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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055189/a-mannose-specific-c-type-lectin-from-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis-exhibited-antimicrobial-activity-to-mediate-shrimp-innate-immunity
#1
Phanthipha Runsaeng, Peerapong Puengyam, Prapaporn Utarabhand
Being one type of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), lectins exhibit a crucial role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates which are deficient in an adaptive immune system. A new C-type lectin called FmLC3 was isolated from hepatopancreas of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by cloning approaches, RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). A full-length cDNA of FmLC3 contains 607 bp with one open reading frame of 480bp, encoding a 159-amino acids peptide. The predicted primary structure of FmLC3 is composed of a signal peptide, a carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN motif and one Ca(2+) binding site-2, including a double-loop region assisted by two conserved disulfide linkages...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054449/construction-of-infectious-clones-of-lychnis-ringspot-virus-and-evaluation-of-its-relationship-with-barley-stripe-mosaic-virus-by-reassortment-of-genomic-rna-segments
#2
Zhihao Jiang, Zhaolei Li, Ning Yue, Kun Zhang, Dawei Li, Yongliang Zhang
Lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV, genus Hordeivirus) was first isolated in 1959, and has been shown to infect several dicot plants in nature. However, due to the lack of infectious cDNA clones, the biological properties and mechanisms underlying LRSV infection are obscure. In this work, we constructed infectious cDNA clones of LRSV and have compiled the complete LRSV genomic (g) RNA sequence. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences between LRSV and barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), the type member of genus Hordeivirus, reveals that despite belonging to the same genus, and replicating in chloroplasts, the viruses are only distantly related...
October 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053990/persistence-and-infectivity-of-zika-virus-in-semen-after-returning-from-endemic-areas-report-of-5-cases
#3
S García-Bujalance, A Gutiérrez-Arroyo, F De la Calle, M Díaz-Menéndez, Jose R Arribas, J García-Rodríguez, M Arsuaga
BACKGROUND: There are limited data about the persistence and infectivity of Zika virus in semen of symptomatic travelers returning from endemic areas and even less data in asymptomatic cases. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the persistence and infectivity of ZIKA virus in semen in five patients with Zika virus infection returning to Spain from endemic areas. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristic of the five patients...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053952/unexpected-alliance-of-whip-trim14-ppp6c-to-combat-viruses
#4
Weiqiang Chen, Youn Jung Choi, Jae U Jung
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Tan et al. (2017) provide novel perspectives into the regulatory role of WHIP-TRIM14-PPP6C signalosome in enhancing RIG-I-mediated viral RNA sensing pathway.
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053912/community-based-screening-of-hepatitis-c-with-a-one-step-rna-detection-algorithm-from-dried-blood-spots-analysis-of-key-populations-in-barcelona-spain
#5
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053694/use-of-a-recombinant-mosquito-densovirus-as-a-gene-delivery-vector-for-the-functional-analysis-of-genes-in-mosquito-larvae
#6
Pei-Wen Liu, Jia-Bao Xu, Yun-Qiao Dong, Xiao-Guang Chen, Jin-Bao Gu
In vivo microinjection is the most commonly used gene transfer technique for analyzing the gene functions in individual mosquitoes. However, this method requires a more technically demanding operation and involves complicated procedures, especially when used in larvae due to their small size, relatively thin and fragile cuticle, and high mortality, which limit its application. In contrast, viral vectors for gene delivery have been developed to surmount extracellular and intracellular barriers. These systems have the advantages of easy manipulation, high gene transduction efficiency, long-term maintenance of gene expression, and the ability to produce persistent effects in vivo...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053588/yeast-killer-toxin-k28-biology-and-unique-strategy-of-host-cell-intoxication-and-killing
#7
REVIEW
Björn Becker, Manfred J Schmitt
The initial discovery of killer toxin-secreting brewery strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in the mid-sixties of the last century marked the beginning of intensive research in the yeast virology field. So far, four different S. cerevisiae killer toxins (K28, K1, K2, and Klus), encoded by cytoplasmic inherited double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA) of the Totiviridae family, have been identified. Among these, K28 represents the unique example of a yeast viral killer toxin that enters a sensitive cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis to reach its intracellular target(s)...
October 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053568/mutation-of-a-conserved-nuclear-export-sequence-in-chikungunya-virus-capsid-protein-disrupts-host-cell-nuclear-import
#8
Susan C Jacobs, Adam Taylor, Lara J Herrero, Suresh Mahalingam, John K Fazakerley
Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV...
October 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052788/sequence-analysis-of-six-full-length-bean-yellow-mosaic-virus-genomes-reveals-phylogenetic-diversity-in-india-strains-suggesting-subdivision-of-phylogenetic-group-iv
#9
Charanjeet Kaur, Rashmi Raj, Ashish Srivastava, Susheel Kumar, Shri Krishna Raj
We report the complete genome sequence of five bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) isolates (CK-GL1, CK-GL3, CK-GL4, CK-GL5 and Vfaba2) that share 74.6-98.9% (nucleotide) and 81.5-99.1% (amino acid) identity with globally available BYMV sequences. Phylogenetic analysis clustered them specifically in BYMV phylogenetic group-IV within the existing nine groups. The CK-GL1, CK-GL2, CK-GL4 and CK-GL5 isolates formed a discrete cluster within group-IV. The present study suggests subdivision of group-IV into subgroup-IVa and IVb...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051551/reducing-sarcolipin-expression-mitigates-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-associated-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#10
Antanina Voit, Vishwendra Patel, Ronald Pachon, Vikas Shah, Mohammad Bakhutma, Erik Kohlbrenner, Joseph J McArdle, Louis J Dell'Italia, Jerry R Mendell, Lai-Hua Xie, Roger J Hajjar, Dongsheng Duan, Diego Fraidenraich, Gopal J Babu
Sarcolipin (SLN) is an inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) and is abnormally elevated in the muscle of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and animal models. Here we show that reducing SLN levels ameliorates dystrophic pathology in the severe dystrophin/utrophin double mutant (mdx:utr (-/-)) mouse model of DMD. Germline inactivation of one allele of the SLN gene normalizes SLN expression, restores SERCA function, mitigates skeletal muscle and cardiac pathology, improves muscle regeneration, and extends the lifespan...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051224/advanced-glycation-end-products-impair-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-innate-immune-responses-in-macrophages
#11
Seunghwan Son, Inhwa Hwang, Seung Hyeok Han, Jeon-Soo Shin, Ok Sarah Shin, Je-Wook Yu
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are adducts formed on proteins by glycation with reducing sugars, such as glucose, and tend to form and accumulate under hyperglycemic conditions. AGE accumulation alters protein function and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases such as diabetic complications. AGEs have also been shown to promote the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but the roles of AGEs in inflammasome signaling have not been explored in detail. Here, we present evidence that AGEs attenuate activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) as determined by caspase-1 processing and interleukin-1β production...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051080/antiviral-activity-of-fenretinide-against-zika-virus
#12
Jared D Pitts, Pi-Chun Li, Melissanne de Wispelaere, Priscilla L Yang
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in recent years has highlighted the severe diseases associated with ZIKV infection, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns. Yet, no vaccines or antivirals currently exist to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. We and others have previously identified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (fenretinide or 4-HPR) as an antiviral compound that inhibits dengue virus 2 (DV2) and other flaviviruses by limiting the steady-state accumulation of viral RNA. Here we show that 4-HPR potently inhibits Zika virus (ZIKV) in mammalian cell culture and significantly reduces both serum viremia and brain viral burden in a murine model of ZIKV infection...
October 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051052/pea-early-browning-virus-mediated-genome-editing-via-the-crispr-cas9-system-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-and-arabidopsis
#13
Zahir Ali, Ayman Eid, Shakila Ali, Magdy M Mahfouz
The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) system has enabled efficient genome engineering in diverse plant species. However, delivery of genome engineering reagents, such as the single guide RNA (sgRNA), into plant cells remains challenging. Here, we report the engineering of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and Pea early browning virus (PEBV) to deliver one or multiple sgRNAs into Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) plants that overexpress a nuclear localization signal containing Cas9...
October 16, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050792/comparison-of-molecular-detection-pcr-methods-for-chequa-iflavirus-in-freshwater-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#14
Kitikarn Sakuna, Jennifer Elliman, Leigh Owens
Chequa iflavirus (+ve sense ssRNA virus) infects redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and it may cause mortality reaching 20-40% after about three weeks following stress. The sequence of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase at nucleotide position 8383-9873 was used for developing and comparing PCR-based detection protocols. The reverse transcription, quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was specific against nine Picornavirales and crustacean viruses and its' measurement of uncertainty (0.07-1...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049126/shear-wave-elastography-for-the-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-liver-transplant-recipients-treated-for-hepatitis-c-virus-recurrence
#15
David Korda, Zsuzsanna M Lenard, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Zsuzsanna Jakab, Anita Haboub-Sandil, Laszlo Wagner, Marina Varga, Orsolya Cseprekal, Adrienn Marton, Denes Horvathy, Szabolcs Takacs, Attila Doros, Zoltan Mathe
OBJECTIVES: Direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized hepatitis C therapy, and are also found to be effective in the liver transplant setting. The extent of liver fibrosis influences patient management and is used to monitor therapeutic effects. Shear-wave elastography (SWE) is a relatively new imaging-based method that has not yet been studied extensively in liver transplant patients. Our aim was to study the effect of direct-acting antivirals in heaptitis C recurrence on liver stiffness determined by SWE...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/title-site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048593/fidelity-of-rna-templated-end-joining-by-chlorella-virus-dna-ligase-and-a-novel-ilock-assay-with-improved-direct-rna-detection-accuracy
#17
Tomasz Krzywkowski, Mats Nilsson
Ligation-based nucleic acid detection methods are primarily limited to DNA, since they exhibit poor performance on RNA. This is attributed to reduced end-joining efficiency and/or fidelity of ligases. Interestingly, chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase) has recently been shown to possess high RNA-templated DNA end-joining activity; however, its fidelity has not yet been systematically evaluated. Herein, we characterized PBCV-1 ligase for its RNA-templated end-joining fidelity at single base mismatches in 3' and 5' DNA probe termini and found an overall limited end-joining fidelity...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048459/an-efficient-large-scale-survey-of-hepatitis-c-viremia-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-using-dried-blood-spots
#18
Jonathan B Parr, Evans K Lodge, Vera Holzmayer, Jacques Pepin, Eric H Frost, Michael W Fried, David R McGivern, Stanley M Lemon, Corinna Keeler, Michael Emch, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Franck Fwamba, Jérémie Muwonga, Steven R Meshnick, Gavin Cloherty
Background: Efficient viral load testing is needed for hepatitis C (HCV) surveillance and diagnosis. HCV viral load testing using dried blood spots (DBSs), made with a single drop of finger-prick whole blood on filter paper, is a promising alternative to traditional serum- or plasma-based approaches. Methods: We adapted the Abbott Molecular m2000 instrument for high-throughput HCV viremia testing using DBSs with simple specimen processing and applied these methods to estimate the national burden of infection in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048293/long-term-viruria-in-zika-virus-infected-pregnant-women-brazil-2016
#19
Ana Carolina B Terzian, Cássia Fernanda Estofolete, Rafael Alves da Silva, Denise Cristina Mós Vaz-Oliani, Antonio Hélio Oliani, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Paula Rahal, Maurício L Nogueira
During the 2016 Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, we detected Zika virus RNA in urine samples collected from Zika virus-positive pregnant women during different stages of pregnancy. Women had positive and negative intervals of viruria; 3 newborns had adverse outcomes. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between viruria and outcomes for newborns.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048276/the-breadth-of-viruses-in-human-semen
#20
Alex P Salam, Peter W Horby
Zika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen of men after Zika virus infection. To learn more about persistence of viruses in genital fluids, we searched PubMed for relevant articles. We found evidence that 27 viruses, across a broad range of virus families, can be found in human semen.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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