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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918964/sarcopenia-in-older-mice-is-characterized-by-a-decreased-anabolic-response-to-a-protein-meal
#1
Miriam van Dijk, Jolanda Nagel, Francina J Dijk, Jerôme Salles, Sjors Verlaan, Stephane Walrand, Klaske van Norren, Yvette Luiking
Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice...
November 27, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866347/effect-of-low-intensity-resistance-training-with-heat-stress-on-the-hsp72-anabolic-hormones-muscle-size-and-strength-in-elderly-women
#2
Sung Jin Yoon, Moon Jin Lee, Hyo Min Lee, Jin Seok Lee
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have reported that heat stress stimulates the activation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), leading to an increase in muscle synthesis. Some studies suggested that low-intensity resistance training combined with heat stress could improve muscle size and strength. AIM: This study aimed to identify the effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress over 12 weeks on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women...
November 19, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856715/highlighted-topics-recovery-from-exercise-recovery-responses-of-testosterone-growth-hormone-and-igf-1-after-resistance-exercise
#3
William J Kraemer, Nicholas A Ratamess, Bradley J Nindl
The complexity of the endocrine pathways during recovery related to anabolic function belie an over simplistic approach to its study. This review is to examines the role of resistance exercise (RE) on the recovery responses of three major anabolic hormones testosterone, growth hormone(s) and insulin-like growth factor-I. Each hormone has a complexity related to differential pathways of action as well as interactions with binding proteins and receptor interactions. Testosterone is the primary anabolic hormone and its concentration changes during the recovery period depending upon the up- or down-regulation of the androgen receptor...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807658/dietary-protein-supplementation-in-the-elderly-for-limiting-muscle-mass-loss
#4
REVIEW
Antonio Herbert Lancha, Rudyard Zanella, Stefan Gleissner Ohara Tanabe, Mireille Andriamihaja, Francois Blachier
Supplementation with whey and other dietary protein, mainly associated with exercise training, has been proposed to be beneficial for the elderly to gain and maintain lean body mass and improve health parameters. The main objective of this review is to examine the evidence provided by the scientific literature indicating benefit from such supplementation and to define the likely best strategy of protein uptake for optimal objectified results in the elderly. Overall, it appears that an intake of approximately 0...
November 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798330/soy-dairy-protein-blend-or-whey-protein-isolate-ingestion-induces-similar-postexercise-muscle-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-signaling-and-protein-synthesis-responses-in-older-men
#5
Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Syed H Husaini, Melissa M Markofski, Rachel R Deer, Abigail B Richison, Bradley S Lambert, Mark B Cope, Ratna Mukherjea, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Previous work demonstrated that a soy-dairy protein blend (PB) prolongs hyperaminoacidemia and muscle protein synthesis in young adults after resistance exercise. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of PB in older adults. We hypothesized that PB would prolong hyperaminoacidemia, enhancing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein anabolism compared with a whey protein isolate (WPI). METHODS: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial studied men 55-75 y of age...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780819/light-load-resistance-exercise-increases-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-signaling-in-elderly-men
#6
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bulow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Thomas Scheike, Anja Serena, Lars Holm
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65 yrs) were subjected to 13 hours supine rest. After 21/2 hours of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of PULSE (4g whey protein/hour; N=10), BOLUS (28g whey protein at 0 hours and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754854/hyperglycaemia-induced-resistance-to-docetaxel-is-negated-by-metformin-a-role-for-igfbp-2
#7
Kalina Biernacka, Raj A Persad, Amit Bahl, David Gillatt, Jeff M P Holly, Claire M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes via targeting this pathway...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742138/anabolic-resistance-assessed-by-oral-stable-isotope-ingestion-following-bed-rest-in-young-and-older-adult-volunteers-relationships-with-changes-in-muscle-mass
#8
Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Sara Mazzucco, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Roberta Situlin, Stefano Lazzer, Bruno Grassi, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Joern Rittweger, Mladen Gasparini, Boštjan Šimunič, Marco Narici
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (D5Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721408/cytoplasmic-gper-translocation-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-mediates-camp-pka-creb-glycolytic-axis-to-confer-tumor-cells-with-multidrug-resistance
#9
T Yu, G Yang, Y Hou, X Tang, C Wu, X-A Wu, L Guo, Q Zhu, H Luo, Y-E Du, S Wen, L Xu, J Yin, G Tu, M Liu
Multiple drug resistance is a challenging issue in the clinic. There is growing evidence that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a novel mediator in the development of multidrug resistance in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast cancers, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment may be a new agent that promotes drug resistance in tumor cells. However, the role of cytoplasmic GPER of CAFs on tumor therapy remains unclear. Here we first show that the breast tumor cell-activated PI3K/AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT) signaling pathway induces the cytoplasmic GPER translocation of CAFs in a CRM1-dependent pattern, and leads to the activation of a novel estrogen/GPER/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling axis that triggers the aerobic glycolysis switch in CAFs...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677502/protein-coingestion-with-alcohol-following-strenuous-exercise-attenuates-alcohol-induced-intramyocellular-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-autophagy
#10
William J Smiles, Evelyn B Parr, Vernon G Coffey, Orly Lacham-Kaplan, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Alcohol ingestion decreases post-exercise rates of muscle protein synthesis, but the mechanism(s) (e.g., increased protein breakdown) underlying this observation are unknown. Autophagy is an intracellular "recycling" system required for homeostatic substrate and organelle turnover; its dysregulation may provoke apoptosis and lead to muscle atrophy. We investigated the acute effects of alcohol ingestion on autophagic cell signaling responses to a bout of concurrent (combined resistance- and endurance-based) exercise...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671491/common-substances-that-may-contribute-to-resistant-hypertension-and-recommendations-for-limiting-their-clinical-effects
#11
Samuel J Jurca, William J Elliott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight common or important substances or habits that elevate blood pressure and offer suggestions, based on recent literature, to limit their use or effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite decades of advice to the general populace from public health authorities to avoid or reduce dietary sodium and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, more evidence has accumulated from nationwide surveys, clinical trials, and pathophysiological or mechanistic studies that show how important these modalities can (and should) be for hypertensive and prehypertensive individuals and the general population...
October 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669461/targeting-cancer-metabolism-by-simultaneously-disrupting-parallel-nutrient-access-pathways
#12
Seong M Kim, Saurabh G Roy, Bin Chen, Tiffany M Nguyen, Ryan J McMonigle, Alison N McCracken, Yanling Zhang, Satoshi Kofuji, Jue Hou, Elizabeth Selwan, Brendan T Finicle, Tricia T Nguyen, Archna Ravi, Manuel U Ramirez, Tim Wiher, Garret G Guenther, Mari Kono, Atsuo T Sasaki, Lois S Weisman, Eric O Potma, Bruce J Tromberg, Robert A Edwards, Stephen Hanessian, Aimee L Edinger
Oncogenic mutations drive anabolic metabolism, creating a dependency on nutrient influx through transporters, receptors, and macropinocytosis. While sphingolipids suppress tumor growth by downregulating nutrient transporters, macropinocytosis and autophagy still provide cancer cells with fuel. Therapeutics that simultaneously disrupt these parallel nutrient access pathways have potential as powerful starvation agents. Here, we describe a water-soluble, orally bioavailable synthetic sphingolipid, SH-BC-893, that triggers nutrient transporter internalization and also blocks lysosome-dependent nutrient generation pathways...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662491/acute-physiological-responses-to-moderate-load-resistance-exercise-in-hypoxia
#13
Brendan R Scott, Katie M Slattery, Dean V Sculley, Catriona Lockhart, Ben J Dascombe
This study assessed whether hypoxia augments anabolic responses to moderate-load resistance exercise. Fourteen trained males performed moderate-load resistance exercise in normoxia (NORM; fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2] = 21%) and moderate-level hypoxia (MH; FIO2 = 16%). Exercise comprised 3 sets of 10 repetitions of squats and deadlifts at 60% of 1-repetition maximum, with 60 s inter-set rest. Blood lactate (BLa) was quantified after each exercise, while arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed following each set...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622887/androgens-have-antiresorptive-effects-on-trabecular-disuse-osteopenia-independent-from-muscle-atrophy
#14
Michaël R Laurent, Ferran Jardí, Vanessa Dubois, Dieter Schollaert, Rougin Khalil, Evelien Gielen, Geert Carmeliet, Frank Claessens, Dirk Vanderschueren
Aging hypogonadal men are at increased risk of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Testosterone is a potentially appealing strategy to prevent simultaneous bone and muscle loss. The androgen receptor (AR) mediates antiresorptive effects on trabecular bone via osteoblast-lineage cells, as well as muscle-anabolic actions. Sex steroids also modify the skeletal response to mechanical loading. However, it is unclear whether the effects of androgens on bone remain effective independent of mechanical stimulation or rather require indirect androgen effects via muscle...
September 10, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616976/monitoring-cancer-prognosis-diagnosis-and-treatment-efficacy-using-metabolomics-and-lipidomics
#15
Emily G Armitage, Andrew D Southam
INTRODUCTION: Cellular metabolism is altered during cancer initiation and progression, which allows cancer cells to increase anabolic synthesis, avoid apoptosis and adapt to low nutrient and oxygen availability. The metabolic nature of cancer enables patient cancer status to be monitored by metabolomics and lipidomics. Additionally, monitoring metabolic status of patients or biological models can be used to greater understand the action of anticancer therapeutics. OBJECTIVES: Discuss how metabolomics and lipidomics can be used to (i) identify metabolic biomarkers of cancer and (ii) understand the mechanism-of-action of anticancer therapies...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610086/human-skeletal-muscle-disuse-atrophy-effects-on-muscle-protein-synthesis-breakdown-and-insulin-resistance-a-qualitative-review
#16
REVIEW
Supreeth S Rudrappa, Daniel J Wilkinson, Paul L Greenhaff, Kenneth Smith, Iskandar Idris, Philip J Atherton
The ever increasing burden of an aging population and pandemic of metabolic syndrome worldwide demands further understanding of the modifiable risk factors in reducing disability and morbidity associated with these conditions. Disuse skeletal muscle atrophy (sometimes referred to as "simple" atrophy) and insulin resistance are "non-pathological" events resulting from sedentary behavior and periods of enforced immobilization e.g., due to fractures or elective orthopedic surgery. Yet, the processes and drivers regulating disuse atrophy and insulin resistance and the associated molecular events remain unclear-especially in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594563/new-peptides-players-in-metabolic-disorders
#17
Agata Mierzwicka, Marek Bolanowski
Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II), secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590954/metabolic-physiology-in-pregnancy
#18
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassain
The metabolic physiology during pregnancy is unique in the life of women. This change is a normal physiological adaptation to better accommodate the foetal growth and provides adequate blood, nutrition and oxygen. The metabolic changes prepare the mother\'s body for pregnancy, childbirth and lactation. Early gestational period is considered as an anabolic phase, in which female body stores nutrients, enhance insulin sensitivity to encounter the maternal and feto-placental demands of late gestation and lactation...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590949/sleep-disorders-in-pregnancy-glycaemic-implications
#19
K V S Hari Kumar
Sleep is one of the essential biorhythms of the body that helps in optimum restoration of many body functions. The sleep-wake cycle is determined by the circadian centre and is responsible for the anabolic functions in the body. Infants require about 14 to 18 hours of sleep per day, which reduces gradually to about 8 hours in adults. Urbanization and evolutionary changes have altered the sleep hygiene and shortened the sleep duration. This lead to various sleep disorders like sleep disordered breathing, insomnia and narcolepsy...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586837/the-impact-of-post-exercise-essential-amino-acid-ingestion-on-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-and-autophagosomal-lysosomal-systems-in-skeletal-muscle-of-older-men
#20
Jared M Dickinson, Paul T Reidy, David M Gundermann, Michael S Borack, Dillon K Walker, Andrew C D'Lugos, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
Essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis, and in particular, the anabolic response of older adults appears sensitive to the quantity of ingested leucine. The effect of leucine ingestion on muscle breakdown following resistance exercise (RE) is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of postexercise leucine ingestion on the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagosomal-lysosomal systems following acute RE in older men. Subjects (72±2yr) performed RE and 1h postexercise ingested 10g of EAA containing a leucine quantity similar to quality protein (Control, 1...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
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