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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324650/update-on-the-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-sarcopenia-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Alex Buoite Stella, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Rocco Barazzoni, Michela Zanetti
Elderly and patients affected by chronic diseases face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function. Omega 3 fatty acids (FA) attenuate inflammation and age-associated muscle loss, prevent systemic insulin resistance and improve plasma lipids, potentially impacting on sarcopenia. This paper aims to review recent randomized clinical studies assessing the effects a chronic omega 3 FA supplementation on inflammatory and metabolic profile during conditions characterized by sarcopenia (aging, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, chronic renal failure)...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317256/nandrolone-combined-with-strenuous-resistance-training-reduces-vascular-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-impairs-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation
#2
Vinicius Guzzoni, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Vander José das Neves, Larissa Briet, Rafaela Costa, Maria José Costa Sampaio Moura, Vanessa Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Pinho Franco, Pedro Duarte Novaes, Fernanda Klein Marcondes
Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) misuse has increased among adolescents and recreational athletes due to their potential effects on muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, AAS might induce alterations on cardiovascular system, although some controversies regarding AAS on vascular properties remain unknown. To address this question, we aimed to investigate the effects of high doses of nandrolone combined with strenuous resistance training (RT) on function and structure of thoracic aorta. Rats were randomized into four groups: non-trained vehicle (NTV), trained vehicle (TV), non-trained nandrolone (NTN), and trained nandrolone (TN), and submitted to 6 weeks of treatment with nandrolone (5mg/kg, twice a week) and/or resistance training...
January 6, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302796/prehabilitation-a-new-area-of-integration-between-geriatricians-anesthesiologists-and-exercise-therapists
#3
Francesco Carli, Vanessa Ferreira
Surgery in combination with risk factors such as poor physical and nutritional status have detrimental effects on short- and long-term aspects of recovery and quality of life, especially in elderly patients whose functional reserve is limited. Strategies to minimize these effects and accelerate return to baseline levels have focused on the intra- and post-operative period; however, this may not be the most opportune time to intervene. Instead, the preoperative period may be a more emotionally salient and physically enabling time to initiate an intervention aimed at attenuating surgical stress and enhancing recovery after surgery...
January 4, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238004/frailty-in-elderly-diabetes-patients
#4
Toshihiko Yanase, Ikumi Yanagita, Kazuo Muta, Hajime Nawata
Frailty is a state of vulnerability and a consequence of cumulative decline in multiple physiological systems over a lifespan. The occurrence of frailty depends on deterioration in muscle and nerve function, declining cardiopulmonary reserve and loss of executive function. Diabetes mellitus (DM) often causes functional impairment in each of the above systems, thus leading to a loss of whole body homeostasis and deterioration in physical function. Inability of self-management in DM patients may also have considerable impact on the development of sarcopenia/frailty...
December 14, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229807/sclerostin-influences-body-composition-by-regulating-catabolic-and-anabolic-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#5
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Priyanka Kushwaha, Meredith L Zoch, Ryan E Tomlinson, Hao Da, Susan Aja, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K Kim, Mehboob A Hussain, Daniel L J Thorek, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Sclerostin has traditionally been thought of as a local inhibitor of bone acquisition that antagonizes the profound osteoanabolic capacity of activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but serum sclerostin levels in humans exhibit a correlation with impairments in several metabolic parameters. These data, together with the increased production of sclerostin in mouse models of type 2 diabetes, suggest an endocrine function. To determine whether sclerostin contributes to the coordination of whole-body metabolism, we examined body composition, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid metabolism in Sost-/- mice as well as mice that overproduce sclerostin as a result of adeno-associated virus expression from the liver...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#6
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215200/mir-424-5p-reduces-ribosomal-rna-and-protein-synthesis-in-muscle-wasting
#7
Martin Connolly, Richard Paul, Roser Farre-Garros, Samantha A Natanek, Susannah Bloch, Jen Lee, Jose P Lorenzo, Harnish Patel, Cyrus Cooper, Avan A Sayer, Stephen J Wort, Mark Griffiths, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: A loss of muscle mass occurs as a consequence of a range of chronic and acute diseases as well as in older age. This wasting results from an imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation with a reduction in synthesis and resistance to anabolic stimulation often reported features. Ribosomes are required for protein synthesis, so changes in the control of ribosome synthesis are potential contributors to muscle wasting. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of muscle phenotype and have been shown to modulate components of the protein synthetic pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207472/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptations-following-resistance-training
#8
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Katsuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. METHODS: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201444/the-interaction-effects-of-resistance-training-and-sustanon-abuse-on-liver-antioxidant-activities-and-serum-enzymes-in-male-rats
#9
Hamid Arazi, Siavash Rahmati, Hosein Ghafoori
Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone, the uncontrolled usage of which may lead to serious side effects. Previous studies have shown that resistance training (RT) is the main exercise modality practiced by AAS abusers. Thus, this work was carried out to evaluate the hepatotoxic effects of sustanon (Su) as an example of AAS in trained male rats. Methods: Rats were divided into sedentary/non-Su, sedentary/Su, RT/non-Su, and RT/Su...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200982/native-whey-protein-with-high-levels-of-leucine-results-in-similar-post-exercise-muscular-anabolic-responses-as-regular-whey-protein-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Håvard Hamarsland, Anne Lene Nordengen, Sigve Nyvik Aas, Kristin Holte, Ina Garthe, Gøran Paulsen, Matthew Cotter, Elisabet Børsheim, Haakon B Benestad, Truls Raastad
Background: Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2 × 20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187515/nrf2-at-the-heart-of-oxidative-stress-and-cardiac-protection
#11
Qin M Chen, Anthony J Maltagliati
The NFE2L2 gene encodes the transcription factor Nrf2 best known for regulating the expression of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Gene knockout approaches have demonstrated its universal cytoprotective features. While Nrf2 has been the topic of intensive research in cancer biology since its discovery in 1994, understanding the role of Nrf2 in cardiovascular disease has just begun. The literature concerning Nrf2 in experimental models of atherosclerosis, ischemia, reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and diabetes supports its cardiac protective character...
November 29, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172848/the-role-of-hormones-in-muscle-hypertrophy
#12
Julius Fink, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Koichi Nakazato
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations...
November 25, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160404/interaction-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-and-induced-tooth-movement-in-rats
#13
Lilian Mary Karakida, Cristiano Miranda de Araujo, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues Johann, Elisa Souza Camargo, Orlando Motohiro Tanaka, Odilon Guariza Guariza
This study evaluated the interaction between tooth movement and two anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), Deposteron® and Nebido®. One hundred Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control (C) n=30, Nebido experimental (N) n=35 and Deposteron experimental (D) n=35. The control group was subdivided into 6 subgroups: 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14. The experimental groups were subdivided into 7 subgroups: 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14, which corresponded to the day of animal's euthanasia after applying orthodontic force. Orthodontic devices were used to induce tooth movement using 50 cN of reciprocal force between the maxillary right first molar and the maxillary incisors...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127344/catabolic-effects-of-human-pth-1-34-on-bone-requirement-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-murine-model-of-hyperparathyroidism
#14
Jawed A Siddiqui, Joshua Johnson, Carole Le Henaff, Claudine L Bitel, Joseph A Tamasi, Nicola C Partridge
The bone catabolic actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are seen in patients with hyperparathyroidism, or with infusion of PTH in rodents. We have previously shown that the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a mediator of PTH's anabolic effects on bone. To determine its role in PTH's catabolic effects, we continuously infused female wild-type (WT) and MCP-1(-/-) mice with hPTH or vehicle. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) analysis of cortical bone showed that hPTH-infusion induced significant bone loss in WT mice...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#15
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099523/a-potential-strategy-for-counteracting-age-related-sarcopenia-preliminary-evidence-of-combined-exercise-training-and-leucine-supplementation
#16
Z Xia, J M Cholewa, Y Zhao, Y Yang, H Shang, H Jiang, Q Su, N E Zanchi
Previous research has demonstrated the positive effects of concurrent/combined aerobic and resistance exercise or leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophy in aging organisms. However, the effects of a multimodal intervention which combines both aerobic and resistance exercise and leucine supplementation has not been fully elucidated. Eighteen month old and 2 month old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to aging control (AC, n = 8), aging and multimodal intervention (AMI, n = 8) and young control (YC, n = 8)...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098919/current-methods-of-preventing-aseptic-loosening-and-improving-osseointegration-of-titanium-implants-in-cementless-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-review
#17
Dragos Apostu, Ondine Lucaciu, Cristian Berce, Dan Lucaciu, Dan Cosma
Hip osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder, and is represented by a degenerative process, resulting in pain and functional impairment. If conservative treatment for hip osteoarthritis fails, the only remaining option is hip arthroplasty. Despite good survival of implants, loosening of components is the most common complication. This leads to revision surgeries, which are technically demanding, expensive, and result in a low satisfaction rate. Uncemented hip replacements require proper osseointegration for increased survival...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068480/phlpp-inhibitors-block-pain-and-cartilage-degradation-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#18
Soyun M Hwang, Marina Feigenson, Dana L Begun, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Kirsty L Culley, Miguel Otero, Mary B Goldring, Lauren E Ta, Sanjeev Kakar, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Phlpp protein phosphatases are abnormally abundant within human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes and may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Mice lacking Phlpp1 were previously shown to be resistant to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Here a small molecule with therapeutic properties that inhibits Phlpp1 and Phlpp2 was tested for its ability to slow post-traumatic OA in mice and to stimulate anabolic pathways in human articular cartilage from OA joints. PTOA was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by surgically destabilizing the meniscus...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058131/insulin-and-its-cardiovascular-effects-what-is-the-current-evidence
#19
REVIEW
Sahana Pai Dongerkery, Pamela R Schroeder, Mansur E Shomali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we examine the nature of the complex relationship between insulin and cardiovascular disease. With metabolic abnormalities comes increased risk for cardiovascular complications. We discuss the key factors implicated in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, its relationship to insulin therapy, and what can be learned from large, recent cardiovascular outcome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies suggest that insulin has positive effects of facilitating glucose entry into cells and maintaining euglycemia and negative effects of favoring obesity and atherogenesis under certain conditions...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055919/the-expression-of-pnpla3-polymorphism-could-be-the-key-for-severe-liver-disease-in-nafld-in-hispanic-population
#20
Leonardo A Martínez, Elena Larrieta, David Kershenobich, Aldo Torre
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses: fatty liver (SS), steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patatine-like phosphatas in domain 3 (PNPLA3; adiponutrin; SNP rs738409 C/G, M148I) shows anabolic and catabolic activities on lipid metabolism and significant association to fatty liver content; however, I148M demographics and ethnics, as its role with NAFLD have not been fully elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PNPLA3 genotyping from peripheral blood DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, 211 patients diagnosed with NAFLD including SS, NASH and fibrosis spectrum...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
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