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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524239/oral-contraceptive-pills-risky-or-protective-in-case-of-trichinella-spiralis-infection
#1
Marwa A Hasby Saad, Dina A Radi, Eiman A Hasby
AIM: to investigate how Trichinella spiralis infection can be affected by contraceptive pills invivo. METHODS: included six groups of female Wistar rats; healthy, Trichinella infected, receiving combined contraceptive pills (COCPs), receiving progestin only pills (POPs), infected receiving COCPs and infected receiving POPs. Parasite burden was measured (two gender worm counts, gravidity, larvae/muscle and RCI). Histopathological examination, immunohistochemical detection of C-kit mast cells & Foxp3+ T-reg...
May 19, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507062/interleukin-4-promotes-the-development-of-ex-foxp3-th2-cells-during-immunity-to-intestinal-helminths
#2
Victoria S Pelly, Stephanie M Coomes, Yashaswini Kannan, Manolis Gialitakis, Lewis J Entwistle, Jimena Perez-Lloret, Stephanie Czieso, Isobel S Okoye, Dominik Rückerl, Judith E Allen, Frank Brombacher, Mark S Wilson
Immunity to intestinal helminth infections requires the rapid activation of T helper 2 cells (Th2 cells). However, simultaneous expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) impedes protective responses, resulting in chronic infections. The ratio between T reg and effector T cells can therefore determine the outcome of infection. The redifferentiation of T reg cells into Th cells has been identified in hyperinflammatory diseases. In this study, we asked whether ex-T reg Th2 cells develop and contribute to type-2 immunity...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502136/cd4-cd25-cd127low-regulatory-t-cells-as-indicator-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-activity
#3
Sahar S Khattab, Amany M El-Saied, Rehab A Mohammed, Eman E Mohamed
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by disturbed immune regulation, inducing a progressive cartilage and bone destruction. Despite enrichment of T regulatory cell (T-regs) in synovial fluid, conflicting results are reported concerning T-regs in peripheral blood (PB) of RA patients. To determine possible correlation between the frequency of PB CD4+ CD25+CD127low (T-regs) with RA disease activity. Forty females with RA, classified according to the Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS-28), as highly active, mild-moderate or low disease activity; and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls, were enrolled to study CD4+ CD25+ CD127low T- regs in PB by flow cytometry...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457204/assessing-cognitive-representations-of-antidepressants-development-and-validation-of-the-attitudes-toward-medication-depression-inventory
#4
Bonnie M Hagerty, Reg A Williams, James Aikens, Melissa A Bathish, Brady T West, Douglas S Fuller, Joe Kazemi
Antidepressant drugs represent the mainstay of treatment for depression; however, nonadherence is a major problem. Attitudes are predictors of long-term adherence and drive medication use. The Attitudes Toward Medication-Depression (ATM-D) Inventory was developed and tested with 131 patients in primary care settings who reported a diagnosis of depression. Content validity was assessed by experts with a 94.4% agreement on item relevancy. Exploratory factor analysis showed three factors (course of medication treatment, identity, and control) that accounted for 57% of the total variance in the final 17-item scale...
April 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362433/il-2-prevents-deletion-of-developing-t-regulatory-cells-in-the-thymus
#5
Daniel Y Hu, Rushika C Wirasinha, Christopher C Goodnow, Stephen R Daley
In the thymus, strongly self-reactive T cells may undergo apoptotic deletion or differentiate into Foxp3+ T-regulatory (T-reg) cells. Mechanisms that partition T cells into these two fates are unclear. Here, we show that IL-2 signalling is required to prevent deletion of CD4+ CD8- CCR7+ Helios+ thymocytes poised to upregulate Foxp3. The deletion prevented by IL-2 signalling is Foxp3 independent and occurs later in thymocyte development than the deletion that is prevented by Card11 signalling. Our results distinguish two bottlenecks at which strongly self-reactive thymocytes undergo deletion or progress to the next stage of T-reg differentiation; Card11 regulates the first bottleneck and IL-2 regulates the second...
June 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351463/tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-use-among-privately-insured-persons-in-the-united-states
#6
K Owusu-Edusei, E L Stockbridge, C A Winston, M Kolasa, R Miramontes
OBJECTIVE: To describe tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (i.e., QuantiFERON®-TB [QFT] and T-SPOT®.TB [T-SPOT]) use among privately insured persons in the United States over a 15-year period. METHODS: We used current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for the TST and IGRAs to extract out-patient claims (2000-2014) and determined usage (claims/100 000). The χ2 test for trend in proportions was used to describe usage trends for select periods...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332200/immunoregulation-of-inflammatory-and-inhibitory-cytokines-by-vitamin-d3-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-ibd
#7
REVIEW
Hussaini Mohammed Alhassan, Abbas Mirshafiey, Homayoun Vahedi, Gholamreza Hemmasi, Ateke Moussavi Nasl Khameneh, Karim Parastouei, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of Vitamin D3 in IBD patients exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T-cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of Vitamin D3 on naïve T-cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T-cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-5...
March 22, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316421/immunophenotyping-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-p-berghei-nk-65-infected-and-immunized-balb-c-mice
#8
Vineet Kumar, Aruna Rakha, Ruchika Saroa, Upma Bagai
The present study demonstrates the alterations in the frequencies of helper, cytotoxic and suppressor T cells in blood of P. berghei infected and TPA immunized rodent host towards the induction of protective immune response. Statistically significant (p < 0.005) number of CD4(+) T cells was recorded on D9 [Post Challenge (PC)] meanwhile CD4(+) Treg cells were found to be declined in immunized mice as compared to infected. This increase in frequencies of T helper cells points towards the stimulation of strong Th2 immune response in immunized mice...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293742/the-accumulation-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-the-hepatic-hilar-lymph-nodes-in-biliary-atresia
#9
Naoya Sakamoto, Toshihiro Muraji, Haruo Ohtani, Kouji Masumoto
PURPOSE: A proposed etiopathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA) involves T-cell-mediated inflammatory bile duct damage and progressive hepatic fibrosis. Pediatric surgeons often observe swelling of the hepatic hilar lymph nodes during the Kasai procedure. Given the importance of regulatory mechanisms in immune responses, the present study was designed to analyze the quantitative changes of regulatory T cells (T reg cells) in the hepatic hilar lymph nodes (hepatic hilar LNs) and peripheral blood (PB) in BA...
March 14, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271497/chronic-schistosomiasis-during-pregnancy-epigenetically-reprograms-t-cell-differentiation-in-offspring-of-infected-mothers
#10
Kathrin Klar, Sophie Perchermeier, Sonakshi Bhattacharjee, Hani Harb, Thure Adler, Rouzanna Istvanffy, Eva Loffredo-Verde, Robert R A Oostendorp, Harald Renz, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Schistosomiasis is a nontransplacental helminth infection. Chronic infection during pregnancy suppresses allergic airway responses in offspring. We addressed the question whether in utero exposure to chronic schistosome infection (Reg phase) in mice affects B-cell and T-cell development. Therefore, we focused our analyses on T-cell differentiation capacity induced by epigenetic changes in promoter regions of signature cytokines in offspring. Here, we show that naïve T cells from offspring of schistosome infected female mice had a strong capacity to differentiate into TH 1 cells, whereas TH 2 differentiation was impaired...
May 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228153/assessment-of-axillary-temperature-for-the-evaluation-of-normal-body-temperature-of-healthy-young-adults-at-rest-in-a-thermoneutral-environment
#11
Shuri Marui, Ayaka Misawa, Yuki Tanaka, Kei Nagashima
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature. METHODS: Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191026/supplementation-with-dairy-calcium-and-or-flaxseed-fibers-in-conjunction-with-orlistat-augments-fecal-fat-excretion-without-altering-ratings-of-gastrointestinal-comfort
#12
Mette Kristensen, Signe Rømer Juul, Karina Vejrum Sørensen, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND: Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor which reduced absorption of dietary fat by ~30% thereby inducing a weight loss; however, side effects occur as a consequence of increased colonic fat content. To test the hypothesis that most gastrointestinal side events induced by treatment with orlistat could be prevented/ameliorated by concomitant use of natural dietary components, flaxseed fiber (FF) and/or dairy calcium (Ca), binding liquid fats to more solid complexes. METHODS: A randomized controlled dietary intervention study...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130403/suppression-of-lethal-autoimmunity-by-regulatory-t-cells-with-a-single-tcr-specificity
#13
Andrew G Levine, Saskia Hemmers, Antonio P Baptista, Michail Schizas, Mehlika B Faire, Bruno Moltedo, Catherine Konopacki, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, Ronald N Germain, Piper M Treuting, Alexander Y Rudensky
The regulatory T cell (T reg cell) T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is highly diverse and skewed toward recognition of self-antigens. TCR expression by T reg cells is continuously required for maintenance of immune tolerance and for a major part of their characteristic gene expression signature; however, it remains unknown to what degree diverse TCR-mediated interactions with cognate self-antigens are required for these processes. In this study, by experimentally switching the T reg cell TCR repertoire to a single T reg cell TCR, we demonstrate that T reg cell function and gene expression can be partially uncoupled from TCR diversity...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125674/characterisation-of-immune-and-neuroinflammatory-changes-associated-with-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Ryan S Tonkin, Oleg Butovsky, Susanna B Park, David Goldstein, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119177/immunoparalysis-clinical-and-immunological-associations-in-sirs-and-severe-sepsis-patients
#15
Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Theodora Christodoulopoulou, Georgia Damoraki, Dimitris Goukos, Efrossini Briassouli, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Serafim Nanas, George Briassoulis, Sotirios Tsiodras
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to identify changes in the monocytic membrane marker HLA-DR and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in relation to T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and other immunological marker changes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis/septic shock. METHODS: Healthy volunteers, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with SIRS due to head injury and ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock were enrolled in the current study...
April 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114571/effect-of-corneal-nerve-ablation-on-immune-tolerance-induced-by-corneal-allografts-oral-immunization-or-anterior-chamber-injection-of-antigens
#16
Juan Mo, Sudha Neelam, Jessamee Mellon, Joseph R Brown, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Purpose: Severing corneal nerves during corneal transplantation does not affect first corneal transplants, but abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal allografts. This abrogation of immune privilege is attributable to the disabling of T regulatory cells (T regs) induced by corneal transplantation. The goal of this study was to determine if severing corneal nerves induces the development of contrasuppressor (CS) cells, which disable T regs that impair other forms of immune tolerance...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075218/the-relationship-between-stroke-survivors-perceived-identity-and-mood-self-esteem-and-quality-of-life
#17
Irina Lapadatu, Reg Morris
OBJECTIVES: To examine change in identity after stroke and to elucidate its relationship with mood and quality of life. To test Higgins' theory of the impact of identity (self-discrepancy) on anxiety and depression. To examine the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationship between identity and outcomes. METHOD: Sixty-five community-living first-time stroke survivors, mean age 61.58 and time since stroke 5.60 years, were recruited from stroke charities. A cross-sectional study used the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (adapted) and the Barthel Index...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069723/a-novel-murine-gitr-ligand-fusion-protein-induces-antitumor-activity-as-a-monotherapy-which-is-further-enhanced-in-combination-with-an-ox40-agonist
#18
Rebecca Leyland, Amanda Watkins, Kathy Mulgrew, Nicholas Holoweckyj, Lisa Bamber, Natalie J Tigue, Emily Offer, John Andrews, Li Yan, Stefanie Mullins, Michael D Oberst, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, David A Leinster, Kelly A McGlinchey, Lesley Young, Michelle Morrow, Scott A Hammond, Philip R Mallinder, Athula Herath, Ching Ching Leow, Robert W Wilkinson, Ross Stewart
PURPOSE: To generate and characterize a murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) designed to maximize valency and the potential to agonize the GITR receptor for cancer immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The EC50 value of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an anti-GITR antibody in an in vitro agonistic cell based reporter assay. We assessed the impact of dose, schedule and Fc isotype on antitumor activity and T-cell modulation in the CT26 tumor model. The activity of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an agonistic murine OX40L-FP targeting OX40, in CT26 and B16F10-Luc2 tumor models...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065859/inhibition-of-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-enzymes-by-lapatinib-pazopanib-regorafenib-and-sorafenib-implications-for-hyperbilirubinemia
#19
John O Miners, Nuy Chau, Andrew Rowland, Kushari Burns, Ross A McKinnon, Peter I Mackenzie, Geoffrey T Tucker, Kathleen M Knights, Ganessan Kichenadasse
Kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a rapidly expanding class of drugs used primarily for the treatment of cancer. Data relating to the inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes by KIs is sparse. However, lapatinib (LAP), pazopanib (PAZ), regorafenib (REG) and sorafenib (SOR) have been implicated in the development of hyperbilirubinemia in patients. This study aimed to characterise the role of UGT1A1 inhibition in hyperbilirubinemia and assess the broader potential of these drugs to perpetrate drug-drug interactions arising from UGT enzyme inhibition...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062664/mapping-eqtls-with-rna-seq-reveals-novel-susceptibility-genes-non-coding-rnas-and-alternative-splicing-events-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#20
Christopher A Odhams, Andrea Cortini, Lingyan Chen, Amy L Roberts, Ana Viñuela, Alfonso Buil, Kerrin S Small, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, David L Morris, Timothy J Vyse, Deborah S Cunninghame Graham
Studies attempting to functionally interpret complex-disease susceptibility loci by GWAS and eQTL integration have predominantly employed microarrays to quantify gene-expression. RNA-Seq has the potential to discover a more comprehensive set of eQTLs and illuminate the underlying molecular consequence. We examine the functional outcome of 39 variants associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) through the integration of GWAS and eQTL data from the TwinsUK microarray and RNA-Seq cohort in lymphoblastoid cell lines...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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