBJECTIVE: HCV is characterised by its ability to establish chronic infection in hepatocytes and to replicate in the presence of an inflammation. We mimicked this situation in vivo in immune-competent mice by syngeneic transplantation of HCV replicon-containing mouse hepatoma cells. DESIGN: A total of 5 million H-2(b) positive Hep56.1D cells, carrying a subgenomic genotype (gt) 2a replicon (HCV replicon cells) or stably expressing comparable levels of the HCV NS3/4A protease/helicase complex (NS3/4A hepatoma cells), were injected subcutaneously into syngeneic H-2(b)-restricted mice...
June 23, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646017/ror%C3%AE-modulates-semaphorin-3e-transcription-and-neurovascular-interaction-in-pathological-retinal-angiogenesis
#14
Ye Sun, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Zhongxiao Wang, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, John Paul SanGiovanni, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Jing Chen
Pathological proliferation of retinal blood vessels commonly causes vision impairment in proliferative retinopathies, including retinopathy of prematurity. Dysregulated crosstalk between the vasculature and retinal neurons is increasingly recognized as a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), a group of neuron-secreted axonal and vascular guidance factors, suppress pathological vascular growth in retinopathy. However, the upstream transcriptional regulators that mediate the function of SEMA3s in vascular growth are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645725/cell-surface-n-glycan-alteration-in-hepad38-cell-lines-expressing-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
Surya Agung Priyambada, Ryo Misaki, Toru Okamoto, Yuta Okamoto, Takao Ohashi, Keiji Ueda, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the smallest partially double-stranded DNA virus known to infect humans. Worldwide, more than 50% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are related to chronic Hepatitis B. Development of HCC from normal liver cells is characterized by changes in cell surface N-glycans, which can promote the invasive behavior of tumor cells, leading ultimately to the progression of cancer. However, little is understood about the cell surface N-glycans of HBV-infected liver cells. We try to address this by taking advantage of the HepAD38 cell line, which can replicate HBV in the absence of tetracycline [tet(-)] in growth medium...
June 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645721/comparison-of-different-inactivation-methods-on-the-stability-of-indian-vaccine-strains-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#16
Arunava Sarkar, Ramasamy Periyasamy Tamil Selvan, Subodh Kishore, Kondabattula Ganesh, Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash
In this study, the efficiency of binary ethyleneimine (BEI) in combination with formaldehyde (FA) and glutaraldehyde (GTA) in inactivating the Indian FMDV vaccine strains is compared. The acceptable safety of virus inactivation was faster and the inactivation rates were increased many-folds with combination of inactivants than BEI alone. FMDV A was inactivated rapidly than the other two serotypes with BEI + FA combination. Inactivation plots were linear for all the serotypes irrespective of inactivation process...
June 20, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644966/an-immunosuppressive-function-of-interleukin-35-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#17
Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Xue Shao, Wenrui Wang, Chuanhui Zhang, Zhenjing Jin
Interleukin (IL)-35, a newly identified member of the IL-12 cytokine family, has been reported to suppress inflammation and induce immunotolerance. However, little is known regarding the role of IL-35 during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Herein, we measured the serum IL-35 concentration of 73 patients with hepatitis C and 22 healthy individuals, as well as further investigated the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(dim/-) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on hepatocytes infected with HCV in cell culture (HCVcc)...
June 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644867/host-derived-apolipoproteins-play-comparable-roles-with-viral-secretory-proteins-erns-and-ns1-in-the-infectious-particle-formation-of-flaviviridae
#18
Takasuke Fukuhara, Tomokazu Tamura, Chikako Ono, Mai Shiokawa, Hiroyuki Mori, Kentaro Uemura, Satomi Yamamoto, Takeshi Kurihara, Toru Okamoto, Ryosuke Suzuki, Kentaro Yoshii, Takeshi Kurosu, Manabu Igarashi, Hiroshi Aoki, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshiharu Matsuura
Amphipathic α-helices of exchangeable apolipoproteins have shown to play crucial roles in the formation of infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles through the interaction with viral particles. Among the Flaviviridae members, pestivirus and flavivirus possess a viral structural protein Erns or a non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as secretory glycoproteins, respectively, while Hepacivirus including HCV has no secretory glycoprotein. In case of pestivirus replication, the C-terminal long amphipathic α-helices of Erns are important for anchoring to viral membrane...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643404/occurrence-of-late-relapse-of-hepatitis-c-virus-confirmed-by-molecular-analysis-after-sustained-virological-response-to-interferon-ribavirin-based-therapy
#19
Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Satoshi Yasuda, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Takashi Honda, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The optimal duration of follow-up for patients who achieve sustained virological responses (SVR) has become an important issue. Reports on long-term follow-up of SVR have demonstrated that 99% of patients maintained SVR. However, the limitations of a majority of studies include small patient numbers, short study periods, and lack of molecular analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. The present study sought to evaluate the late relapse rate in long-term follow-up of patients who achieved SVR, with molecular analysis of HCV...
June 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643204/host-factors-in-coronavirus-replication
#20
Adriaan H de Wilde, Eric J Snijder, Marjolein Kikkert, Martijn J van Hemert
Coronaviruses are pathogens with a serious impact on human and animal health. They mostly cause enteric or respiratory disease, which can be severe and life threatening, e.g., in the case of the zoonotic coronaviruses causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in humans. Despite the economic and societal impact of such coronavirus infections, and the likelihood of future outbreaks of additional pathogenic coronaviruses, our options to prevent or treat coronavirus infections remain very limited...
June 23, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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