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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792007/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-foxp3-gene-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Arezou Sayad, Mir Davood Omrani, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad, Rezvan Noroozi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Reza Mirfakhraie, Abolfazl Movafagh, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Tahereh Azimi, Hidetoshi Inoko, Mohammad Taheri
BACKGROUND: Although Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune multifactorial disease with unknown etiology, various genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have confirmed that the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (T (reg)) is impaired in MS patients and that the FOXP3 gene is a crucial transcription factor in the regulation of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the FOXP3 gene may alter the gene expression level and, therefore, contribute to the disease susceptibility...
October 21, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765276/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-9-in-gynecologic-cancer
#2
E Fehri, E Ennaifer, R Bel Haj Rhouma, L Guizani-Tabbane, I Guizani, S Boubaker
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a major role in the fight against DNA viruses infections. Despite its antitumor properties, inappropriate activation of TLR9 during chronic inflammation may cause the activation of transcription factors inducing pro-cancerous activities. Thus, the relationship between TLR9 and cancer remains highly confrontational especially in gynecological cancers and cervical cancer induced by viruses. In this review, we focus on the beneficial and detrimental role of TLR9 in gynecological carcinogenesis...
July 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715088/how-isotropic-is-the-universe
#3
Daniela Saadeh, Stephen M Feeney, Andrew Pontzen, Hiranya V Peiris, Jason D McEwen
A fundamental assumption in the standard model of cosmology is that the Universe is isotropic on large scales. Breaking this assumption leads to a set of solutions to Einstein's field equations, known as Bianchi cosmologies, only a subset of which have ever been tested against data. For the first time, we consider all degrees of freedom in these solutions to conduct a general test of isotropy using cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data from Planck. For the vector mode (associated with vorticity), we obtain a limit on the anisotropic expansion of (σ_{V}/H)_{0}<4...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678500/applications-and-mechanisms-of-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#4
Jasper H Kappen, Stephen R Durham, Hans In 't Veen, Mohamed H Shamji
Clinical and immunologic tolerance are hallmarks of successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Clinical benefits such as reduced symptoms, pharmacotherapy intake and improvement of quality of life persist following cessation of treatment. Successful AIT is associated with suppression of allergic inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils in target organs. Furthermore, AIT down-regulates type 2 innate lymphoid cells and allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells. The immunologic tolerant state following AIT is associated with the induction of distinct phenotypes of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) including interleukin (IL)-10-, IL-35- and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β- producing T-regs and FoxP3(+) T-regs...
September 27, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676155/coexistence-of-th1-th2-and-th17-treg-imbalances-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-sepsis
#5
Dublu Lal Gupta, Sanjeev Bhoi, Teena Mohan, Sagar Galwnkar, D N Rao
INTRODUCTION: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) developed due to the insult of trauma is a leading cause of death. The high mortality rate in these patients with and without sepsis has been reported up to 50%, throughout the world and thus required an urgent insight to overcome this problem. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the differential changes in subsets of T cells, imbalance in cytokine profile, immune-paralysis (T cell anergy) in Trauma hemorrhagic shock (THS) and post traumatic sepsis patients...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554813/probiotic-supplementation-has-little-effect-on-peripheral-blood-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cells
#6
Nicholas P West, Peggy L Horn, David B Pyne, Hilary S Warren, Suzanne Asad, Amanda J Cox, Sampo J Lahtinen, Markus J Lehtinen, Peter A Fricker, Allan W Cripps, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526711/exogenous-tnfr2-activation-protects-from-acute-gvhd-via-host-t-reg-cell-expansion
#7
Martin Chopra, Marlene Biehl, Tim Steinfatt, Andreas Brandl, Juliane Kums, Jorge Amich, Martin Vaeth, Janina Kuen, Rafaela Holtappels, Jürgen Podlech, Anja Mottok, Sabrina Kraus, Ana-Laura Jordán-Garrote, Carina A Bäuerlein, Christian Brede, Eliana Ribechini, Andrea Fick, Axel Seher, Johannes Polz, Katja J Ottmüller, Jeanette Baker, Hidekazu Nishikii, Miriam Ritz, Katharina Mattenheimer, Stefanie Schwinn, Thorsten Winter, Viktoria Schäfer, Sven Krappmann, Hermann Einsele, Thomas D Müller, Matthias J Reddehase, Manfred B Lutz, Daniela N Männel, Friederike Berberich-Siebelt, Harald Wajant, Andreas Beilhack
Donor CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT [allo-HCT]). Current clinical study protocols rely on the ex vivo expansion of donor T reg cells and their infusion in high numbers. In this study, we present a novel strategy for inhibiting GvHD that is based on the in vivo expansion of recipient T reg cells before allo-HCT, exploiting the crucial role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) in T reg cell biology...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523950/cytokine-gene-expression-in-aborting-and-non-aborting-dams-and-in-their-foetuses-after-experimental-infection-with-neospora-caninum-at-110-days-of-gestation
#8
S Almeria, B Serrano-Pérez, L Darwich, R Mur-Novales, I Garcia-Ispierto, O Cabezón, F López-Gatius
Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, it is not known why not all infected animals abort. In this study, Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL4) and T reg (IL-10) cytokine gene expression was examined by real time PCR using the TaqMan approach in all of these dams and their foetuses after experimental infection with the isolate Nc-Spain7 at 110 days of pregnancy and euthanasia 6 weeks after infection. In prior published work, foetal death was observed in three of six infected dams and transplacental infection in all the 6 infected foetuses...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508639/-op-2d-04-perivascular-t-regulatory-cells-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-atherosclerosis
#9
K Urbanski, G Filip, M Filip, D Ludew, P Szczepaniak, R Nosalski, A Sagan, T Mikolajczyk, B Kapelak, T J Guzik
OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease associated with an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. While ample evidence is available in animal models, less is known about links between local vascular inflammation in human disease. T regulatory cells (Treg) have been implicated in atherosclerosis in mice but links with human vascular inflammation are poorly understood. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the relationship between T regs in peripheral blood and locally in perivascular adipose tissue (pVAT) with endothelial function as a key mechanism in pathogenesis of vascular disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477596/immunophenotyping-of-t-cells-in-the-peripheral-circulation-in-psoriasis
#10
M Priyadarssini, D Divya Priya, S Indhumathi, Medha Rajappa, Laxmisha Chandrashekar, D M Thappa
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a T-helper (Th)-1/Th17-mediated chronic inflammatory disease. Cytokine mediated interaction between T lymphocytes and keratinocytes lead to keratinocyte hyper-proliferation, which leads to further inflammation in the psoriatic plaques. There is an increased population of T-helper cells in the skin lesions as well as in the peripheral circulation in psoriasis. However, the relative percentage of each T-cell phenotype in the disease pathogenesis is understudied...
August 1, 2016: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441095/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induces-expansion-of-foxp3-positive-cd4-t-cells-with-a-regulatory-profile-in-tuberculin-non-sensitized-healthy-subjects-implications-for-effective-immunization-against-tb
#11
Christina S Hirsch, Roxana Rojas, Mianda Wu, Zahra Toossi
OBJECTIVE: Infection by MTB or exposure to MTB constituents is associated with intense microbial stimulation of the immune system, through both antigenic and TLR components, and induction of a milieu that is rich in pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we addressed the basis of induced regulatory T-cell (iT-reg) expansion in response to MTB stimulation, in the absence of prior T cell antigen responsiveness. METHODS: PBMC from HIV-1 un-infected TST negative and TST positive control subjects were stimulated by virulent MTB H37Rv lysate (L), a French press preparation of MTB that includes all bacterial components...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437104/b-cell-regulation-of-the-anti-tumor-response-and-role-in-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Marc Schwartz, Yu Zhang, Joseph D Rosenblatt
The balance between immune effector cells such as T cells and natural killer cells, and immunosuppressive Treg cells, dendritic, myeloid and monocytic sub-populations in the tumor microenvironment acts to calibrate the immune response to malignant cells. Accumulating evidence is pointing to a role for B cells in modulating the immune response to both solid tumors and hematologic cancer. Evidence from murine autoimmune models has defined B regulatory cell (Breg) subsets that express cytokines such as IL-10, TGF-β, and/or express immune regulatory ligands such as PD-L1, which can suppress T cell and/or natural killer cell responses...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404095/recombinant-hla-g-as-tolerogenic-immunomodulant-in-experimental-small-bowel-transplantation
#13
Martin W von Websky, Koji Kitamura, Isis Ludwig-Portugall, Christian Kurts, Maximilian von Laffert, Joel LeMaoult, Edgardo D Carosella, Kareem Abu-Elmagd, Joerg C Kalff, Nico Schäfer
The non-classical MHC I paralogue HLA-G is expressed by cytotrophoblast cells and implicated with fetomaternal tolerance by downregulating the maternal adaptive and innate immune response against the fetus. HLA-G expression correlates with favorable graft outcome in humans and recently promising immunosuppressive effects of therapeutic HLA-G in experimental transplantation (skin allograft acceptance) were shown. Consequently, we examined this novel therapeutic approach in solid organ transplantation. In this study, therapeutic recombinant HLA-G5 was evaluated for the first time in a solid organ model of acute rejection (ACR) after orthotopic intestinal transplantation (ITX)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393133/physiologic-doses-of-bilirubin-contribute-to-tolerance-of-islet-transplants-by-suppressing-the-innate-immune-response
#14
Christopher A Adin, Zachary C VanGundy, Tracey L Papenfuss, Feng Xu, Mostafa Ghanem, Jonathan Lakey, Gregg A Hadley
Bilirubin has been recognized as a powerful cytoprotectant when used at physiologic doses and was recently shown to have immunomodulatory effects in islet allograft transplantation, conveying donor specific tolerance in a murine model. We hypothesized that bilirubin, an antioxidant, acts to suppress the innate immune response to islet allografts through two mechanisms: 1) by suppressing graft release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and inflammatory cytokines, and 2) by producing a tolerogenic phenotype in antigen presenting cells...
July 7, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377588/cd6-modulates-thymocyte-selection-and-peripheral-t-cell-homeostasis
#15
Marc Orta-Mascaró, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Esther Carreras, Romain Roncagalli, Amado Carreras-Sureda, Pilar Alvarez, Laura Girard, Inês Simões, Mario Martínez-Florensa, Fernando Aranda, Ramón Merino, Vanesa-Gabriela Martínez, Rubén Vicente, Jesús Merino, Adelaida Sarukhan, Marie Malissen, Bernard Malissen, Francisco Lozano
The CD6 glycoprotein is a lymphocyte surface receptor putatively involved in T cell development and activation. CD6 facilitates adhesion between T cells and antigen-presenting cells through its interaction with CD166/ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule), and physically associates with the T cell receptor (TCR) at the center of the immunological synapse. However, its precise role during thymocyte development and peripheral T cell immune responses remains to be defined. Here, we analyze the in vivo consequences of CD6 deficiency...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285924/technical-note-prediction-of-chemical-rib-section-composition-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-zebu-beef-cattle
#16
L F Prados, D Zanetti, P M Amaral, L D S Mariz, D F T Sathler, S C Valadares Filho, F F Silva, B C Silva, M C Pacheco, H M Alhadas, M L Chizzotti
It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270893/anti-tnf-drives-regulatory-t-cell-expansion-by-paradoxically-promoting-membrane-tnf-tnf-rii-binding-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Dao Xuan Nguyen, Michael R Ehrenstein
The interplay between inflammatory and regulatory pathways orchestrates an effective immune response that provides protection from pathogens while limiting injury to host tissue. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pivotal inflammatory cytokine, but there is conflicting evidence as to whether it boosts or inhibits regulatory T cells (T reg cells). In this study, we show that the therapeutic anti-TNF antibody adalimumab, but not the soluble TNF receptor etanercept, paradoxically promoted the interaction between monocytes and T reg cells isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
June 27, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244900/retinoic-acid-treated-human-dendritic-cells-induce-t-regulatory-cells-via-the-expression-of-cd141-and-garp-which-is-impaired-with-age
#18
Sudhanshu Agrawal, Sreerupa Ganguly, Alexander Tran, Padmaja Sundaram, Anshu Agrawal
Aged subjects display increased susceptibility to mucosal diseases. Retinoic Acid (RA) plays a major role in inducing tolerance in the mucosa. RA acts on Dendritic cells (DCs) to induce mucosal tolerance. Here we compared the response of DCs from aged and young individuals to RA with a view to understand the role of DCs in age-associated increased susceptibility to mucosal diseases. Our investigations revealed that compared to young DCs, RA stimulated DCs from aged subjects are defective in inducing IL-10 and T regulatory cells...
June 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27230380/gene-microbiota-interactions-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Hiutung Chu, Arya Khosravi, Indah P Kusumawardhani, Alice H K Kwon, Anilton C Vasconcelos, Larissa D Cunha, Anne E Mayer, Yue Shen, Wei-Li Wu, Amal Kambal, Stephan R Targan, Ramnik J Xavier, Peter B Ernst, Douglas R Green, Dermot P B McGovern, Herbert W Virgin, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with risk variants in the human genome and dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, though unifying principles for these findings remain largely undescribed. The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis delivers immunomodulatory molecules to immune cells via secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We reveal that OMVs require IBD-associated genes, ATG16L1 and NOD2, to activate a noncanonical autophagy pathway during protection from colitis. ATG16L1-deficient dendritic cells do not induce regulatory T cells (T(regs)) to suppress mucosal inflammation...
May 27, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212156/peripheral-blood-regulatory-t-cell-measurements-correlate-with-serum-vitamin-d-level-in-patients-with-psoriasis
#20
C Mattozzi, G Paolino, M Salvi, L Macaluso, C Luci, S Morrone, S Calvieri, A G Richetta
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D is the precursor of a hormone (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), which has many biological effects in the skin. The immune modulator properties of vitamin D are mediated in part through effects on regulatory T cells (T-reg). Currently, in psoriasis, the relationship between vitamin D and T-reg has not well elucidated. We assess whether vitamin D status is correlated with circulating T-reg in patients affected by psoriasis and if there is a correlation with the severity of the disease evaluated with Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score...
May 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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