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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458130/impact-of-rna-polymerase-i-inhibitor-cx-5461-on-viral-kinase-dependent-and-independent-cytomegalovirus-replication
#1
Kristen N Westdorp, Scott S Terhune
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections cause congenital birth defects and disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Antiviral compounds can control infection yet their use is restricted due to concerns of toxicity and the emergence of drug resistant strains. We have evaluated the impact of an RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) inhibitor, CX-5461 on HCMV replication. CX-5461 inhibits Pol I-mediated ribosomal DNA transcription by binding G-quadruplex DNA structures and also activates cellular stress response pathways. The addition of CX-5461 at both early and late stages of the HCMV infection inhibited viral DNA synthesis and virus production...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458129/honeysuckle-encoded-microrna2911-inhibits-enterovirus-71-replication-via-targeting-vp1-gene
#2
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Menghuai Sun, Hong Ji, Hui Dou, Jia Hu, Yanfeng Yan, Xu Wang, Leiyao Chen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in children and virus infections are associated with severe neurological dysfunctions and even death. MIR2911 is a honeysuckle-encoded atypical microRNA with extremely stability. Here, we report that MIR2911 directly inhibits EV71 replication by targeting the VP1 gene. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase reporter assay showed that MIR2911 could target the VP1 gene of EV71. Transfection experiments using synthetic MIR2911 and extracted RNA from HS decoction shown that each of these preparations was capable of inhibiting EV71 VP1 protein expression; however, these preparations did not impact EV71 mutants in which the MIR2911-binding sites were mutated...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457639/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-large-cohort-study-in-yunnan-province-china
#3
Shiyi Zhou, Li Ren, Xueshan Xia, Zhijiang Miao, Fen Huang, Yunlong Li, Mei Zhu, Zhenrong Xie, Yu Xu, Yuan Qian, Qiuwei Pan, Kunhua Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients often results in distinct outcome, compared to the infection in general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, potential risk factors and clinical features of HEV infection among HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province, China. METHODS: A total of 770 HIV-infected patients between May 2015 and February 2016 were enrolled in Yunnan, China...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455279/divergent-selection-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-mammals-with-different-ecological-characteristics
#4
Ran Tian, Meixiu Chen, Simin Chai, Xinghua Rong, Bingyao Chen, Wenhua Ren, Shixia Xu, Guang Yang
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are specialized receptors that represent a key component of the host innate immune system. Whether molecular evolutionary history of different PRR classes have involved different genetic mechanisms underlying diverse pathogen environment in mammals, and whether distinct ecology of mammals may have imposed divergent selective pressures on the evolution of the PRRs, remained unknown. To test these hypotheses, we investigated the characterization of 20 genes belonging to four PRR classes in mammals...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455065/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-type-o-specific-mutations-determine-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-fidelity-and-virus-attenuation
#5
Chen Li, Haiwei Wang, Tiangang Yuan, Andrew Woodman, Decheng Yang, Guohui Zhou, Craig E Cameron, Li Yu
Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3Dpol fidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. The rescued viruses O-DA and O-DAMM are lower replication fidelity mutants and showed an attenuated phenotype. These results demonstrated that the same amino acid substitution of 3Dpol in different serotypes of FMDV strains had different effects on viral fidelity...
February 15, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455063/an-alanine-residue-in-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-phosphoprotein-is-critical-for-restricting-excessive-n-0-p-interaction-and-maintaining-n-solubility
#6
Shengwei Zhang, Qi Cheng, Chenxi Luo, Lei Yin, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
The phosphoprotein (P) of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) plays a pivotal role in viral RNA synthesis, which interacts with the nucleoprotein (N) to form a soluble N0 -P complex (N0 , free of RNAs) to prevent the nonspecific RNA binding and illegitimate aggregation of N. Functional regions within P have been studied intensively. However, the precise site (s) within P directly involved in N0 -P interaction still remains unclear. In this study, using a series of deleted and truncated mutants of P of HPIV3, we demonstrate that amino-terminal 40 amino acids (aa) of P restrict and regulate N0 -P interaction...
February 15, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454892/fexaramine-as-an-entry-blocker-for-feline-caliciviruses
#7
Yunjeong Kim, Kyeong-Ok Chang
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a small non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.7 kb. FCV is a highly infectious pathogen of cats and typically causes moderate, self-limiting acute oral and upper respiratory tract diseases or chronic oral diseases. In addition, in recent years, virulent, systemic FCV (vs-FCV) strains causing severe systemic diseases with a high mortality rate of up to 67% have been reported in cats. Although FCV vaccines are commercially available, their efficacy is limited due to antigenic diversity of FCV strains and short duration of immunity...
February 15, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454707/crystal-structure-of-the-capsid-protein-from-zika-virus
#8
Zifang Shang, Hao Song, Yi Shi, Jianxun Qi, George F Gao
Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern, and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, e.g., causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454614/selenium-deficiency-aggravates-t-2-toxin-induced-injury-of-primary-neonatal-rat-cardiomyocytes-through-er-stress
#9
Jing Xu, Shengchi Pan, Fang Gan, Shu Hao, Dandan Liu, Haibin Xu, Kehe Huang
Keshan disease is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy in humans. Selenium deficiency, T-2 toxin, and myocarditis virus are thought to be the major factors contributing to Keshan disease. But the relationship among these three factors is poorly described. This study aims to explore whether selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanism. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat and cultured at the physiological (2.0 μM) or lower concentrations of selenium with different concentrations of T-2 toxin...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454370/isolation-of-a-novel-rhabdovirus-from-an-insectivorous-bat-pipistrellus-kuhlii-in-italy
#10
Davide Lelli, Alice Prosperi, Ana Moreno, Chiara Chiapponi, Anna Maria Gibellini, Paola De Benedictis, Stefania Leopardi, Enrica Sozzi, Antonio Lavazza
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Bats, among mammals, are pointed to harbor a significantly higher proportion of unknown or emerging viruses with zoonotic potential. Herein, we report the isolation of a novel rhabdovirus, detected in the framework of a virological survey on bats implemented in North Italy. METHODS: Virus isolation and identification were performed on samples of 635 bats by using cell cultures, negative staining electron microscopy and PCRs for different viruses...
February 17, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453967/discovery-of-anti-viral-molecules-and-their-vital-functions-in-bombyx-mori
#11
REVIEW
Peng Lü, Ye Pan, Yanhua Yang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
The silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), a lepidopteran model organism, has become an important model for molecular biology researches with its genome completely sequenced. Silkworms confront different types of virus diseases, mainly including those caused by Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), Bombyx mori densovirus type 1 (BmDNV-1), Bombyx mori bidesovirus (BmBDV) which was termed as Bombyx mori densovirus type 2 (BmDNV-2) or Bombyx mori parvo-like virus (BmPLV) before in sericulture. B. mori offers excellent models to study the molecular mechanisms of insect innate immune responses to viruses...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453938/barley-stripe-mosaic-virus-infection-requires-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-b-for-suppression-of-both-rna-silencing-and-the-host-cell-death-response
#12
Xuan Zhang, Kai Dong, Kai Xu, Kun Zhang, Xuejiao Jin, Meng Yang, Yongliang Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Dawei Li
The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb protein is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and symptom determinant. However, it is unclear how post-translational modification affects the different functions of γb. Here, we demonstrate that γb is phosphorylated at Ser-96 by a PKA-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a nonphosphorylatable substitution (BSMV S 96A or BSMV S 96R ) exhibited reduced viral accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana due to transient induction of the cell death response that constrained the virus to necrotic areas...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453856/defective-rna-sensing-by-rig-i-in-severe-influenza-virus-infection
#13
Sofie Eg Jørgensen, Mette Christiansen, Laura Barrett Ryø, Hans Henrik Gad, Jakob Gjedsted, Peter Staeheli, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Merete Storgaard, Rune Hartmann, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
Influenza virus infection causes worldwide seasonal epidemics. Although influenza usually is a mild disease, a minority of patients experience very severe fulminating disease courses. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for type I interferon (IFN) in antiviral responses during influenza. However, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7 deficiency is so far the only genetic cause of severe influenza described in humans. In this study we present a patient with severe influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453099/impact-of-integrated-viral-dna-on-the-goal-to-clear-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-with-different-therapeutic-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Magnus Lindh, Gustaf E Rydell, Simon B Larsson
A hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of patients. Sustained loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg from the blood are main goals for treatment, and considered as functional cure. It is rarely achieved with long-term nucleoside analogue treatment though, both because cccDNA, the template for viral replication, is not completely cleared, and probably also because hepatocytes with HBV DNA integrated into their chromosomes persist and continue to produce large amounts of HBsAg...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452403/mechanisms-controlling-nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors
#15
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452366/prevalence-and-incidence-of-anal-and-cervical-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-hpv-types-covered-by-current-hpv-vaccines-among-hiv-infected-women-in-the-study-to-understand-the-natural-history-of-hiv-aids-in-the-era-of-effective-therapy-the-sun-study
#16
Erna Milunka Kojic, Lois Conley, Tim Bush, Susan Cu-Uvin, Elizabeth R Unger, Keith Henry, John Hammer, Gerome Escota, Teresa M Darragh, Joel M Palefsky, John T Brooks, Pragna Patel
Background: Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. Methods: From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451494/single-cell-transcriptional-dynamics-of-flavivirus-infection
#17
Fabio Zanini, Szu-Yuan Pu, Elena Bekerman, Shirit Einav, Stephen R Quake
Dengue and Zika viral infections affect millions of people annually and can be complicated by hemorrhage or neurological manifestations, respectively. However, a thorough understanding of the host response to these viruses is lacking, partly because conventional approaches ignore heterogeneity in virus abundance across cells. We present viscRNA-Seq (virus-inclusive single cell RNA-Seq), an approach to probe the host transcriptome together with intracellular viral RNA at the single cell level. We applied viscRNA-Seq to monitor dengue and Zika virus infection in cultured cells and discovered extreme heterogeneity in virus abundance...
February 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450759/gene-expression-and-population-polymorphism-of-maize-iranian-mosaic-virus-in-zea-mays-and-intracellular-localization-and-interactions-of-viral-n-p-and-m-proteins-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#18
Abozar Ghorbani, Keramatollah Izadpanah, Ralf G Dietzgen
Maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV; Mononegavirales, Rhabdoviridae, Nucleorhabdovirus) infects maize and several other poaceous plants. MIMV encodes six proteins, i.e., nucleocapsid protein (N), polymerase cofactor phosphoprotein (P), putative movement protein (P3), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and large RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). In the present study, MIMV gene expression and genetic polymorphism of an MIMV population in maize were determined. N, P, P3, and M protein genes were more highly expressed than the 5' terminal G and L genes...
February 15, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450199/transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-e-nat-screening-of-blood-donations-and-infectious-dose
#19
Jens Dreier, Cornelius Knabbe, Tanja Vollmer
The risk and importance of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (TT-HEV) infections by contaminated blood products is currently a controversial discussed topic in transfusion medicine. The infectious dose, in particular, remains an unknown quantity. In the present study, we illuminate and review this aspect seen from the viewpoint of a blood donation service with more than 2 years of experience in routine HEV blood donor screening. We systematically review the actual status of presently known cases of TT-HEV infections and available routine NAT-screening assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449856/efficient-detection-of-long-dsrna-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-the-dsrna-binding-domain-from-fhv-b2-protein
#20
Baptiste Monsion, Marco Incarbone, Kamal Hleibieh, Vianney Poignavent, Ahmed Ghannam, Patrice Dunoyer, Laurent Daeffler, Jens Tilsner, Christophe Ritzenthaler
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) plays essential functions in many biological processes, including the activation of innate immune responses and RNA interference. dsRNA also represents the genetic entity of some viruses and is a hallmark of infections by positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Methods for detecting dsRNA rely essentially on immunological approaches and their use is often limited to in vitro applications, although recent developments have allowed the visualization of dsRNA in vivo . Here, we report the sensitive and rapid detection of long dsRNA both in vitro and in vivo using the dsRNA binding domain of the B2 protein from Flock house virus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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