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Anabolic resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817355/total-training-load-may-explain-similar-strength-gains-and-muscle-hypertrophy-seen-in-aged-rats-submitted-to-resistance-training-and-anabolic-steroids
#1
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de Assis Silva, Adriano Polican Ciena, Danilo Bocalini, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista Nucci, Carlos Alberto Anaruma, Eliane Florencio Gama
This study aimed to quantify training parameters and analyze the morphological response of aged muscles submitted to resistance training and anabolic steroids. Aged Wistar rats were divided into groups: C - initial control; CF - final control; CAS - control with anabolic steroid, RT - resistance training, and RTA - resistance training with anabolic steroid. Maximum carried load, absolute and relative loads increased significantly in RT and RTA. RTA demonstrated greater relative load than RT. Average total volume, total climbing volume, relative total volume, relative total climbing volume, and mean climbing volume were similar between groups RT and RTA...
August 17, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811140/divergent-effects-of-resistance-training-and-anabolic-steroid-on-the-postsynaptic-region-of-different-skeletal-muscles-of-aged-rats
#2
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de Assis Silva, Adriano Polican Ciena, Carlos Alberto Anaruma, Eliane Florencio Gama
This study aimed to analyze the effects of resistance training associated with testosterone administration in the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) postsynaptic region of different skeletal muscle types of aged rats. Wistar rats were divided into: SEI - 20-months-old control, SEF - 24-months-old control, T - 20-months-old with testosterone, S - 20-months-old resistance trained and ST - 20-months-old with resistance training associated with testosterone propionate. All groups were submitted to familiarization and maximum load carrying testing (MLCT)...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803869/metabolic-flexibility-underpins-growth-capabilities-of-the-fastest-growing-alga
#4
Haim Treves, Omer Murik, Isaac Kedem, Doron Eisenstadt, Sagit Meir, Ilana Rogachev, Jedrzej Szymanski, Nir Keren, Isabel Orf, Antonio F Tiburcio, Rubén Alcázar, Asaph Aharoni, Joachim Kopka, Aaron Kaplan
The factors rate-limiting growth of photosynthetic organisms under optimal conditions are controversial [1-8]. Adaptation to extreme environments is usually accompanied by reduced performance under optimal conditions [9, 10]. However, the green alga Chlorella ohadii, isolated from a harsh desert biological soil crust [11-17], does not obey this rule. In addition to resistance to photodamage [17, 18], it performs the fastest growth ever reported for photosynthetic eukaryotes. A multiphasic growth pattern (very fast growth [phase I], followed by growth retardation [phase II] and additional fast growth [phase III]) observed under constant illumination and temperature indicates synchronization of the algal population...
August 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776271/do-metabolites-that-are-produced-during-resistance-exercise-enhance-muscle-hypertrophy
#5
REVIEW
Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Jeremy P Loenneke
Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765418/the-emergence-of-sarcopenia-as-an-important-entity-in-older-people
#6
Natalie J Offord, Miles D Witham
Sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass and strength seen with advancing age. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, with loss of muscle satellite cells, changes in hormonal systems, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and anabolic resistance to protein utilisation all implicated. Older age, female sex and immobility are important risk factors. Sarcopenia is clinically important as it is a major risk factor for physical frailty, falls, prolonged hospitalisation, dependency and earlier death. Diagnosis requires evidence of reduced muscle mass measured by handgrip strength or walk speed, together with evidence of low muscle mass, measured by one of a variety of techniques such as bioimpedance analysis or dual X-ray absorptiometry...
July 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743325/low-doses-of-simvastatin-potentiate-the-effect-of-sodium-alendronate-in-inhibiting-bone-resorption-and-restore-microstructural-and-mechanical-bone-properties-in-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis
#7
Priscila L Sequetto, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Aloísio S Pinto, Maria G A Oliveira, Izabel R S C Maldonado, Tânia T Oliveira, Rômulo D Novaes
By using an experimental model of dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis we investigated the effects of different therapeutic schemes combining sodium alendronate (SA) and simvastatin on bone mineral and protein composition, microstructural and mechanical remodeling. Wistar rats were randomized into eight groups: G1: non-osteoporotic; G2: osteoporotic; G3, G4, and G5: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively); G6, G7, and G8: osteoporotic+SA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively)+simvastatin (0.4, 0...
July 26, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718423/angiogenesis-and-metabolism-entwined-for-therapy-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Gabriela Jiménez-Valerio, Oriol Casanovas
Angiogenesis and metabolism are entwined processes that permit tumor growth and progression. Blood vessel supply is necessary for tumor survival not only by providing oxygen and nutrients for anabolism but also by removing waste products from cellular metabolism. On the other hand, blocking angiogenesis with antiangiogenic therapies shows clinical benefits in treating several tumor types. Nevertheless, resistance to therapy emerges over time. In this review we discuss a novel mechanism of adaptive resistance involving metabolic adaptation of tumor cells, and we also provide examples of tumor adaptation to therapy, which may represent a new mechanism of resistance in several types of cancer...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713486/concurrent-aerobic-and-resistance-training-has-anti-inflammatory-effects-and-increases-both-plasma-and-leukocyte-levels-of-igf-1-in-late-middle-aged-type-2-diabetic-patients
#9
Giosuè Annibalini, Francesco Lucertini, Deborah Agostini, Luciana Vallorani, Annamaria Gioacchini, Elena Barbieri, Michele Guescini, Lucia Casadei, Annunziata Passalia, Marta Del Sal, Giovanni Piccoli, Mauro Andreani, Ario Federici, Vilberto Stocchi
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an age-related chronic disease associated with metabolic dysregulation, chronic inflammation, and activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a concurrent exercise training program on inflammatory status and metabolic parameters of T2D patients. Sixteen male patients (age range 55-70) were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 8), which underwent a concurrent aerobic and resistance training program (3 times a week; 16 weeks), or to a control group, which followed physicians' usual diabetes care advices...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697344/muc1-and-hif-1alpha-signaling-crosstalk-induces-anabolic-glucose-metabolism-to-impart-gemcitabine-resistance-to-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Surendra K Shukla, Vinee Purohit, Kamiya Mehla, Venugopal Gunda, Nina V Chaika, Enza Vernucci, Ryan J King, Jaime Abrego, Gennifer D Goode, Aneesha Dasgupta, Alysha L Illies, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Bingbing Dai, Jithesh J Augustine, Divya Murthy, Kuldeep S Attri, Oksana Mashadova, Paul M Grandgenett, Robert Powers, Quan P Ly, Audrey J Lazenby, Jean L Grem, Fang Yu, José M Matés, John M Asara, Jung-Whan Kim, Jordan H Hankins, Colin Weekes, Michael A Hollingsworth, Natalie J Serkova, Aaron R Sasson, Jason B Fleming, Jennifer M Oliveto, Costas A Lyssiotis, Lewis C Cantley, Lyudmyla Berim, Pankaj K Singh
Poor response to cancer therapy due to resistance remains a clinical challenge. The present study establishes a widely prevalent mechanism of resistance to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer, whereby increased glycolytic flux leads to glucose addiction in cancer cells and a corresponding increase in pyrimidine biosynthesis to enhance the intrinsic levels of deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP). Increased levels of dCTP diminish the effective levels of gemcitabine through molecular competition. We also demonstrate that MUC1-regulated stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mediates such metabolic reprogramming...
July 10, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696380/whey-protein-supplementation-enhances-whole-body-protein-metabolism-and-performance-recovery-after-resistance-exercise-a-double-blind-crossover-study
#11
Daniel W D West, Sidney Abou Sawan, Michael Mazzulla, Eric Williamson, Daniel R Moore
No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery)...
July 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694500/resistance-exercise-initiates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-translocation-and-protein-complex-co-localisation-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#12
Zhe Song, Daniel R Moore, Nathan Hodson, Carl Ward, Jessica R Dent, Mary F O'Leary, Andrew M Shaw, D Lee Hamilton, Sovan Sarkar, Yann-Gaël Gangloff, Troy A Hornberger, Lawrence L Spriet, George J Heigenhauser, Andrew Philp
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central mediator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. We utilized immunofluorescence approaches to study mTOR cellular distribution and protein-protein co-localisation in human skeletal muscle in the basal state as well as immediately, 1 and 3 h after an acute bout of resistance exercise in a fed (FED; 20 g Protein/40 g carbohydrate/1 g fat) or energy-free control (CON) state. mTOR and the lysosomal protein LAMP2 were highly co-localised in basal samples...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682648/kinase-inhibitors-of-the-igf-1r-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#13
Hiroshi Tsushima, Shinji Morimoto, Maki Fujishiro, Yuko Yoshida, Kunihiro Hayakawa, Takuya Hirai, Tomoko Miyashita, Keigo Ikeda, Ken Yamaji, Kenji Takamori, Yoshinari Takasaki, Iwao Sekigawa, Naoto Tamura
We have previously shown that the inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a potential therapeutic strategy against rheumatoid arthritis (RA). CTGF consists of four distinct modules, including the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP). In serum, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) bind IGFBPs, interact with the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1 R), and regulate anabolic effects and bone metabolism. We investigated the correlation between IGF-1 and the pathogenesis of RA, and the inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis of the small molecular weight kinase inhibitor of the IGF-1 R, NVP-AEW541, against pathogenesis of RA in vitro...
July 6, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676778/children-s-first-experience-of-taking-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-can-occur-before-their-10th-birthday-a-systematic-review-identifying-9-factors-that-predicted-doping-among-young-people
#14
Adam R Nicholls, Ed Cope, Richard Bailey, Katrin Koenen, Detlef Dumon, Nikolaos C Theodorou, Benoit Chanal, Delphine Saint Laurent, David Müller, Mar P Andrés, Annemarie H Kristensen, Mark A Thompson, Wolfgang Baumann, Jean-Francois Laurent
Taking performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) can cause serious and irreversible health consequences, which can ultimately lead to premature death. Some young people may take PEDs without fully understanding the ramifications of their actions or based on the advice from others. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the main factors that predicted doping among young people. The literature was systematically reviewed using search engines, manually searching specialist journals, and pearl growing. Fifty-two studies, which included 187,288 young people aged between 10 and 21 years of age, 883 parents of adolescent athletes, and 11 adult coaches, who were interviewed regarding young athletes, were included in this review...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659288/overload-mediated-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy-is-not-impaired-by-loss-of-myofiber-stat3
#15
Joaquín Pérez-Schindler, Mary Esparza, James McKendry, Leigh Breen, Andrew Philp, Simon Schenk
Although the signal pathways mediating muscle protein synthesis and degradation are well characterized, the transcriptional processes modulating skeletal muscle mass and adaptive growth are poorly understood. Recently, studies in mouse models of muscle wasting or acutely exercised human muscle have suggested a potential role for the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), in adaptive growth. Hence, in the present study we sought to define the contribution of STAT3 to skeletal muscle adaptive growth...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642676/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-protein-and-exercise
#16
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Chad M Kerksick, Bill I Campbell, Paul J Cribb, Shawn D Wells, Tim M Skwiat, Martin Purpura, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Arny A Ferrando, Shawn M Arent, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jeffrey R Stout, Paul J Arciero, Michael J Ormsbee, Lem W Taylor, Colin D Wilborn, Doug S Kalman, Richard B Kreider, Darryn S Willoughby, Jay R Hoffman, Jamie L Krzykowski, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630601/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-diets-and-body-composition
#17
REVIEW
Alan A Aragon, Brad J Schoenfeld, Robert Wildman, Susan Kleiner, Trisha VanDusseldorp, Lem Taylor, Conrad P Earnest, Paul J Arciero, Colin Wilborn, Douglas S Kalman, Jeffrey R Stout, Darryn S Willoughby, Bill Campbell, Shawn M Arent, Laurent Bannock, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Jose Antonio
Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626026/protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-activates-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-protein-by-influencing-its-ubiquitin-proteasome-degradation
#18
Haoran Tai, Xiaobo Wang, Jiao Zhou, Xiaojuan Han, Tingting Fang, Hui Gong, Ning Huang, Honghan Chen, Jianqiong Qin, Ming Yang, Xiawei Wei, Li Yang, Hengyi Xiao
PKCβ is a serine-threonine kinase associated with obesity and diabetic complications; its activation contributes to weight gain, and deletion of its gene results in resistance to genetic- and diet-induced obesity. Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a recently identified RNA demethylase, and its overexpression in mice leads to increased body weight as well as fat mass. Although sharing some features in anabolism regulation, PKCβ and FTO have not been investigated together; therefore, their relationship has not been established...
June 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606408/-common-therapeutic-approaches-of-sarcopenia-in-the-elderly-and-uremic-myopathy
#19
Philippe Chauveau, Karine Moreau, Catherine Lasseur, Christian Combe, Michel Aparicio
The gradual loss of weight and function of muscle in patients with chronic kidney disease as in the elderly impacts the quality of life. Early management should help slow the functional limitation. Physical activity is the first therapy to propose that ensures stability of muscle mass and improved function. Resistance training programs have proven effective but are not yet widely available in nephrology units. The nutritional management should not be forgotten because there is a resistance to anabolism and protein intake should be involved in physical activity program...
June 9, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603468/minimal-dose-of-milk-protein-concentrate-to-enhance-the-anabolic-signalling-response-to-a-single-bout-of-resistance-exercise-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Cameron J Mitchell, Nina Zeng, Randall F D'Souza, Sarah M Mitchell, Kirsten Aasen, Aaron C Fanning, Sally D Poppitt, David Cameron-Smith
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is a potent stimulus to induce muscle hypertrophy. Supplemental protein intake is known to enhance gains in muscle mass through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, which initiates protein translation. While the optimal dose of high quality protein to promote post exercise anabolism in young or older men has been investigated, little is known about the minimum doses of protein required to potentiate the resistance exercise activation of anabolic signalling in middle aged men...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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