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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818621/codon-usage-bias-in-the-n-gene-of-rabies-virus
#1
Wanting He, Hongyu Zhang, Yuchen Zhang, Ruyi Wang, Sijia Lu, Yanjie Ji, Chang Liu, Pengkun Yuan, Shuo Su
Since its emergence, rabies virus (RABV) has been a major worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The nucleoprotein (N) of RABV is highly conserved and key for genetic typing, thus a better understanding of the N gene evolutionary trajectory can assist the development of control measures. We found that the N gene of RABV has a low codon usage bias with a mean effective number of codons (ENC) value of 56.33 influenced by both mutation pressure and natural selection. However, neutrality analysis indicated that natural selection dominates over mutation pressure...
August 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807694/reviewing-evidence-for-systematic-transcriptional-deletions-nucleotide-exchanges-and-expanded-codons-and-peptide-clusters-in-human-mitochondria
#2
REVIEW
Hervé Seligmann
Polymerization sometimes transforms sequences by (a) systematic deletions of mono-, dinucleotides after trinucleotides, or (b) 23 systematic nucleotide exchanges (9 symmetric, X<>Y, e.g. G<>T, 14 asymmetric, X > Y > Z > X, e.g. A > G > T > A), producing del- and swinger RNAs. Some peptides correspond to del- and swinger RNA translations, also according to tetracodons, codons expanded by a silent nucleotide. Here new analyzes assume different proteolytic patterns, partially alleviating false negative peptide detection biases, expanding noncanonical mitoproteome profiles...
August 11, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806732/loss-of-the-chromatin-modifier-kdm2aa-causes-brafv600e-independent-spontaneous-melanoma-in-zebrafish
#3
Catherine M Scahill, Zsofia Digby, Ian M Sealy, Sonia Wojciechowska, Richard J White, John E Collins, Derek L Stemple, Till Bartke, Marie E Mathers, E Elizabeth Patton, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich
KDM2A is a histone demethylase associated with transcriptional silencing, however very little is known about its in vivo role in development and disease. Here we demonstrate that loss of the orthologue kdm2aa in zebrafish causes widespread transcriptional disruption and leads to spontaneous melanomas at a high frequency. Fish homozygous for two independent premature stop codon alleles show reduced growth and survival, a strong male sex bias, and homozygous females exhibit a progressive oogenesis defect. kdm2aa mutant fish also develop melanomas from early adulthood onwards which are independent from mutations in braf and other common oncogenes and tumour suppressors as revealed by deep whole exome sequencing...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798739/comprehensive-analysis-of-codon-usage-bias-in-seven-epichlo%C3%A3-species-and-their-peramine-coding-genes
#4
Hui Song, Jing Liu, Qiuyan Song, Qingping Zhang, Pei Tian, Zhibiao Nan
Codon usage bias plays an important role in shaping genomes and genes in unicellular species and multicellular species. Here, we first analyzed codon usage bias in seven Epichloë species and their peramine-coding genes. Our results showed that both natural selection and mutation pressure played a role in forming codon usage bias in seven Epichloë species. All seven Epichloë species contained a peramine-coding gene cluster. Interestingly, codon usage bias of peramine-coding genes were not affected by natural selection or mutation pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791342/generation-of-a-novel-trail-mutant-by-proline-to-arginine-substitution-based-on-codon-bias-and-its-antitumor-effects
#5
Aijing Zhu, Xiuyun Wang, Min Huang, Chen Chen, Juan Yan, Qi Xu, Lijia Wei, Xianzhou Huang, Hong Zhu, Cheng Yi
TNF ligand superfamily member 10 (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. The present study was performed in an effort to increase the expression of soluble (s)TRAIL by rebuilding the gene sequence of TRAIL. Three principles based on the codon bias of Escherichia coli were put forward to design the rebuild strategy. Relying on these three principles, a P7R mutation near the N‑terminal region of sTRAIL, named TRAIL‑Mu, was designed. TRAIL‑Mu was subsequently cloned into the PTWIN1 plasmid and expressed in E...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771025/synonymous-codon-bias-as-a-basis-for-novel-antibiotic-design-from-nucleotide-wobble-constraint-to-ribosomal-garrotte
#6
James H McKie, Samuel A McKie
AIM: The observation of low guanine frequencies at wobble position codons over Rossmann-fold GXGXXG motifs, led to the discovery of sequence-wide synonymous codon bias, from this we propose novel ribosomal inhibitors. Methodology & results: The wobble bases of multiple sequence alignments of diverse Rossmann-fold enzymes were counted, A, C, T and G wobble frequencies of consecutive codons were displayed as wobble plots. Synonymous codon constraints were found throughout the length of proteins, particularly at Rossmann folds...
August 3, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770241/analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-bias-and-phylogeny-of-coat-protein-gene-in-banana-bract-mosaic-virus-isolates
#7
Atul B Patil, Vijayendra S Dalvi, Akhilesh A Mishra, Bal Krishna, Abdul Azeez
The banana is one of the world's most important livelihood crops. Banana plants are principally infected by four virus species, Banana bunchy top virus (genus Babuvirus), Cucumber mosaic virus (genus Cucumovirus), Banana streak virus (genus Badnavirus) and Banana bract mosaic virus (genus Potyvirus). The objective of this study is to understand the codon usage pattern and phylogeny of coat protein gene in different banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) isolates. The BBrMV Coat Protein (CP) gene was amplified from BBrMV infected banana plant samples collected from different districts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, India...
June 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769010/comparative-genomic-analysis-mers-cov-isolated-from-humans-and-camels-with-special-reference-to-virus-encoded-helicase
#8
Mohamed Alnazawi, Abdallah Altaher, Mahmoud Kandeel
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) is a new emerging viral disease characterized by high fatality rate. Understanding MERS CoV genetic aspects and codon usage pattern is important to understand MERS CoV survival, adaptation, evolution, resistance to innate immunity, and help in finding the unique aspects of the virus for future drug discovery experiments. In this work, we provide comprehensive analysis of 238 MERS CoV full genomes comprised of human (hMERS) and camel (cMERS) isolates of the virus...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767390/association-between-tgfb1-genetic-polymorphisms-and-chronic-allograft-dysfunction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Kun Liu, Xuzhong Liu, Shuo Gu, Qing Sun, Yunyan Wang, Junsong Meng, Zongyuan Xu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have investigated the role of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) following kidney transplantation. TGFB1 gene polymorphisms (SNP rs1800470 and rs1800471) may be associated with the risk of CAD. In this meta-analysis, the relationship between these two variations and the risk of CAD was explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, the Chinese CNKI and WANFANG databases were searched...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765570/characterization-and-diversity-of-phages-infecting-aeromonas-salmonicida-subsp-salmonicida
#10
Antony T Vincent, Valérie E Paquet, Alex Bernatchez, Denise M Tremblay, Sylvain Moineau, Steve J Charette
Phages infecting Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of the fish disease furunculosis, have been isolated for decades but very few of them have been characterized. Here, the host range of 12 virulent phages, including three isolated in the present study, was evaluated against a panel of 65 A. salmonicida isolates, including representatives of the psychrophilic subspecies salmonicida, smithia, masoucida, and the mesophilic subspecies pectinolytica. This bacterial set also included three isolates from India suspected of being members of a new subspecies...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751162/new-insights-into-the-factors-affecting-synonymous-codon-usage-in-human-infecting-plasmodium-species
#11
REVIEW
Shivani Gajbhiye, P K Patra, Manoj Kumar Yadav
Codon usage bias is due to the non-random usage of synonymous codons for coding amino acids. The synonymous sites are under weak selection, and codon usage bias is maintained by the equilibrium in mutational bias, genetic drift and selection pressure. The differential codon usage choices are also relevant to human infecting Plasmodium species. Recently, P. knowlesi switches its natural host, long-tailed macaques, and starts infecting humans. This review focuses on the comparative analysis of codon usage choices among human infecting P...
July 24, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739599/evolutionary-dynamics-of-male-reproductive-genes-in-the-drosophila-virilis-subgroup
#12
Yasir H Ahmed-Braimah, Robert L Unckless, Andrew G Clark
Postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) is a potent evolutionary force that can drive rapid changes of reproductive genes within species, and thus has the potential to generate reproductive incompatibilities between species. Male seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) are major players in postmating interactions, and are important targets of PCSS in males. The virilis subgroup of Drosophila exhibits strong interspecific gametic incompatibilities, and can serve as a model to study the genetic basis of PCSS and gametic isolation...
July 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732465/genome-wide-signals-of-positive-selection-in-strongylocentrotid-sea-urchins
#13
Kord M Kober, Grant H Pogson
BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics studies investigating the signals of positive selection among groups of closely related species are still rare and limited in taxonomic breadth. Such studies show great promise in advancing our knowledge about the proportion and the identity of genes experiencing diversifying selection. However, methodological challenges have led to high levels of false positives in past studies. Here, we use the well-annotated genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, as a reference to investigate the signals of positive selection at 6520 single-copy orthologs from nine sea urchin species belonging to the family Strongylocentrotidae paying careful attention to minimizing false positives...
July 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716118/evolutionary-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-vp2-gene-of-canine-parvovirus
#14
Gairu Li, Senlin Ji, Xiaofeng Zhai, Yuxiang Zhang, Jie Liu, Mengyan Zhu, Jiyong Zhou, Shuo Su
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2 emerged in 1978 in the USA and quickly spread among dog populations all over the world with high morbidity. Although CPV is a DNA virus, its genomic substitution rate is similar to some RNA viruses. Therefore, it is important to trace the evolution of CPV to monitor the appearance of mutations that might affect vaccine effectiveness. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that the VP2 genes of CPV isolated from 1979 to 2016 are divided into six groups: GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, and GVI...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708998/profiling-ssb-nascent-chain-interactions-reveals-principles-of-hsp70-assisted-folding
#15
Kristina Döring, Nabeel Ahmed, Trine Riemer, Harsha Garadi Suresh, Yevhen Vainshtein, Markus Habich, Jan Riemer, Matthias P Mayer, Edward P O'Brien, Günter Kramer, Bernd Bukau
The yeast Hsp70 chaperone Ssb interacts with ribosomes and nascent polypeptides to assist protein folding. To reveal its working principle, we determined the nascent chain-binding pattern of Ssb at near-residue resolution by in vivo selective ribosome profiling. Ssb associates broadly with cytosolic, nuclear, and hitherto unknown substrate classes of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) nascent proteins, supporting its general chaperone function. Ssb engages most substrates by multiple binding-release cycles to a degenerate sequence enriched in positively charged and aromatic amino acids...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671706/an-integrative-machine-learning-strategy-for-improved-prediction-of-essential-genes-in-escherichia-coli-metabolism-using-flux-coupled-features
#16
Sutanu Nandi, Abhishek Subramanian, Ram Rup Sarkar
Prediction of essential genes helps to identify a minimal set of genes that are absolutely required for the appropriate functioning and survival of a cell. The available machine learning techniques for essential gene prediction have inherent problems, like imbalanced provision of training datasets, biased choice of the best model for a given balanced dataset, choice of a complex machine learning algorithm, and data-based automated selection of biologically relevant features for classification. Here, we propose a simple support vector machine-based learning strategy for the prediction of essential genes in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 metabolism that integrates a non-conventional combination of an appropriate sample balanced training set, a unique organism-specific genotype, phenotype attributes that characterize essential genes, and optimal parameters of the learning algorithm to generate the best machine learning model (the model with the highest accuracy among all the models trained for different sample training sets)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668667/factors-influencing-codon-usage-of-mitochondrial-nd1-gene-in-pisces-aves-and-mammals
#17
Arif Uddin, Monisha Nath Choudhury, Supriyo Chakraborty
Animal mitochondrial genome harbours 13 protein coding genes which regulate the process of respiration. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (MT-ND1) gene, one of the 13 protein-coding genes, encodes the NADH dehydrogenase 1 enzyme of the respiratory chain. Analysis of codon usage bias (CUB) acquires importance for better understanding of the molecular biology, new gene discovery, design of transgenes and gene evolution. The MT-ND1 gene seems to be a good candidate for analyzing codon usage pattern, since no work has yet been reported...
June 28, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667019/retrotransposons-are-the-major-contributors-to-the-expansion-of-the-drosophila-ananassae-muller-f-element
#18
Wilson Leung, Christopher D Shaffer, Elizabeth J Chen, Thomas J Quisenberry, Kevin Ko, John M Braverman, Thomas C Giarla, Nathan T Mortimer, Laura K Reed, Sheryl T Smith, Srebrenka Robic, Shannon R McCartha, Danielle R Perry, Lindsay M Prescod, Zenyth A Sheppard, Ken J Saville, Allison McClish, Emily A Morlock, Victoria R Sochor, Brittney Stanton, Isaac C Veysey-White, Dennis Revie, Luis A Jimenez, Jennifer J Palomino, Melissa D Patao, Shane M Patao, Edward T Himelblau, Jaclyn D Campbell, Alexandra L Hertz, Maddison F McEvilly, Allison R Wagner, James Youngblom, Baljit Bedi, Jeffery Bettincourt, Erin Duso, Maiye Her, William Hilton, Samantha House, Masud Karimi, Kevin Kumimoto, Rebekah Lee, Darryl Lopez, George Odisho, Ricky Prasad, Holly Lyn Robbins, Tanveer Sandhu, Tracy Selfridge, Kara Tsukashima, Hani Yosif, Nighat P Kokan, Latia Britt, Alycia Zoellner, Eric P Spana, Ben T Chlebina, Insun Chong, Harrison Friedman, Danny A Mammo, Chun L Ng, Vinayak S Nikam, Nicholas U Schwartz, Thomas Q Xu, Martin G Burg, Spencer M Batten, Lindsay M Corbeill, Erica Enoch, Jesse J Ensign, Mary E Franks, Breanna Haiker, Judith A Ingles, Lyndsay D Kirkland, Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Jordan Matthews, Cody M Mittig, Nicholaus Monsma, Katherine J Olson, Guillermo Perez-Aragon, Alen Ramic, Jordan R Ramirez, Christopher Scheiber, Patrick A Schneider, Devon E Schultz, Matthew Simon, Eric Spencer, Adam C Wernette, Maxine E Wykle, Elizabeth Zavala-Arellano, Mitchell J McDonald, Kristine Ostby, Peter Wendland, Justin R DiAngelo, Alexis M Ceasrine, Amanda H Cox, James E B Docherty, Robert M Gingras, Stephanie M Grieb, Michael J Pavia, Casey L Personius, Grzegorz L Polak, Dale L Beach, Heaven L Cerritos, Edward A Horansky, Karim A Sharif, Ryan Moran, Susan Parrish, Kirsten Bickford, Jennifer Bland, Juliana Broussard, Kerry Campbell, Katelynn E Deibel, Richard Forka, Monika C Lemke, Marlee B Nelson, Catherine O'Keeffe, S Mariel Ramey, Luke Schmidt, Paola Villegas, Christopher J Jones, Stephanie L Christ, Sami Mamari, Adam S Rinaldi, Ghazal Stity, Amy T Hark, Mark Scheuerman, S Catherine Silver Key, Briana D McRae, Adam S Haberman, Sam Asinof, Harriette Carrington, Kelly Drumm, Terrance Embry, Richard McGuire, Drew Miller-Foreman, Stella Rosen, Nadia Safa, Darrin Schultz, Matt Segal, Yakov Shevin, Petros Svoronos, Tam Vuong, Gary Skuse, Don W Paetkau, Rachael K Bridgman, Charlotte M Brown, Alicia R Carroll, Francesca M Gifford, Julie Beth Gillespie, Susan E Herman, Krystal L Holtcamp, Misha A Host, Gabrielle Hussey, Danielle M Kramer, Joan Q Lawrence, Madeline M Martin, Ellen N Niemiec, Ashleigh P O'Reilly, Olivia A Pahl, Guadalupe Quintana, Elizabeth A S Rettie, Torie L Richardson, Arianne E Rodriguez, Mona O Rodriguez, Laura Schiraldi, Joanna J Smith, Kelsey F Sugrue, Lindsey J Suriano, Kaitlyn E Takach, Arielle M Vasquez, Ximena Velez, Elizabeth J Villafuerte, Laura T Vives, Victoria R Zellmer, Jeanette Hauke, Charles R Hauser, Karolyn Barker, Laurie Cannon, Perouza Parsamian, Samantha Parsons, Zachariah Wichman, Christopher W Bazinet, Diana E Johnson, Abubakarr Bangura, Jordan A Black, Victoria Chevee, Sarah A Einsteen, Sarah K Hilton, Max Kollmer, Rahul Nadendla, Joyce Stamm, Antoinette E Fafara-Thompson, Amber M Gygi, Emmy E Ogawa, Matt Van Camp, Zuzana Kocsisova, Judith L Leatherman, Cassie M Modahl, Michael R Rubin, Susana S Apiz-Saab, Suzette M Arias-Mejias, Carlos F Carrion-Ortiz, Patricia N Claudio-Vazquez, Debbie M Espada-Green, Marium Feliciano-Camacho, Karina M Gonzalez-Bonilla, Mariela Taboas-Arroyo, Dorianmarie Vargas-Franco, Raquel Montañez-Gonzalez, Joseph Perez-Otero, Myrielis Rivera-Burgos, Francisco J Rivera-Rosario, Heather L Eisler, Jackie Alexander, Samatha K Begley, Deana Gabbard, Robert J Allen, Wint Yan Aung, William D Barshop, Amanda Boozalis, Vanessa P Chu, Jeremy S Davis, Ryan N Duggal, Robert Franklin, Katherine Gavinski, Heran Gebreyesus, Henry Z Gong, Rachel A Greenstein, Averill D Guo, Casey Hanson, Kaitlin E Homa, Simon C Hsu, Yi Huang, Lucy Huo, Sarah Jacobs, Sasha Jia, Kyle L Jung, Sarah Wai-Chee Kong, Matthew R Kroll, Brandon M Lee, Paul F Lee, Kevin M Levine, Amy S Li, Chengyu Liu, Max Mian Liu, Adam P Lousararian, Peter B Lowery, Allyson P Mallya, Joseph E Marcus, Patrick C Ng, Hien P Nguyen, Ruchik Patel, Hashini Precht, Suchita Rastogi, Jonathan M Sarezky, Adam Schefkind, Michael B Schultz, Delia Shen, Tara Skorupa, Nicholas C Spies, Gabriel Stancu, Hiu Man Vivian Tsang, Alice L Turski, Rohit Venkat, Leah E Waldman, Kaidi Wang, Tracy Wang, Jeffrey W Wei, Dennis Y Wu, David D Xiong, Jack Yu, Karen Zhou, Gerard P McNeil, Robert W Fernandez, Patrick Gomez Menzies, Tingting Gu, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R Mardis, Sarah C R Elgin
The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison...
August 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664516/evaluation-and-application-of-constitutive-promoters-for-cutinase-production-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Juan Zhang, Yanqiu Cai, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Miao Wang, Zhen Kang
Cutinase as a promising biocatalyst has been intensively studied and applied in processes targeted for industrial scale. In this work, the cutinase gene tfu from Thermobifida fusca was artificially synthesized according to codon usage bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the α-factor signal peptide, the T. fusca cutinase was successfully overexpressed and secreted with the GAL1 expression system. To increase the cutinase level and overcome some of the drawbacks of induction, four different strong promoters (ADH1, HXT1, TEF1, and TDH3) were comparatively evaluated for cutinase production...
July 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664377/codon-usage-analysis-of-photolyase-encoding-genes-of-cyanobacteria-inhabiting-diverse-habitats
#20
Rajneesh, Jainendra Pathak, Vinod K Kannaujiya, Shailendra P Singh, Rajeshwar P Sinha
Nucleotide and amino acid compositions were studied to determine the genomic and structural relationship of photolyase gene in freshwater, marine and hot spring cyanobacteria. Among three habitats, photolyase encoding genes from hot spring cyanobacteria were found to have highest GC content. The genomic GC content was found to influence the codon usage and amino acid variability in photolyases. The third position of codon was found to have more effect on amino acid variability in photolyases than the first and second positions of codon...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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