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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915849/exposure-rate-of-vzv-among-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-in-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Saluwadana Walawwe Pavithra Lakmini Daulagala, Faseeha Noordeen, Mohamed Mukthar Fathina Fara, Chathura Rathnayake, Kapila Gunawardana
BACKGROUND: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection. METHODS: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911798/development-and-evaluation-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-for-diagnosis-of-hsv-1-vzv-cmv-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-patients-with-infectious-uveitis
#2
Archit Kumar, Mini P Singh, Reema Bansal, Amod Gupta, Jagat Ram, Radha Kanta Ratho
Infectious uveitis is a vision threatening inflammatory ocular disease wherein early diagnosis may prevent the loss of vision. The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Herpes simplex virus-1, Varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii in patients with suspected infectious uveitis. A total of 126 intraocular samples (aqueous and vitreous humor) were collected and subjected to multiplex real-time PCR. Overall 26.2% (33/126) patients were found to be positive for one or more of the pathogens tested...
August 9, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910710/outer-nuclear-membrane-fusion-of-adjacent-nuclei-in-varicella-zoster-virus-induced-syncytia
#3
Wei Wang, Lianwei Yang, Xiumin Huang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo...
September 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902907/pcr-detection-of-human-herpesviruses-in-colonic-mucosa-of-individuals-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-comparison-with-individuals-with-immunocompetency-and-hiv-infection
#4
Takayuki Shimada, Naoyoshi Nagata, Koki Okahara, Akane Joya, Tsunefusa Hayashida, Shinichi Oka, Toshiyuki Sakurai, Junichi Akiyama, Naomi Uemura, Hiroyuki Gatanaga
BACKGROUND: Detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) in colonic mucosa of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown. This study identified eight HHVs in the colonic mucosa of individuals with IBD and compared the results with immunocompetent and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals who had colorectal ulcer on colonoscopy were enrolled: 26 with immunocompetency (n = 26), 41 with IBD, and 22 with HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900551/appendicitis-caused-by-primary-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-a-child-with-digeorge-syndrome
#5
Lotte Møller Smedegaard, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Linea Cecilie Melchior, Anja Poulsen
INTRODUCTION: Chickenpox is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Although predominantly a mild disease, it can cause considerable morbidity and in rare occasions even mortality in healthy children as well as increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of appendicitis is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial. Appendicitis is a suspected, but not well documented, complication from varicella zoster virus infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl diagnosed with DiGeorge syndrome and a prolonged primary VZV infection was admitted due to abdominal pain, increasing diarrhoea, vomiting, and poor general condition...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895088/prevalence-of-a-history-of-prior-varicella-herpes-zoster-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Ali Manouchehrinia, Radu Tanasescu, Huner Kareem, Oltita P Jerca, Fouzia Jabeen, Rachelle Shafei, Judith Breuer, Keith Neal, William Irving, Cris S Constantinescu
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), but direct causal involvement has been disputed. Nevertheless, knowledge of VZV exposure is important, given the risk of serious complications of first exposure while undergoing immunosuppressive treatment, in particular with fingolimod. We distributed questionnaires to MS clinic patients, requesting information about history of chickenpox, sibling/household/occupational exposure, history of zoster (shingles), and disease-modifying treatment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892474/enhancing-case-definitions-for-surveillance-of-human-monkeypox-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#7
Lynda Osadebe, Christine M Hughes, Robert Shongo Lushima, Joelle Kabamba, Beatrice Nguete, Jean Malekani, Elisabeth Pukuta, Stomy Karhemere, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Emile Wemakoy Okitolonda, Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum
BACKGROUND: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014) from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886462/genetic-polymorphism-of-thymidine-kinase-tk-and-dna-polymerase-pol-of-clinical-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-isolates-collected-over-three-decades
#8
Anja Hoffmann, Kristin Döring, Natalja Tatjana Seeger, Martina Bühler, Michael Schacke, Andi Krumbholz, Andreas Sauerbrei
BACKGROUND: Genotypic resistance testing of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains to antivirals is of high relevance in immunocompromised patients with VZV reactivations unresponsive to therapy. However, the knowledge on mutations associated with natural gene polymorphism or resistance is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the genotype of the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) of unselected clinical VZV isolates collected between 1984 and 2014 and to verify the phenotype related to novel amino acid (aa) substitutions...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871477/-diagnostics-and-management-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#9
R N Werner, N-I Steinhorst, A Nast, U Pleyer
Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) represents the secondary manifestation of an infection with varicellazoster virus (VZV). A reactivation of dormant VZV in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve leads to ophthalmic HZ (HZO). The predominantly older and immune compromised patients often present with eye involvement (approximately 50%) as well as characteristic skin changes. Clinical manifestations include the cornea and conjunctiva but anterior uveitis and (rarely) acute retinal necrosis may also occur...
September 4, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866263/use-of-multiplex-pcr-based-molecular-diagnostics-in-diagnosis-of-suspected-cns-infections-in-tertiary-care-setting-a-retrospective-study
#10
Mahendra Javali, Purushottam Acharya, Aneesh Mehta, Aju Abraham John, Rohan Mahale, R Srinivasa
OBJECTIVES: CNS infections like meningitis and encephalitis pose enormous healthcare challenges due to mortality, sequelae and socioeconomic burden. In tertiary setting, clinical, microbiological, cytological and radiological investigations are not distinctive enough for diagnosing microbial etiology. Molecular diagnostics is filling this gap. We evaluated the clinical impact of a commercially available multiplex molecular diagnostic system - SES for diagnosing suspected CNS infections...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862190/seroprevalence-of-cytomegalovirus-in-donors-opportunistic-viral-infections-in-liver-transplant-recipients
#11
Joy Varghese, S Subramanian, Mettu Srinivas Reddy, Naresh Shanmugam, G Balajee, Vijaya Srinivasan, Jayanthi Venkataraman, Rela Mohamed
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Opportunistic virus infections are common in liver transplant (LT) recipients. There is a risk of developing infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes-related viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 (HSV-1 & 2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Varicella Zoster virus (VZV), reactivation of infection and recurrent infection. This study was conducted to determine CMV seropositivity in donors and its influence on LT recipients and seropositivity of CMV, HSV-1 and 2, EB viral capsid antigen (EBVCA) and VZV in LT recipients and their reactivation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854791/pcr-based-approach-for-qualitative-molecular-analysis-of-six-neurotropic-pathogens
#12
R Ferese, L Scorzolini, R Campopiano, V Albano, A M Griguoli, E Giardina, S Scala, L Ryskalin, C D'Alessio, S Zampatti, R Fantozzi, M Storto, F Fornai, S Gambardella
In the last few years, polymerase chain reaction analysis is frequently required to improve the detection of pathogen infections in central nervous system as a potential cause of neurological disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The goal of this paper is to set up a fast, cheap and reliable molecular approach for qualitative detection of six neurotropic pathogens. A method based on PCR has been designed and implemented to guarantee the qualitative DNA detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSVI/II), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubella virus (RUBV) and Toxoplasma gondii in the cerebrospinal fluid, where otherwise they are barely detectable...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845577/the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-live-zoster-vaccination-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-before-starting-tofacitinib-a-randomized-phase-ii-trial
#13
Kevin L Winthrop, Ann G Wouters, Ernest H Choy, Koshika Soma, Jennifer A Hodge, Chudy I Nduaka, Pinaki Biswas, Elie Needle, Sherry Passador, Christopher F Mojcik, William F Rigby
OBJECTIVE: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of herpes zoster, and vaccination is recommended for patients ages 50 years and older, prior to starting treatment with biologic agents or tofacitinib. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA. We evaluated its effect on the immune response and safety of live zoster vaccine (LZV). METHODS: In this phase II, 14-week, placebo-controlled trial, patients ages 50 years and older who had active RA and were receiving background methotrexate were given LZV and randomized to receive tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily or placebo 2-3 weeks postvaccination...
August 28, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845512/ctla-4-expression-on-vzv-specific-t-cells-in-csf-and-blood-is-specifically-increased-in-patients-with-vzv-related-central-nervous-system-infections
#14
David Schub, Mathias Fousse, Klaus Faßbender, Barbara C Gärtner, Urban Sester, Martina Sester, Tina Schmidt
BACKGROUND: VZV-reactivation may lead to symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) diseases, but identification of VZV as causative pathogen of CNS-diseases is challenging. This study was performed to characterize VZV-specific T-cells from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with active CNS-disease and to determine whether this may improve differential diagnosis. METHODS: 27 patients with pleocytosis in the CSF were recruited and classified into three groups (10 VZV-related, 10 non-VZV-related, 7 unclear)...
August 28, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838148/serum-c-reactive-protein-and-congestive-heart-failure-as-significant-predictors-of-herpes-zoster-vaccine-response-in-elderly-nursing-home-residents
#15
Chris P Verschoor, Alina Lelic, Robin Parsons, Carole Evelegh, Jonathan L Bramson, Jennie Johnstone, Mark B Loeb, Dawn M E Bowdish
Background: Elderly long-term care residents often exhibit a myriad of risk factors for immune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation and multiple comorbid conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to their enhanced susceptibility to infection. Hence, understanding the factors required for optimal vaccine responsiveness is critical. Methods: We examined 187 elderly nursing home residents (aged 80-102 years) and 50 community-dwelling seniors (aged 60-75 years) immunized with the live-attenuated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837183/keratitis-in-association-with-herpes-zoster-and-varicella-vaccines
#16
A P Grillo, F W Fraunfelder
The objective of this review was to collect reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster virus (HZV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccines. HZV vaccination is intended for at-risk adult populations and VZV vaccination is intended for all pediatric patients. We reviewed the literature and reports of keratitis in association with herpes zoster or varicella vaccine from the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects and the World Health Organization. Twenty-four cases of unilateral keratitis in association with VZV vaccines were collected from the adverse reaction databases and literature...
July 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834954/low-varicella-zoster-virus-seroprevalence-among-young-children-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#17
Reena H Doshi, Vivian H Alfonso, Patrick Mukadi, Nicole A Hoff, Sue Gerber, Ado Bwaka, Stephen G Higgins, Brian Cowell, Guillaume Ngoie Mwamba, Emile Okitolonda, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Anne W Rimoin
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) and is associated with significant global morbidity. Most epidemiological data on VZV come from high-come countries and to date there are limited data on the burden of VZV in Africa. METHODS: We assessed the seroprevalence of VZV antibodies among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo in collaboration with the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)...
August 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830902/zoster-vaccine-associated-primary-varicella-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-host
#18
Kaoru Harada, Henry Heaton, Jason Chen, Marietta Vazquez, Jaimie Meyer
A 64-year-old immunocompetent man developed a widespread pruritic and vesicular rash 2 weeks after receiving the zoster vaccine (Zostavax). He had fever, bandaemia with normal total white blood cell count and mild transaminitis. PCR testing of serum and skin was positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), while serum VZV IgG was negative. The analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism by PCR and sequencing from the skin swab was consistent with the vaccine strain. The patient received 1 week of intravenous acyclovir and was discharged after all lesions had crusted...
August 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830693/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-zoster-vaccine-live-administered-with-quadrivalent-influenza-virus-vaccine
#19
Myron J Levin, Ulrike K Buchwald, Julie Gardner, Jason Martin, Jon E Stek, Elizabeth Brown, Zoran Popmihajlov
OBJECTIVES: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ZOSTAVAX™ (ZV) administered concomitantly with quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) in adults≥50years of age (NCT02519855). METHODS: Overall, 440 participants were randomized into the Concomitant Group (CG) and 442 into the Sequential Group (SG). The CG received ZV and IIV4 at separate injection sites on Day 1 and matching placebo at Week 4. The SG received placebo and IIV4 (2015-2016 influenza season) at separate injection sites on Day 1 and ZV at Week 4...
August 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827121/a-scid-mouse-human-lung-xenograft-model-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection
#20
Wei Wang, Dequan Pan, Wenkun Fu, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Che Liu, Xiumin Huang, Yanzhen Lin, Ningshao Xia, Tong Cheng, Hua Zhu
Varicella pneumonia is one of the most serious, potentially life-threatening complications of primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in adults and immunocompromised individuals. However, studies on the lung pathogenesis of VZV infection as well as development and testing of antivirals have long been hindered by limited access to clinical samples and a lack of suitable animal models. In this study, we report for the first time the use of human lung xenografts in SCID mice for investigating VZV infection...
August 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
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