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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127344/catabolic-effects-of-human-pth-1-34-on-bone-requirement-of-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-murine-model-of-hyperparathyroidism
#1
Jawed A Siddiqui, Joshua Johnson, Carole Le Henaff, Claudine L Bitel, Joseph A Tamasi, Nicola C Partridge
The bone catabolic actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are seen in patients with hyperparathyroidism, or with infusion of PTH in rodents. We have previously shown that the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a mediator of PTH's anabolic effects on bone. To determine its role in PTH's catabolic effects, we continuously infused female wild-type (WT) and MCP-1(-/-) mice with hPTH or vehicle. Microcomputed tomography (µCT) analysis of cortical bone showed that hPTH-infusion induced significant bone loss in WT mice...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110174/murine-myoblast-migration-influence-of-replicative-ageing-and-nutrition
#2
Alexander D Brown, Graeme L Close, Adam P Sharples, Claire E Stewart
Cell migration is central to skeletal muscle repair following damage. Leucine and β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) are supplements consumed for recovery from muscle damaging exercise in humans, however, their impact on muscle cell migration with age is not yet understood. We hypothesised that replicatively aged ("aged"; P46-P48) myoblasts would be less efficient at basal and supplemented repair versus parental controls ("control"; P12-P16). Aged and control myoblasts were scratch-damaged and migration velocity, directionality and distance assessed over 48 h in the absence and presence of leucine (10 mM) or HMB (10 mM) ± PI3K/Akt (LY294002 10 μM), ERK (PD98059 5 μM) or mTOR (rapamycin 0...
November 7, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099523/a-potential-strategy-for-counteracting-age-related-sarcopenia-preliminary-evidence-of-combined-exercise-training-and-leucine-supplementation
#3
Z Xia, J M Cholewa, Y Zhao, Y Yang, H Shang, H Jiang, Q Su, N E Zanchi
Previous research has demonstrated the positive effects of concurrent/combined aerobic and resistance exercise or leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and hypertrophy in aging organisms. However, the effects of a multimodal intervention which combines both aerobic and resistance exercise and leucine supplementation has not been fully elucidated. Eighteen month old and 2 month old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to aging control (AC, n = 8), aging and multimodal intervention (AMI, n = 8) and young control (YC, n = 8)...
November 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098919/current-methods-of-preventing-aseptic-loosening-and-improving-osseointegration-of-titanium-implants-in-cementless-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-review
#4
Dragos Apostu, Ondine Lucaciu, Cristian Berce, Dan Lucaciu, Dan Cosma
Hip osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder, and is represented by a degenerative process, resulting in pain and functional impairment. If conservative treatment for hip osteoarthritis fails, the only remaining option is hip arthroplasty. Despite good survival of implants, loosening of components is the most common complication. This leads to revision surgeries, which are technically demanding, expensive, and result in a low satisfaction rate. Uncemented hip replacements require proper osseointegration for increased survival...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068480/phlpp-inhibitors-block-pain-and-cartilage-degradation-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#5
Soyun M Hwang, Marina Feigenson, Dana L Begun, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Kirsty L Culley, Miguel Otero, Mary B Goldring, Lauren E Ta, Sanjeev Kakar, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Phlpp protein phosphatases are abnormally abundant within human osteoarthritic articular chondrocytes and may contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. Mice lacking Phlpp1 were previously shown to be resistant to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Here a small molecule with therapeutic properties that inhibits Phlpp1 and Phlpp2 was tested for its ability to slow post-traumatic OA in mice and to stimulate anabolic pathways in human articular cartilage from OA joints. PTOA was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by surgically destabilizing the meniscus...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058131/insulin-and-its-cardiovascular-effects-what-is-the-current-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Sahana Pai Dongerkery, Pamela R Schroeder, Mansur E Shomali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we examine the nature of the complex relationship between insulin and cardiovascular disease. With metabolic abnormalities comes increased risk for cardiovascular complications. We discuss the key factors implicated in development and progression of cardiovascular disease, its relationship to insulin therapy, and what can be learned from large, recent cardiovascular outcome studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies suggest that insulin has positive effects of facilitating glucose entry into cells and maintaining euglycemia and negative effects of favoring obesity and atherogenesis under certain conditions...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055919/the-expression-of-pnpla3-polymorphism-could-be-the-key-for-severe-liver-disease-in-nafld-in-hispanic-population
#7
Leonardo A Martínez, Elena Larrieta, David Kershenobich, Aldo Torre
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses: fatty liver (SS), steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis. Patatine-like phosphatas in domain 3 (PNPLA3; adiponutrin; SNP rs738409 C/G, M148I) shows anabolic and catabolic activities on lipid metabolism and significant association to fatty liver content; however, I148M demographics and ethnics, as its role with NAFLD have not been fully elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PNPLA3 genotyping from peripheral blood DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing, 211 patients diagnosed with NAFLD including SS, NASH and fibrosis spectrum...
October 16, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047090/metabolic-reprogramming-and-redox-signaling-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá, Angelo D'alessandro, Karim El Kasmi, Min Li, Hui Zhang, Petr Ježek, Kurt R Stenmark
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disease of the pulmonary vasculature, which in severe cases terminates in right heart failure. Complex remodeling of pulmonary arteries comprises the central issue of its pathology. This includes extensive proliferation, apoptotic resistance and inflammation. As such, the molecular and cellular features of pulmonary hypertension resemble hallmark characteristics of cancer cell behavior. The vascular remodeling derives from significant metabolic changes in resident cells, which we describe in detail...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045496/at-same-leucine-intake-a-whey-plant-protein-blend-is-not-as-effective-as-whey-to-initiate-a-transient-post-prandial-muscle-anabolic-response-during-a-catabolic-state-in-mini-pigs
#9
Aurélia Revel, Marianne Jarzaguet, Marie-Agnès Peyron, Isabelle Papet, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Carole Migné, Laurent Mosoni, Sergio Polakof, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Didier Rémond, Dominique Dardevet
BACKGROUND: Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS), whey (WHEY) or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND) and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043007/amino-acid-supplements-and-metabolic-health-a-potential-interplay-between-intestinal-microbiota-and-systems-control
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Bifari, Chiara Ruocco, Ilaria Decimo, Guido Fumagalli, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
Dietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated mechanisms, and their effects are closely related to the metabolic status to which they act. In particular, EAA supplementation can trigger different and even opposite effects depending on the catabolic and anabolic states of the organisms...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028650/fast-digestive-proteins-and-sarcopenia-of-aging
#11
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025897/a-drosophila-model-of-insulin-resistance-associated-with-the-human-trib3-q-r-polymorphism
#12
Zachary Fischer, Rahul Das, Anna Shipman, Jin-Yuan Fan, Laramie Pence, Samuel Bouyain, Leonard L Dobens
Members of the Tribbles family of proteins are conserved pseudokinases with diverse roles in cell growth and proliferation. Both Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) and vertebrate Trib3 proteins bind to Akt kinase to block its phosphorylation-activation and reduce downstream insulin-stimulated anabolism. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variant in human Trib3, which results in a glutamine (Q) to arginine (R) missense mutation in a conserved motif at position 84, confers stronger Akt binding resulting in reduced Akt phosphorylation and is associated with a predisposition to Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease and leukemogenesis...
October 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978542/consumption-of-whole-eggs-promotes-greater-stimulation-of-postexercise-muscle-protein-synthesis-than-consumption-of-isonitrogenous-amounts-of-egg-whites-in-young-men
#13
Stephan van Vliet, Evan L Shy, Sidney Abou Sawan, Joseph W Beals, Daniel Wd West, Sarah K Skinner, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Scott A Paluska, Carl M Parsons, Daniel R Moore, Nicholas A Burd
Background: Protein in the diet is commonly ingested from whole foods that contain various macro- and micronutrients. However, the effect of consuming protein within its natural whole-food matrix on postprandial protein metabolism remains understudied in humans.Objective: We aimed to compare the whole-body and muscle protein metabolic responses after the consumption of whole eggs with egg whites during exercise recovery in young men.Design: In crossover trials, 10 resistance-trained men [aged 21 ± 1 y; 88 ± 3 kg; body fat: 16% ± 1% (means ± SEMs)] received primed continuous l-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and l-[1-(13)C]leucine infusions and performed a single bout of resistance exercise...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974267/efficacy-of-a-multi-component-exercise-programme-and-nutritional-supplementation-on-musculoskeletal-health-in-men-treated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy-for-prostate-cancer-impact-study-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Patrick J Owen, Robin M Daly, Patricia M Livingston, Niamh L Mundell, Jack Dalla Via, Jeremy L Millar, Steve F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in developed countries. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a systemic treatment shown to increase survival in selected patients with prostate cancer. The use of ADT continues to increase for all stages and grades of prostate cancer despite known treatment-induced adverse effects. The primary aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of a targeted, multi-component resistance and impact-loading exercise programme together with a daily protein-, calcium- and vitamin D-enriched supplement on bone health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971834/differential-localisation-and-anabolic-responsiveness-of-mtor-complexes-in-human-skeletal-muscle-in-response-to-feeding-and-exercise
#15
Nathan Hodson, Chris McGlory, Sara Y Oikawa, Stewart Jeromson, Zhe Song, Markus A Ruegg, D Lee Hamilton, Stuart M Phillips, Andrew Philp
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) resides as two complexes within skeletal muscle. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1-Raptor positive) regulates skeletal muscle growth, whereas mTORC2 (Rictor positive) regulates insulin sensitivity. To examine the regulation of these complexes in human skeletal muscle, we utilised immunohistochemical analysis to study the localisation of mTOR complexes prior to and following protein-carbohydrate feeding (FED) and resistance exercise plus protein-carbohydrate feeding (EXFED) in unilateral exercise model...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963124/effect-of-light-load-resistance-exercise-on-postprandial-amino-acid-transporter-expression-in-elderly-men
#16
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bülow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Andreas Bornø, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Lars Holm
An impaired amino acid sensing is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. We tested whether light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects postprandial amino acid transporter (AAT) expression in aging skeletal muscle. Untrained, healthy men (age: +65 years) were subjected to 13 h of supine rest. After 2 1/2 h of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted (leg extensions, 10 sets of 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into groups that orally ingested 40 g of whey protein either as hourly drinks (4 g per drink) (PULSE, N = 10) or two boluses (28 g at 0 h and 12 g at 7 h) (BOLUS, N = 10), or hourly isocaloric maltodextrin drinks (placebo, N = 10)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959650/use-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroids-produces-greater-oxidative-stress-responses-to-resistance-exercise-in-strength-trained-men
#17
Hamid Arazi, Heidar Mohammadjafari, Abbas Asadi
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS) volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO]), antioxidant defense systems (i...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940037/satellite-cell-activation-and-mtor-signaling-pathway-response-to-resistance-and-combined-exercise-in-elite-weight-lifters
#18
Chang Hyun Lim, Thien Suong Luu, Le Quy Phoung, Tae Seok Jeong, Chang Keun Kim
PURPOSE: Our aim was to compare the effects of a single exercise training mode (resistance exercise) with a combined exercise training (resistance and plyometric exercise) mode on satellite cell activity and anabolic signaling at the molecular level. METHODS: Eighteen male weight lifters (20 ± 4 years, BMI 27 ± 6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to either a series of resistance exercise or a series of combined exercise group. The intensity of the exercise was set at 60% of their 1 RM weight and subjects completed three sets each of six repetitions...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923859/upregulation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-colonic-epithelia-reprograms-metabolism-and-promotes-carcinogenesis
#19
Ches'Nique M Phillips, John R Zatarain, Michael E Nicholls, Craig Porter, Steve G Widen, Ketan Thanki, Paul Johnson, Muhammad U Jawad, Mary P Moyer, James W Randall, Judith L Hellmich, Manjit Maskey, Suimin Qiu, Thomas G Wood, Nadiya Druzhyna, Bartosz Szczesny, Katalin Módis, Csaba Szabo, Celia Chao, Mark R Hellmich
The trans-sulfuration enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and its product hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are aberrantly upregulated in colorectal cancers, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression by both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether the CBS/H2S axis plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we report upregulation of CBS in human biopsies of precancerous adenomatous polyps and show that forced upregulation of CBS in an adenoma-like colonic epithelial cell line is sufficient to induce metabolic and gene expression profiles characteristic of colorectal cancer cells...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#20
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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