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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191026/supplementation-with-dairy-calcium-and-or-flaxseed-fibers-in-conjunction-with-orlistat-augments-fecal-fat-excretion-without-altering-ratings-of-gastrointestinal-comfort
#1
Mette Kristensen, Signe Rømer Juul, Karina Vejrum Sørensen, Janne Kunchel Lorenzen, Arne Astrup
BACKGROUND: Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor which reduced absorption of dietary fat by ~30% thereby inducing a weight loss; however, side effects occur as a consequence of increased colonic fat content. To test the hypothesis that most gastrointestinal side events induced by treatment with orlistat could be prevented/ameliorated by concomitant use of natural dietary components, flaxseed fiber (FF) and/or dairy calcium (Ca), binding liquid fats to more solid complexes. METHODS: A randomized controlled dietary intervention study...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130403/suppression-of-lethal-autoimmunity-by-regulatory-t-cells-with-a-single-tcr-specificity
#2
Andrew G Levine, Saskia Hemmers, Antonio P Baptista, Michail Schizas, Mehlika B Faire, Bruno Moltedo, Catherine Konopacki, Marc Schmidt-Supprian, Ronald N Germain, Piper M Treuting, Alexander Y Rudensky
The regulatory T cell (T reg cell) T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is highly diverse and skewed toward recognition of self-antigens. TCR expression by T reg cells is continuously required for maintenance of immune tolerance and for a major part of their characteristic gene expression signature; however, it remains unknown to what degree diverse TCR-mediated interactions with cognate self-antigens are required for these processes. In this study, by experimentally switching the T reg cell TCR repertoire to a single T reg cell TCR, we demonstrate that T reg cell function and gene expression can be partially uncoupled from TCR diversity...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125674/characterisation-of-immune-and-neuroinflammatory-changes-associated-with-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Preet G S Makker, Samuel S Duffy, Justin G Lees, Chamini J Perera, Ryan S Tonkin, Oleg Butovsky, Susanna B Park, David Goldstein, Gila Moalem-Taylor
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and associated neuropathic pain is a debilitating adverse effect of cancer treatment. Current understanding of the mechanisms underpinning CIPN is limited and there are no effective treatment strategies. In this study, we treated male C57BL/6J mice with 4 cycles of either Paclitaxel (PTX) or Oxaliplatin (OXA) over a week and tested pain hypersensitivity and changes in peripheral immune responses and neuroinflammation on days 7 and 13 post 1st injection. We found that both PTX and OXA caused significant mechanical allodynia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119177/immunoparalysis-clinical-and-immunological-associations-in-sirs-and-severe-sepsis-patients
#4
Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Aikaterini Pistiki, Maria Theodorakopoulou, Theodora Christodoulopoulou, Georgia Damoraki, Dimitris Goukos, Efrossini Briassouli, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Apostolos Armaganidis, Serafim Nanas, George Briassoulis, Sotirios Tsiodras
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to identify changes in the monocytic membrane marker HLA-DR and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in relation to T-regulatory cells (T-regs) and other immunological marker changes in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis/septic shock. METHODS: Healthy volunteers, intensive care unit (ICU) patients with SIRS due to head injury and ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock were enrolled in the current study...
January 21, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114571/effect-of-corneal-nerve-ablation-on-immune-tolerance-induced-by-corneal-allografts-oral-immunization-or-anterior-chamber-injection-of-antigens
#5
Juan Mo, Sudha Neelam, Jessamee Mellon, Joseph R Brown, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Purpose: Severing corneal nerves during corneal transplantation does not affect first corneal transplants, but abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal allografts. This abrogation of immune privilege is attributable to the disabling of T regulatory cells (T regs) induced by corneal transplantation. The goal of this study was to determine if severing corneal nerves induces the development of contrasuppressor (CS) cells, which disable T regs that impair other forms of immune tolerance...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075218/the-relationship-between-stroke-survivors-perceived-identity-and-mood-self-esteem-and-quality-of-life
#6
Irina Lapadatu, Reg Morris
OBJECTIVES: To examine change in identity after stroke and to elucidate its relationship with mood and quality of life. To test Higgins' theory of the impact of identity (self-discrepancy) on anxiety and depression. To examine the role of self-esteem in mediating the relationship between identity and outcomes. METHOD: Sixty-five community-living first-time stroke survivors, mean age 61.58 and time since stroke 5.60 years, were recruited from stroke charities. A cross-sectional study used the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (adapted) and the Barthel Index...
January 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069723/a-novel-murine-gitr-ligand-fusion-protein-induces-antitumor-activity-as-a-monotherapy-which-is-further-enhanced-in-combination-with-an-ox40-agonist
#7
Rebecca Leyland, Amanda Watkins, Kathy Mulgrew, Nicholas Holoweckyj, Lisa Bamber, Natalie J Tigue, Emily Offer, John Andrews, Li Yan, Stefanie Mullins, Michael D Oberst, Jane Coates Ulrichsen, David A Leinster, Kelly A McGlinchey, Lesley Young, Michelle Morrow, Scott A Hammond, Philip R Mallinder, Athula Herath, Ching Ching Leow, Robert W Wilkinson, Ross Stewart
PURPOSE: To generate and characterize a murine GITR ligand fusion protein (mGITRL-FP) designed to maximize valency and the potential to agonize the GITR receptor for cancer immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The EC50 value of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an anti-GITR antibody in an in vitro agonistic cell based reporter assay. We assessed the impact of dose, schedule and Fc isotype on antitumor activity and T-cell modulation in the CT26 tumor model. The activity of the mGITRL-FP was compared to an agonistic murine OX40L-FP targeting OX40, in CT26 and B16F10-Luc2 tumor models...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065859/inhibition-of-human-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-enzymes-by-lapatinib-pazopanib-regorafenib-and-sorafenib-implications-for-hyperbilirubinemia
#8
John O Miners, Nuy Chau, Andrew Rowland, Kushari Burns, Ross A McKinnon, Peter I Mackenzie, Geoffrey T Tucker, Kathleen M Knights, Ganessan Kichenadasse
Kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a rapidly expanding class of drugs used primarily for the treatment of cancer. Data relating to the inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes by KIs is sparse. However, lapatinib (LAP), pazopanib (PAZ), regorafenib (REG) and sorafenib (SOR) have been implicated in the development of hyperbilirubinemia in patients. This study aimed to characterise the role of UGT1A1 inhibition in hyperbilirubinemia and assess the broader potential of these drugs to perpetrate drug-drug interactions arising from UGT enzyme inhibition...
January 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062664/mapping-eqtls-with-rna-seq-reveals-novel-susceptibility-genes-non-coding-rnas-and-alternative-splicing-events-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Christopher A Odhams, Andrea Cortini, Lingyan Chen, Amy L Roberts, Ana Viñuela, Alfonso Buil, Kerrin S Small, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, David L Morris, Timothy J Vyse, Deborah S Cunninghame Graham
Studies attempting to functionally interpret complex-disease susceptibility loci by GWAS and eQTL integration have predominantly employed microarrays to quantify gene-expression. RNA-Seq has the potential to discover a more comprehensive set of eQTLs and illuminate the underlying molecular consequence. We examine the functional outcome of 39 variants associated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) through integration of GWAS and eQTL data from the TwinsUK microarray and RNA-Seq cohort in lymphoblastoid cell lines...
January 5, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047881/we-ab-bra-07-operating-room-quality-assurance-orqa-for-spine-surgery-using-known-component-3d-2d-image-registration
#10
A Uneri, T De Silva, J Goerres, M Jacobson, M Ketcha, S Reaungamornrat, G Kleinszig, S Vogt, A Khanna, J Wolinsky, J Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027921/t-helper-2-cytokine-regulatory-t-cell-gene-polymorphisms-and-their-relation-with-risk-of-psoriasis-in-a-south-indian-tamil-cohort
#11
Sundar Indhumathi, Medha Rajappa, Laxmisha Chandrashekar, Palghat Hariharan Ananthanarayanan, Devinder Mohan Thappa, Vir Singh Negi
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is known to be associated with an up-regulation of T-helper (Th)-1 & Th-17 cytokines and a relative down-regulation of Th-2 and T-regulatory (T-reg) cytokines. Certain allelic variants of these cytokine genes may alter Th1/Th17 and Th2/T-reg balance and may be associated with the risk of psoriasis. Hence we aimed to determine the association of IL-4 (rs2243250), IL-10 (rs1800871 and rs1800896) and FOXP3 (rs3761548) gene polymorphisms with risk of psoriasis in South Indian Tamils...
February 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995627/exposure-to-violence-a-risk-for-suicide-in-youths-and-young-adults-a-meta-analysis-of-longitudinal-studies
#12
P Castellví, A Miranda-Mendizábal, O Parés-Badell, J Almenara, I Alonso, M J Blasco, A Cebrià, A Gabilondo, M Gili, C Lagares, J A Piqueras, M Roca, J Rodríguez-Marín, T Rodríguez-Jimenez, V Soto-Sanz, J Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association and magnitude of the effect of early exposure to different types of interpersonal violence (IPV) with suicide attempt and suicide death in youths and young adults. METHOD: We searched six databases until June 2015. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) assessment of any type of IPV as risk factor of suicide attempt or suicide: (i) child maltreatment [childhood physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect], (ii) bullying, (iii) dating violence, and (iv) community violence; (2) population-based case-control or cohort studies; and (3) subjects aged 12-26 years...
December 20, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994068/resetting-microbiota-by-lactobacillus-reuteri-inhibits-t-reg-deficiency-induced-autoimmunity-via-adenosine-a2a-receptors
#13
Baokun He, Thomas K Hoang, Ting Wang, Michael Ferris, Christopher M Taylor, Xiangjun Tian, Meng Luo, Dat Q Tran, Jain Zhou, Nina Tatevian, Fayong Luo, Jose G Molina, Michael R Blackburn, Thomas H Gomez, Stefan Roos, J Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4(+) T cell-driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency-mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3(+) T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792007/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-the-foxp3-gene-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Arezou Sayad, Mir Davood Omrani, Masoud Sabouri Ghannad, Rezvan Noroozi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Reza Mirfakhraie, Abolfazl Movafagh, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Tahereh Azimi, Hidetoshi Inoko, Mohammad Taheri
BACKGROUND: Although Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune multifactorial disease with unknown etiology, various genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have confirmed that the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (T (reg)) is impaired in MS patients and that the FOXP3 gene is a crucial transcription factor in the regulation of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the FOXP3 gene may alter the gene expression level and, therefore, contribute to the disease susceptibility...
October 21, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765276/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-9-in-gynecologic-cancer
#15
E Fehri, E Ennaifer, R Bel Haj Rhouma, L Guizani-Tabbane, I Guizani, S Boubaker
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) plays a major role in the fight against DNA viruses infections. Despite its antitumor properties, inappropriate activation of TLR9 during chronic inflammation may cause the activation of transcription factors inducing pro-cancerous activities. Thus, the relationship between TLR9 and cancer remains highly confrontational especially in gynecological cancers and cervical cancer induced by viruses. In this review, we focus on the beneficial and detrimental role of TLR9 in gynecological carcinogenesis...
July 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715088/how-isotropic-is-the-universe
#16
Daniela Saadeh, Stephen M Feeney, Andrew Pontzen, Hiranya V Peiris, Jason D McEwen
A fundamental assumption in the standard model of cosmology is that the Universe is isotropic on large scales. Breaking this assumption leads to a set of solutions to Einstein's field equations, known as Bianchi cosmologies, only a subset of which have ever been tested against data. For the first time, we consider all degrees of freedom in these solutions to conduct a general test of isotropy using cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data from Planck. For the vector mode (associated with vorticity), we obtain a limit on the anisotropic expansion of (σ_{V}/H)_{0}<4...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678500/applications-and-mechanisms-of-immunotherapy-in-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma
#17
Jasper H Kappen, Stephen R Durham, Hans In 't Veen, Mohamed H Shamji
Clinical and immunologic tolerance are hallmarks of successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Clinical benefits such as reduced symptoms, pharmacotherapy intake and improvement of quality of life persist following cessation of treatment. Successful AIT is associated with suppression of allergic inflammatory cells such as mast cells, eosinophils and basophils in target organs. Furthermore, AIT down-regulates type 2 innate lymphoid cells and allergen-specific type 2 T-helper (Th2) cells. The immunologic tolerant state following AIT is associated with the induction of distinct phenotypes of regulatory T-cells (T-regs) including interleukin (IL)-10-, IL-35- and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β- producing T-regs and FoxP3(+) T-regs...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676155/coexistence-of-th1-th2-and-th17-treg-imbalances-in-patients-with-post-traumatic-sepsis
#18
Dublu Lal Gupta, Sanjeev Bhoi, Teena Mohan, Sagar Galwnkar, D N Rao
INTRODUCTION: Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) developed due to the insult of trauma is a leading cause of death. The high mortality rate in these patients with and without sepsis has been reported up to 50%, throughout the world and thus required an urgent insight to overcome this problem. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the differential changes in subsets of T cells, imbalance in cytokine profile, immune-paralysis (T cell anergy) in Trauma hemorrhagic shock (THS) and post traumatic sepsis patients...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554813/probiotic-supplementation-has-little-effect-on-peripheral-blood-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cells
#19
Nicholas P West, Peggy L Horn, David B Pyne, Hilary S Warren, Suzanne Asad, Amanda J Cox, Sampo J Lahtinen, Markus J Lehtinen, Peter A Fricker, Allan W Cripps, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526711/exogenous-tnfr2-activation-protects-from-acute-gvhd-via-host-t-reg-cell-expansion
#20
Martin Chopra, Marlene Biehl, Tim Steinfatt, Andreas Brandl, Juliane Kums, Jorge Amich, Martin Vaeth, Janina Kuen, Rafaela Holtappels, Jürgen Podlech, Anja Mottok, Sabrina Kraus, Ana-Laura Jordán-Garrote, Carina A Bäuerlein, Christian Brede, Eliana Ribechini, Andrea Fick, Axel Seher, Johannes Polz, Katja J Ottmüller, Jeanette Baker, Hidekazu Nishikii, Miriam Ritz, Katharina Mattenheimer, Stefanie Schwinn, Thorsten Winter, Viktoria Schäfer, Sven Krappmann, Hermann Einsele, Thomas D Müller, Matthias J Reddehase, Manfred B Lutz, Daniela N Männel, Friederike Berberich-Siebelt, Harald Wajant, Andreas Beilhack
Donor CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) suppress graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT [allo-HCT]). Current clinical study protocols rely on the ex vivo expansion of donor T reg cells and their infusion in high numbers. In this study, we present a novel strategy for inhibiting GvHD that is based on the in vivo expansion of recipient T reg cells before allo-HCT, exploiting the crucial role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) in T reg cell biology...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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