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codon bias

Arif Uddin, Monisha Nath Choudhury, Supriyo Chakraborty
The mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) gene is a subunit of the respiratory chain complex I and involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To understand the pattern of compositional properties, codon usage and expression level of mitochondrial ND1 genes in pisces, aves, and mammals, we used bioinformatic approaches as no work was reported earlier. In this study, a perl script was used for calculating nucleotide contents and different codon usage bias parameters...
October 24, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Qiu-Ning Liu, Zhao-Zhe Xin, Dan-Dan Bian, Xin-Yue Chai, Chun-Lin Zhou, Bo-Ping Tang
The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jason T Huff, Daniel Zilberman, Scott W Roy
The discovery of introns four decades ago was one of the most unexpected findings in molecular biology. Introns are sequences interrupting genes that must be removed as part of messenger RNA production. Genome sequencing projects have shown that most eukaryotic genes contain at least one intron, and frequently many. Comparison of these genomes reveals a history of long evolutionary periods during which few introns were gained, punctuated by episodes of rapid, extensive gain. However, although several detailed mechanisms for such episodic intron generation have been proposed, none has been empirically supported on a genomic scale...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Liandong Yang, Zhaolei Zhang, Shunping He
Males and females often display extensive phenotypic differences, and many of these sexual dimorphisms are thought to result from differences between males and females in expression of genes present in both sexes. Sex-biased genes have been shown to exhibit accelerated rates of evolution in a wide array of species, however the cause of this remains enigmatic. In this study, we investigate the extent and evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in zebrafish. Our results indicate that both male-biased genes and female-biased genes exhibit accelerated evolution at the protein level...
October 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Andrew Hart, Servet Martínez
We present a framework based on information theoretic concepts and the Dirichlet distribution for classifying chromosomes based on the degree to which they use synonymous codons uniformly or preferentially, that is, whether or not codons that code for an amino acid appear with the same relative frequency. At its core is a measure of codon usage bias we call the Kullback-Leibler codon information bias (KL-CIB or CIB for short). Being defined in terms of conditional entropy makes KL-CIB an ideal and natural quantity for expressing a chromosome's degree of departure from uniform synonymous codon usage...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Seyed-Mohammad Gheibi Hayat, Seyed-Latif Mousavi Gargari, Shahram Nazarian
ETEC (Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli) is a major cause of diarrhea in developing countries and children. ETEC has two virulence factors including colonization factors antigen (CFA) and labile enterotoxins (LTs). CFA/I consists the major pilin subunit CfaB and a minor adhesive subunit, CfaE. In this study a tripartite fusion protein containing CfaB, CfaE and LTB was designed. In silico analysis of the tertiary structure of the chimeric protein showed a protein with three main domains linked together with linkers...
October 9, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Ratna Prabha, Dhananjaya P Singh, Swati Sinha, Khurshid Ahmad, Anil Rai
With the increasing accumulation of genomic sequence information of prokaryotes, the study of codon usage bias has gained renewed attention. The purpose of this study was to examine codon selection pattern within and across cyanobacterial species belonging to diverse taxonomic orders and habitats. We performed detailed comparative analysis of cyanobacterial genomes with respect to codon bias. Our analysis reflects that in cyanobacterial genomes, A- and/or T-ending codons were used predominantly in the genes whereas G- and/or C-ending codons were largely avoided...
October 9, 2016: Marine Genomics
Hao Wang, Joel McManus, Carl Kingsford
Ribosome profiling quantitatively captures ribosome locations during translation. The resulting profiles of ribosome locations are widely used to study translational speed. However, an accurate estimation of the ribosome location depends on identifying the A-site from ribosome profiling reads, a problem that was previously unsolved. Here, we propose a novel method to estimate the ribosome A-site positions from high-coverage ribosome profiling reads. Our model allows more reads to be used, accurately explains the 3-nt periodicity of ribosome profiling reads from various lengths, and recovers consistent ribosome positions across different lengths...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Anitha Sundararajan, Stefanie Dukowic-Schulze, Madeline Kwicklis, Kayla Engstrom, Nathan Garcia, Oliver J Oviedo, Thiruvarangan Ramaraj, Michael D Gonzales, Yan He, Minghui Wang, Qi Sun, Jaroslaw Pillardy, Shahryar F Kianian, Wojciech P Pawlowski, Changbin Chen, Joann Mudge
Recombination occurring during meiosis is critical for creating genetic variation and plays an essential role in plant evolution. In addition to creating novel gene combinations, recombination can affect genome structure through altering GC patterns. In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, another intriguing GC pattern exists. Maize genes show a bimodal GC content distribution that has been attributed to nucleotide bias in the third, or wobble, position of the codon. Recombination may be an underlying driving force given that recombination sites are often associated with high GC content...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
C J Yang, G Y Li, Y L Cui
The transcriptomes of salt-stressed and unstressed Betula kirghisorum plants were analyzed using high throughput sequencing technology. A total of 52,239,804 and 51,772,998 clean reads were obtained from the two libraries, respectively, and de novo assembled into 60,545 all-unigenes. A total of 39,997 unigenes were annotated using public databases. Overall, 7206 genes were differentially expressed in unigenes and were involved in 127 pathways. Thirteen transcription factor families were identified in B. kirghisorum, including GRAS proteins, which are plant-specific transcription factors...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Bijoyita Roy, Westley J Friesen, Yuki Tomizawa, John D Leszyk, Jin Zhuo, Briana Johnson, Jumana Dakka, Christopher R Trotta, Xiaojiao Xue, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Kim M Keeling, James A Mobley, Steven M Rowe, David M Bedwell, Ellen M Welch, Allan Jacobson
A premature termination codon (PTC) in the ORF of an mRNA generally leads to production of a truncated polypeptide, accelerated degradation of the mRNA, and depression of overall mRNA expression. Accordingly, nonsense mutations cause some of the most severe forms of inherited disorders. The small-molecule drug ataluren promotes therapeutic nonsense suppression and has been thought to mediate the insertion of near-cognate tRNAs at PTCs. However, direct evidence for this activity has been lacking. Here, we expressed multiple nonsense mutation reporters in human cells and yeast and identified the amino acids inserted when a PTC occupies the ribosomal A site in control, ataluren-treated, and aminoglycoside-treated cells...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Iakov I Davydov, Marc Robinson-Rechavi, Nicolas Salamin
MOTIVATION: Codon models are widely used to identify the signature of selection at the molecular level and to test for changes in selective pressure during the evolution of genes encoding proteins. The large size of the state space of the Markov processes used to model codon evolution makes it difficult to use these models with large biological datasets. We propose here to use state aggregation to reduce the state space of codon models and, thus, improve the computational performance of likelihood estimation on these models...
October 2, 2016: Bioinformatics
Sudeesh Karumathil, Vijaya R Dirisala, Uthpala Srinadh, Valaboju Nikhil, N Satya Sampath Kumar, Rahul R Nair
Chaetognatha is a minor phylum, comprising transparent marine invertebrates varying in size from 0.5 to 12 cm. The exact phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha in Metazoa has not been deciphered as some embryological characteristics place chaetognaths among deuterostomes and some morphological characteristics place these among protostomes. In this study, the major factors that drive synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) in the mitogenomes of representative species of Chaetognatha and chosen species of other closely related phyla were analyzed...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Zhipeng Zhou, Yunkun Dang, Mian Zhou, Lin Li, Chien-Hung Yu, Jingjing Fu, She Chen, Yi Liu
Codon usage biases are found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, and preferred codons are more frequently used in highly expressed genes. The effects of codon usage on gene expression were previously thought to be mainly mediated by its impacts on translation. Here, we show that codon usage strongly correlates with both protein and mRNA levels genome-wide in the filamentous fungus Neurospora Gene codon optimization also results in strong up-regulation of protein and RNA levels, suggesting that codon usage is an important determinant of gene expression...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guang-Hua Luo, Xiao-Huan Li, Zhao-Jun Han, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Qiong Yang, Hui-Fang Guo, Ji-Chao Fang
Transposons are often regulated by their hosts, and as a result, there are transposons with several mutations within their host organisms. To gain insight into the patterns of the variations, nucleotide substitutions and indels of transposons were analysed in Chilo suppressalis Walker. The CsuPLE1.1 is a member of the piggyBac-like element (PLE) family, which belongs to the DNA transposons, and the Csu-Ty3 is a member of the Ty3/gypsy family, which belongs to the RNA transposons. Copies of CsuPLE1.1 and Csu-Ty3 were cloned separately from different C...
2016: Genes
Yanbing Cui, Yiwei Meng, Juan Zhang, Bin Cheng, Huijia Yin, Chao Gao, Ping Xu, Chunyu Yang
In well-established heterologous hosts, such as Escherichia coli, recombinant proteins are usually intracellular and frequently found as inclusion bodies-especially proteins possessing high rare codon content. In this study, successful secretory expression of three hydrolases, in a constructed inducible or constitutive system, was achieved by fusion with a novel signal peptide (Kp-SP) from an actinomycete. The signal peptide efficiently enabled extracellular protein secretion and also contributed to the active expression of the intracellular recombinant proteins...
January 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
Vishwa Jyoti Baruah, Siddhartha Sankar Satapathy, Bhesh Raj Powdel, Rocktotpal Konwarh, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Suvendra Kumar Ray
The present study was undertaken to investigate the pattern of optimal codon usage in Archaea. Comparative analysis was executed to understand the pattern of codon usage bias between the high expression genes (HEG) and the whole genomes in two Archaeal phyla, Crenarchaea and Euryarchaea. The G+C% of the HEG was found to be less in comparison to the genome G+C% in Crenarchaea, whereas reverse was the case in Euryarchaea. The preponderance of U/A ending codons that code for HEG in Crenarchaea was in sharp contrast to the C/G ended ones in Euryarchaea...
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Dehui Kong, Yi Lei, Wayland Yeung, Ryan Hili
The development and in-depth analysis of T4 DNA ligase-catalyzed DNA templated oligonucleotide polymerization toward the generation of diversely functionalized nucleic acid polymers is described. The NNNNT codon set enables low codon bias, high fidelity, and high efficiency for the polymerization of ANNNN libraries comprising various functional groups. The robustness of the method was highlighted in the copolymerization of a 256-membered ANNNN library comprising 16 sub-libraries modified with different functional groups...
October 10, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Benjamin Neymotin, Victoria Ettore, David Gresham
Degradation of mRNA contributes to variation in transcript abundance. Studies of individual mRNAs have shown that both cis and trans factors affect mRNA degradation rates. However, the factors underlying transcriptome-wide variation in mRNA degradation rates are poorly understood. We investigated the contribution of different transcript properties to transcriptome-wide degradation rate variation in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using multiple regression analysis. We find that multiple transcript properties are significantly associated with variation in mRNA degradation rates and that a model incorporating these properties explains ~50% of the genome-wide variance...
September 15, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Amit Kumar Gupta, Karambir Kaur, Akanksha Rajput, Sandeep Kumar Dhanda, Manika Sehgal, Md Shoaib Khan, Isha Monga, Showkat Ahmad Dar, Sandeep Singh, Gandharva Nagpal, Salman Sadullah Usmani, Anamika Thakur, Gazaldeep Kaur, Shivangi Sharma, Aman Bhardwaj, Abid Qureshi, Gajendra Pal Singh Raghava, Manoj Kumar
Current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks that spread in several areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and in pacific islands is declared as a global health emergency by World Health Organization (WHO). It causes Zika fever and illness ranging from severe autoimmune to neurological complications in humans. To facilitate research on this virus, we have developed an integrative multi-omics platform; ZikaVR (, dedicated to the ZIKV genomic, proteomic and therapeutic knowledge. It comprises of whole genome sequences, their respective functional information regarding proteins, genes, and structural content...
2016: Scientific Reports
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