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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777633/hypertrophic-effect-of-inhaled-beta-2-agonist-with-and-without-concurrent-exercise-training-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Søren Jessen, Johan Onslev, Anders Lemminger, Vibeke Backer, Jens Bangsbo, Morten Hostrup
INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men...
May 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764464/daytime-and-nighttime-casein-supplements-similarly-increase-muscle-size-and-strength-in-response-to-resistance-training-earlier-in-the-day-a-preliminary-investigation
#2
Jordan M Joy, Roxanne M Vogel, K Shane Broughton, Urszula Kudla, Nathaniel Y Kerr, Jason M Davison, Robert E C Wildman, Nancy M DiMarco
BACKGROUND: Casein protein consumed before sleep has been suggested to offer an overnight supply of exogenous amino acids for anabolic processes. The purpose of this study was to compare supplemental casein consumed earlier in the day (DayTime, DT) versus shortly before bed (NightTime, NT) on body composition, strength, and muscle hypertrophy in response to supervised resistance training. METHODS: Thirteen males participated in a 10-week exercise and dietary intervention while receiving 35 g casein daily...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#3
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723655/effects-of-aging-and-insulin-resistant-states-on-protein-anabolic-responses-in-older-adults
#4
REVIEW
Jose A Morais, Kathryn Jacob, Stéphanie Chevalier
Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0...
April 30, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721213/anabolic-androgenic-steroids-and-carcinogenicity-focusing-on-leydig-cell-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Monica Salerno, Orazio Cascio, Giuseppe Bertozzi, Francesco Sessa, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo Monda, Luigi Cipolloni, Antonio Biondi, Aurora Daniele, Cristoforo Pomara
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common drugs used among athletes, frequently in combination with resistance training, to improve physical performance or for aesthetic purpose. A great number of scientific reports showed the detrimental effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on different organs and tissues. In this literature review, we analyzed the AAS-mediated carcinogenicity, focusing on Leydig cell tumor. AAS-induced carcinogenicity can affect DNA transcription through two pathways...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708079/barriers-to-cancer-nutrition-therapy-excess-catabolism-of-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-induced-by-tumour-products-and-chemotherapy
#6
Dalton L Schiessel, Vickie E Baracos
Cancer-associated malnutrition is driven by reduced dietary intake and by underlying metabolic changes (such as inflammation, anabolic resistance, proteolysis, lipolysis and futile cycling) induced by the tumour and activated immune cells. Cytotoxic and targeted chemotherapies also elicit proteolysis and lipolysis at the tissue level. In this review, we summarise specific mediators and chemotherapy effects that provoke excess proteolysis in muscle and excess lipolysis in adipose tissue. A nutritionally relevant question is whether and to what degree these catabolic changes can be reversed by nutritional therapy...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702208/the-plasticity-of-pancreatic-cancer-metabolism-in-tumor-progression-and-therapeutic-resistance
#7
REVIEW
Douglas E Biancur, Alec C Kimmelman
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an aggressive cancer that is highly refractory to the current standards of care. The difficulty in treating this disease is due to a number of different factors, including altered metabolism. In PDA, the metabolic rewiring favors anabolic reactions which supply the cancer cell with necessary cellular building blocks for unconstrained growth. Furthermore, PDA cells display high levels of basal autophagy and macropinocytosis. KRAS is the driving oncogene in PDA and many of the metabolic changes are downstream of its activation...
April 24, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672220/environmental-hypoxia-favors-myoblast-differentiation-and-fast-phenotype-but-blunts-activation-of-protein-synthesis-after-resistance-exercise-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Olouyomi Gnimassou, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Matthew Brook, Damien Naslain, Estelle Balan, Mariwan Sayda, Jessica Cegielski, Henri Nielens, Anabelle Decottignies, Jean-Baptiste Demoulin, Kenneth Smith, Philip J Atherton, Marc Francaux, Louise Deldicque
We hypothesized that a single session of resistance exercise performed in moderate hypoxic (FiO2 : 14%) environmental conditions would potentiate the anabolic response during the recovery period spent in normoxia. Twenty subjects performed a 1-leg knee extension session in normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Muscle biopsies were taken 15 min and 4 h after exercise in the vastus lateralis of the exercised and the nonexercised legs. Blood and saliva samples were taken at regular intervals before, during, and after the exercise session...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666506/insights-into-aluminum-tolerance-pathways-in-stylosanthes-as-revealed-by-rna-seq-analysis
#9
Caode Jiang, Lusheng Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Rongrong Han, Yunmin Wei, Yongxiong Yu
Stylo has a great potential for Al3+ resistance in acidic soils through secretion of citrate from the roots. To get insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible, transcriptomic changes were investigated in the roots after treatment with T01 (-Al3+ , pH6.0), T02 (-Al3+ , pH4.3) and T03 (50 µM AlCl3 , pH4.3). In total, 83,197 unigenes generated from 130,933 contigs were obtained. Of them, 282, 148 and 816 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were revealed in T01_vs_T02, T02_vs_T03 and T01_vs_T03 comparison, respectively (FDR < 0...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615900/peripheral-cb1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-am6545-ameliorates-hypometabolic-obesity-and-improves-adipokine-secretion-in-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obese-mice
#10
Haiming Ma, Guina Zhang, Chunrong Mou, Xiujuan Fu, Yadan Chen
Effect of peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) blockade by AM6545 in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity was observed, and the impact on intraperitoneal adipose tissue and adipokines was investigated. The MSG mice is characterized by excessive abdominal obesity, and combined with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. 3-Week AM6545 treatment dose-dependently decreased the body weight, intraperitoneal fat mass, and rectified the accompanied dyslipidemia include elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and lowered LDLc level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593712/mitochondrial-sirtuin-4-resolves-immune-tolerance-in-monocytes-by-rebalancing-glycolysis-and-glucose-oxidation-homeostasis
#11
Jie Tao, Jingpu Zhang, Yun Ling, Charles E McCall, Tie Fu Liu
The goal of this investigation was to define the molecular mechanism underlying physiologic conversion of immune tolerance to resolution of the acute inflammatory response, which is unknown. An example of this knowledge gap and its clinical importance is the broad-based energy deficit and immunometabolic paralysis in blood monocytes from non-survivors of human and mouse sepsis that precludes sepsis resolution. This immunometabolic dysregulation is biomarked by ex vivo endotoxin tolerance to increased glycolysis and TNF-α expression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590537/assessing-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-pathway-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-and-feeding-in-human-skeletal-muscle-by-multiplex-assay
#12
Chris McGlory, Everson A Nunes, Sara Y Oikawa, Evangelia Evelyn Tsakiridis, Stuart M Phillips
BACKGROUND: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC-1) is a key nutrient and contraction-sensitive protein that regulates a pathway leading to skeletal muscle growth. Utilizing a multiplex assay, we aimed to examine the phosphorylation status of key mTORC-1-related signalling molecules in response to protein feeding and resistance exercise. METHODS: Eight healthy men (22.5 ± 3.1 yr, 80 ± 9 kg, 1-repetition maximum [1RM] leg extension: 87 ± 5 kg) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extensions until volitional failure...
March 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576350/differential-effects-of-leucine-and-leucine-enriched-whey-protein-on-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-in-aged-mice
#13
Francina J Dijk, Miriam van Dijk, Stéphane Walrand, Luc J C van Loon, Klaske van Norren, Yvette C Luiking
BACKGROUND & AIMS: It has been suggested that anabolic resistance, or a blunted protein synthetic response to anabolic stimuli, contributes to the failure of muscle mass maintenance in older adults. The amino acid leucine is one of the most prominent food-related anabolic stimuli. However, data on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) after administration of a single bolus of leucine in aged populations is lacking and long-term single leucine supplementation has not been shown to increase muscle mass...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575061/association-between-site-specific-bone-mineral-density-and-glucose-homeostasis-and-anthropometric-traits-in-healthy-men-and-women
#14
Se-Min Kim, Jinrui Cui, Jane Rhyu, Xiuqing Guo, Yii-Der I Chen, Willa A Hsueh, Jerome I Rotter, Mark O Goodarzi
OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of fracture despite normal or increased bone mineral density (BMD). Studies on the relationship of glucose homeostasis with BMD phenotypes have been inconclusive because distinguishing the roles of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia in bone remodelling is challenging. In this study, we sought to define the relationship of site-specific BMD with glucose homeostasis traits and anthropometric traits. DESIGN/PATIENTS/MEASUREMENTS: In a cross-sectional study, we examined 787 subjects from the Mexican-American Coronary Artery Disease (MACAD) cohort who had undergone euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps, oral glucose tolerance testing and dual X-ray absorptiometry...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564224/the-role-of-mitochondrial-h-atp-synthase-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Pau B Esparza-Moltó, José M Cuezva
Cancer cells reprogram energy metabolism by boosting aerobic glycolysis as a main pathway for the provision of metabolic energy and of precursors for anabolic purposes. Accordingly, the relative expression of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+ -ATP synthase-the core hub of oxidative phosphorylation-is downregulated in human carcinomas when compared with its expression in normal tissues. Moreover, some prevalent carcinomas also upregulate the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), which is the physiological inhibitor of the H+ -ATP synthase...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546647/bone-best-papers-of-the-year-2017
#16
REVIEW
Michaël R Laurent
An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. PURPOSE: This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keyword "bone" and articles published in 2017. RESULTS: Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534973/lateral-but-not-medial-hypothalamic-ampk-activation-occurs-at-the-hypoglycemic-nadir-in-insulin-injected-male-rats-impact-of-caudal-dorsomedial-hindbrain-catecholamine-signaling
#17
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533360/sex-comparison-of-knee-extensor-size-strength-and-fatigue-adaptation-to-sprint-interval-training
#18
Liam Bagley, Nasser Al-Shanti, Steven Bradburn, Osamah Baig, Mark Slevin, Jamie S McPhee
BACKGROUND: Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. METHODS: Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523929/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-preserve-bone-architecture-and-mechanical-properties-and-stimulate-porous-implant-osseointegration-by-promoting-bone-anabolism-in-type-1-diabetic-rabbits
#19
J Cai, W Li, T Sun, X Li, E Luo, D Jing
The effects of exogenous pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation on T1DM-associated osteopathy were investigated in alloxan-treated rabbits. We found that PEMF improved bone architecture, mechanical properties, and porous titanium (pTi) osseointegration by promoting bone anabolism through a canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling-associated mechanism, and revealed the clinical potential of PEMF stimulation for the treatment of T1DM-associated bone complications. INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with deteriorated bone architecture and impaired osseous healing potential; nonetheless, effective methods for resisting T1DM-associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and promoting bone defect/fracture healing are still lacking...
May 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515755/cgef-1-regulates-mtorc1-signaling-during-adult-longevity-and-stress-response-in-c-elegans
#20
Yujie Li, Sandra Finkbeiner, Athina Ganner, Julia Gerber, Marinella Klein, Manuel Grafe, Jakob Kandzia, Antje Thien, Kathrin Thedieck, Gerhard Breves, Thomas Jank, Ralf Baumeister, Gerd Walz, Elke Neumann-Haefelin
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is central to metabolism and growth, and has a conserved role in aging. mTOR functions in two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In diverse eukaryotes, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling increases lifespan. mTORC1 transduces anabolic signals to stimulate protein synthesis and inhibits autophagy. In this study, we demonstrate that CGEF-1, the C. elegans homolog of the human guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dbl, is a novel binding partner of RHEB-1 and activator of mTORC1 signaling in C...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
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