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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328712/resistance-training-induced-elevations-in-muscular-strength-in-trained-men-are-maintained-after-2-weeks-of-detraining-and-not-differentially-affected-by-whey-protein-supplementation
#1
Paul S Hwang, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Flor E Morales Marroquín, Joshua J Gann, Joon J Song, Darryn S Willoughby
Hwang, PS, Andre, TL, McKinley-Barnard, SK, Morales Marroquín, FE, Gann, JJ, Song, JJ, and Willoughby, DS. Resistance training-induced elevations in muscular strength in trained men are maintained after 2 weeks of detraining and not differentially affected by whey protein supplementation. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 869-881, 2017-Resistance training (RT) with nutritional strategies incorporating whey protein intake postexercise can stimulate muscle protein synthesis and elicit hypertrophy. The early phases of training-induced anabolic responses can be attenuated with longer-term training...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301435/different-cluster-sets-result-in-similar-metabolic-endocrine-and-perceptual-responses-in-trained-men
#2
James J Tufano, Jenny A Conlon, Sophia Nimphius, Jonathan M Oliver, Andreas Kreutzer, G Gregory Haff
The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematic, metabolic, endocrine, and perceptual responses of three back squat protocols with equal loads, number of repetitions, and total rest duration. Eight strength-trained men performed 36 back squats using 75% 1RM and 420 s of total rest during basic cluster sets of 4 (CS4), rest-redistribution sets of 4 (RR4), and rest-redistribution sets of 1 (RR1). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate (La), mean velocity maintenance (MVM), and mean velocity loss (MVL) were measured during exercise...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290889/-platelet-metabolism-in-clopidogrel-resistant-and-sensitive-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease
#3
I Yu Grinshtein, A A Savchenko, Yu I Grinshtein, I V Filonenko, A A Kosinova
OBJECTIVE: to investigate relationship between activity of platelet nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) dependent dehydrogenases in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and their sensitivity to clopidogrel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 51 male patients with chronic IHD before and after CABG. Control group comprised 35 healthy men. In IHD patients spontaneous and induced platelet aggregation was measured by aggregometry before CABG (in 2 weeks after cessation of antiplatelet drugs), after CABG during therapy with clopidogrel (75 mg/day), and in 6 months after surgery...
October 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264439/protein-nutrition-and-malnutrition-in-ckd-and-esrd
#4
REVIEW
Yan Zha, Qi Qian
Elevated protein catabolism and protein malnutrition are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The underlying etiology includes, but is not limited to, metabolic acidosis intestinal dysbiosis; systemic inflammation with activation of complements, endothelin-1 and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis; anabolic hormone resistance; energy expenditure elevation; and uremic toxin accumulation. All of these derangements can further worsen kidney function, leading to poor patient outcomes...
February 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225779/combined-small-rna-and-degradome-sequencing-reveals-complex-microrna-regulation-of-catechin-biosynthesis-in-tea-camellia-sinensis
#5
Ping Sun, Chunzhen Cheng, Yuling Lin, Qiufang Zhu, Jinke Lin, Zhongxiong Lai
MicroRNAs are endogenous non-coding small RNAs playing crucial regulatory roles in plants. Tea, a globally popular non-alcoholic drink, is rich in health-enhancing catechins. In this study, 69 conserved and 47 novel miRNAs targeting 644 genes were identified by high-throughout sequencing. Predicted target genes of miRNAs were mainly involved in plant growth, signal transduction, morphogenesis and defense. To further identify targets of tea miRNAs, degradome sequencing and RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5'cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) were applied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222580/acute-and-delayed-responses-of-steroidal-hormones-blood-lactate-and-biomarkers-of-muscle-damage-after-a-resistance-training-session-time-of-day-effects
#6
Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Mouna Turki, Omar Hammouda, Ahmed Chaari, Mariem Boudaya, Tarak Driss, Fatma Ayedi, Nizar Souissi
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of time-of-days (TOD) on some biochemical and hormonal responses after resistance training sessions. METHODS: Ten trained subjects (22±2 years) performed, in randomized order, three resistance-training-sessions at 07h:00, 13h:00 and 17h:00. Each training-session included six upper and lower body resistance exercises with 3×10 repetitions. Blood lactate (Lac), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each-session...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#7
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186942/use-of-combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-primary-osteoporosis-protocol-for-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomised-trials
#8
Shenghan Lou, Houchen Lv, Yuxiang Chen, Licheng Zhang, Peifu Tang
INTRODUCTION: The existing medications approved for treatment of primary osteoporosis can be divided into antiresorptive drugs and anabolic drugs. According to the mechanisms of action, the combined therapy may produce a synergistic effect on bone mineral density (BMD) compared with monotherapy, and thus improves the efficacy of fracture resistance. This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacies of different combined methods for the treatment of primary osteoporosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases will be searched to identify all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that evaluate the effectiveness of combined therapy versus monotherapy for primary osteoporosis...
November 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178232/synthetic-vulnerabilities-of-mesenchymal-subpopulations-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper, Frederick Scott Robinson, Liren Li, Maria Svelto, Luigi Nezi, Denise Corti, Rosalba Minelli, Piergiorgio Pettazzoni, Tony Gutschner, Chia-Chin Wu, Sahil Seth, Kadir Caner Akdemir, Elisabetta Leo, Samirkumar Amin, Marco Dal Molin, Haoqiang Ying, Lawrence N Kwong, Simona Colla, Koichi Takahashi, Papia Ghosh, Virginia Giuliani, Florian Muller, Prasenjit Dey, Shan Jiang, Jill Garvey, Chang-Gong Liu, Jianhua Zhang, Timothy P Heffernan, Carlo Toniatti, Jason B Fleming, Michael G Goggins, Laura D Wood, Alessandro Sgambato, Abbas Agaimy, Anirban Maitra, Charles W M Roberts, Huamin Wang, Andrea Viale, Ronald A DePinho, Giulio F Draetta, Lynda Chin
Malignant neoplasms evolve in response to changes in oncogenic signalling. Cancer cell plasticity in response to evolutionary pressures is fundamental to tumour progression and the development of therapeutic resistance. Here we determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer cell plasticity in a conditional oncogenic Kras mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a malignancy that displays considerable phenotypic diversity and morphological heterogeneity. In this model, stochastic extinction of oncogenic Kras signalling and emergence of Kras-independent escaper populations (cells that acquire oncogenic properties) are associated with de-differentiation and aggressive biological behaviour...
February 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175999/dietary-proteins-and-amino-acids-in-the-control-of-the-muscle-mass-during-immobilization-and-aging-role-of-the-mps-response
#10
REVIEW
Jason M Cholewa, Dominique Dardevet, Fernanda Lima-Soares, Kassiana de Araújo Pessôa, Paulo Henrique Oliveira, João Ricardo Dos Santos Pinho, Humberto Nicastro, Zhi Xia, Christian Emmanuel Torres Cabido, Nelo Eidy Zanchi
Dietary proteins/essential amino acids (EAAs) are nutrients with anabolic properties that may increase muscle mass or attenuate muscle loss during immobilization and aging via the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis (MPS). An EAA's anabolic threshold, capable to maximize the stimulation of MPS has been hypothesized, but during certain conditions associated with muscle loss, this anabolic threshold seems to increase which reduces the efficacy of dietary EAAs to stimulate MPS. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that acute ingestion of dietary proteins/EAA (with a sufficient amount of leucine) was capable to restore the postprandial MPS during bed rest, immobilization or aging; however, whether these improvements translate into chronic increases (or attenuates loss) of muscle mass is equivocal...
February 7, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166447/nutrition-support-for-persistent-inflammation-immunosuppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#11
Frederick A Moore, Stuart Phillips, Craig McClain, Jayshil J Patel, Robert Martindale
Despite tremendous advances in critical care, multiple-organ failure continues to be a significant problem. However, in recent years, far fewer patients with multiple-organ failure die early, but many experience ongoing immune dysregulation and are developing persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS). Most PICS patients are discharged to nonhome destinations, fail to rehabilitate, and succumb to indolent death. From a nutrition perspective, patients with PICS experience persistent inflammation-induced cachexia despite evidenced-based recommended intensive care unit nutrition support...
February 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154578/growth-on-alpha-ketoglutarate-increases-oxidative-stress-resistance-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Maria Bayliak, Nadia Burdyliuk, Volodymyr Lushchak
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122522/acute-effects-of-physical-exercise-on-the-serum-insulin-like-growth-factor-system-in-women-with-fibromyalgia
#13
Kaisa Mannerkorpi, Kerstin Landin-Wilhelmsen, Anette Larsson, Åsa Cider, Olivia Arodell, Jan L Bjersing
BACKGROUND: Increased Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (S-IGF-1) has been noted after physical activity in healthy subjects, while the acute release of S-IGF-1 in relation to exercise has not previously been studied in women with fibromyalgia (FM). S-IGF-1 and its binding protein (S-IGFBP-3) are mediated by growth hormone and have anabolic effects on the skeletal muscle. Aim of the study was to investigate acute release of IGF-1 after aerobic exercise in women with FM. METHODS: The acute effect of physical exercise on S-IGF-1 and S-IGFBP-3 were studied in 22 women with FM and in 27 healthy controls during moderate and high-intensity cycling (i...
January 25, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105708/impaired-ribosome-biogenesis-could-contribute-to-anabolic-resistance-to-strength-exercise-in-the-elderly
#14
Thomas Chaillou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099900/skeletal-muscle-aging-influence-of-oxidative-stress-and-physical-exercise
#15
REVIEW
Mariana Janini Gomes, Paula Felippe Martinez, Luana Urbano Pagan, Ricardo Luiz Damatto, Marcelo Diacardia Mariano Cezar, Aline Regina Ruiz Lima, Katashi Okoshi, Marina Politi Okoshi
Skeletal muscle abnormalities are responsible for significant disability in the elderly. Sarcopenia is the main alteration occurring during senescence and a key public health issue as it predicts frailty, poor quality of life, and mortality. Several factors such as reduced physical activity, hormonal changes, insulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, appetite loss, and nutritional deficiencies are involved in the physiopathology of muscle changes. Sarcopenia is characterized by structural, biochemical, molecular and functional muscle changes...
January 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093897/presence-of-early-stage-cancer-does-not-impair-the-early-protein-metabolic-response-to-major-surgery
#16
Mariëlle P K J Engelen, V Suzanne Klimberg, Arianna Allasia, Nicolaas Ep Deutz
BACKGROUND: Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073779/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-promotes-lipid-deposition-in-subcutaneous-adipocytes-in-obese-type-2-diabetes-patients-a-maladaptive-response
#17
Sravan K Thondam, Christina Daousi, John P H Wilding, Jens J Holst, Gulizar I Ameen, Chenjing Yang, Catherine Whitmore, Silvia Mora, Daniel J Cuthbertson
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) beyond its insulinotropic effects may regulate post-prandial lipid metabolism. While the insulinotropic action of GIP is known to be impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), its adipogenic effect is unknown. We hypothesised GIP is anabolic in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) promoting triacylglycerol (TAG) deposition through re-esterification of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and this effect may differ according to obesity status or glucose tolerance...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070459/pre-versus-post-exercise-protein-intake-has-similar-effects-on-muscular-adaptations
#18
Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Alan Aragon, Colin Wilborn, Stacie L Urbina, Sara E Hayward, James Krieger
The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) (n = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) (n = 12)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017449/anabolic-resistance-does-not-explain-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-compared-with-healthy-controls-despite-reduced-mtor-pathway-activity
#19
Daniel J Cuthbertson, John Babraj, Graham Leese, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Ageing and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for skeletal muscle loss. We investigated whether anabolic resistance to feeding might underlie accelerated muscle loss in older people with T2DM and whether dysregulated mTOR signalling was implicated. SUBJECTS: 8 obese men with T2DM, and 12 age-matched controls were studied (age 68 ± 3 vs. 68±6 y; BMI: 30 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 5 kg m(-2)). METHODS: Body composition was measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942448/brain-connectivity-aberrations-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#20
Lars T Westlye, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Ingunn R Hullstein, Astrid Bjørnebekk
Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
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