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codon bias

Esteban D Erben, Christine Clayton
Translation and RNA decay, two processes in which all mRNAs are engaged, are intimately related processes. Two new studies demonstrate that, in trypanosomatids, codon usage largely shapes mRNA abundance in a translation-dependent manner. The findings indicate that mRNA decay control by codon choice is an ancient and conserved mechanism.
June 14, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Zhengfei Wang, Ziqian Wang, Xuejia Shi, Qiong Wu, Yitao Tao, Huayun Guo, Chenyao Ji, Yuze Bai
In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the crab Parasesarma affine is determined, characterized and compared with other decapod crustaceans. The P. affine mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 15,638 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and a control region (CR). Then, 23 of the 37 genes are encoded by the heavy (+) strand while 14 are encoded by the light (-) strand. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons and 4 of the 13 PCGs harbored the incomplete termination codon by T or TA...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chaogang Wang, Yi Li, Jun Lu, Xu Deng, Hui Li, Zhangli Hu
Biodiesel is an alternative energy source which has attracted increasing attention lately. Although algae-based biodiesel production has many benefits, it is still far from industrial application. Research suggests that improving lipid quality and production through genetic engineering of metabolic pathways will be the most promising way. To enhance lipid content, both lysophosphatidic acyltransferase gene ( c-lpaat ) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ( c-gpd1 ), optimized according to the codon bias of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , were inserted into the genomic DNA of model microalga C...
2018: Journal of Applied Phycology
Wei Liu, Chaochao Hu, Wenli Xie, Peng Chen, Yi Zhang, Ran Yao, Kexin Li, Qing Chang
The red-necked phalarope is a wonderful species with specific morphological characters and lifestyles. Mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy metabolism, are important for the evolution and adaption of species. In this study, we determined the complete mitogenome sequence of Phalaropus lobatus (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae). The circular genome is 16714 bp in size, containing 13 PCGs, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and a high AT-rich control region. The AT skew and GC skew of major strand is positive and negative respectively...
May 2018: Genes & Genomics
Jing-Yun Chen, Ya-Wen Chang, Si-Zhu Zheng, Ming-Xing Lu, Yu-Zhou Du
Liriomyza chinensis is a serious pest of onions in many countries, especially in East Asia. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this species and compared it with five other Agromyzidae species. The L. chinensis mitogenome is a double-stranded 16,175 bp circular molecule with an A + T content of 78.3%. It contains 37 genes and a control region as do the sequenced Liriomyza species. The mitogenomes of L. chinensis and other Agromyzidae species showed a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sanchari Bhattacharyya, William M Jacobs, Bharat V Adkar, Jin Yan, Wenli Zhang, Eugene I Shakhnovich
Despite considerable efforts, no physical mechanism has been shown to explain N-terminal codon bias in prokaryotic genomes. Using a systematic study of synonymous substitutions in two endogenous E. coli genes, we show that interactions between the coding region and the upstream Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence modulate the efficiency of translation initiation, affecting both intracellular mRNA and protein levels due to the inherent coupling of transcription and translation in E. coli. We further demonstrate that far-downstream mutations can also modulate mRNA levels by occluding the SD sequence through the formation of non-equilibrium secondary structures...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Cell
Yupeng Feng, Chufang Li, Peiyu Hu, Qian Wang, Xuehua Zheng, Yongkun Zhao, Yi Shi, Songtao Yang, Changhua Yi, Ying Feng, Chunxiu Wu, Linbing Qu, Wei Xu, Yao Li, Caijun Sun, Fu Geroge Gao, Xianzhu Xia, Liqiang Feng, Ling Chen
Ebolavirus vaccines based on several adenoviral vectors have been investigated in preclinical studies and clinical trials. The use of adenovirus serotype 2 as a vector for ebolavirus vaccine has not been reported. Herein, we generated rAd2-ZGP, a recombinant replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 2 expressing codon-optimized Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, and evaluated its immunogenicity in mice and rhesus macaques. rAd2-ZGP induced significant antibody and cell-mediated immune responses at 2 weeks after a single immunization...
June 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Lin Tian, Xuejuan Shen, Robert W Murphy, Yongyi Shen
Viruses depend on their host's cellular structure to survive. Most of them do not have tRNAs, their translation relies on hosts' tRNA pools. Over the course of evolution, viruses needed to optimally exploit cellular processes of their host. Thus, codon usage of a virus should coevolve with its host to efficiently and rapidly replicate. Some viruses can invade a broad spectrum of hosts (BSTVs), while others can invade a narrow spectrum only (NSTVs). Consequently, we test the hypothesis that similarity of codon usage preference and the degree of matching between BSTVs and their hosts will be lower than that of NSTVs, which only need to coevolve with few hosts...
June 1, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Gaurav D Diwan, Deepa Agashe
Along with tRNAs, enzymes that modify anticodon bases are a key aspect of translation across the tree of life. tRNA modifications extend wobble pairing, allowing specific ("target") tRNAs to recognize multiple codons and cover for other ("non-target") tRNAs, often improving translation efficiency and accuracy. However, the detailed evolutionary history and impact of tRNA modifying enzymes has not been analyzed. Using ancestral reconstruction of five tRNA modifications across 1093 bacteria, we show that most modifications were ancestral to eubacteria, but were repeatedly lost in many lineages...
May 28, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Alexander Kula, Joseph Saelens, Jennifer Cox, Alyxandria M Schubert, Michael Travisano, Catherine Putonti
Viruses rely upon their hosts for biosynthesis of viral RNA, DNA and protein. This dependency frequently engenders strong selection for virus genome compatibility with potential hosts, appropriate gene regulation and expression necessary for a successful infection. While bioinformatic studies have shown strong correlations between codon usage in viral and host genomes, the selective factors by which this compatibility evolves remain a matter of conjecture. Engineered to include codons with a lesser usage and/or tRNA abundance within the host, three different attenuated strains of the bacterial virus ФX174 were created and propagated via serial transfers...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Caio César de Melo Freire, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto
Dengue virus (DENV) emerged from the sylvatic environment and colonized urban settings, being sustained in a human-Aedes-human transmission chain, mainly by the bites of females of the anthropophilic species Aedes aegypti. Herein, we sought evidence for fine-tuning in viral codon usage, possibly due to viral adaptation to human transmission. We compared the codon adaptation of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) genotypes from urban and sylvatic habitats and tried to correlate the findings with key evolutionary determinants...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sudipa Das, Arif Uddin, Debjyoti Bhattacharyya, Supriyo Chakraborty
The present study attempts to focus on the pattern of codon usage bias (CUB) in mitochondrial genes among four species of Calypogeia viz. C. arguta, C. integristipula, C. neogaea and C. suecica along with the factors influencing their CUB as no work was reported yet. The four taxa exhibit noticeable difference in their morphological features, habitat preference and growth forms. To understand the patterns of codon usage in Calypogeia mitochondrial genomes, we used bioinformatic tools to analyze the mitochondrial protein-coding sequences of four Calypogeia...
May 17, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Andrew Hart, María Paz Cortés, Mauricio Latorre, Servet Martinez
The analysis of codon usage bias has been widely used to characterize different communities of microorganisms. In this context, the aim of this work was to study the codon usage bias in a natural consortium of five acidophilic bacteria used for biomining. The codon usage bias of the consortium was contrasted with genes from an alternative collection of acidophilic reference strains and metagenome samples. Results indicate that acidophilic bacteria preferentially have low codon usage bias, consistent with both their capacity to live in a wide range of habitats and their slow growth rate, a characteristic probably acquired independently from their phylogenetic relationships...
2018: PloS One
Idan Frumkin, Marc J Lajoie, Christopher J Gregg, Gil Hornung, George M Church, Yitzhak Pilpel
Although the genetic code is redundant, synonymous codons for the same amino acid are not used with equal frequencies in genomes, a phenomenon termed "codon usage bias." Previous studies have demonstrated that synonymous changes in a coding sequence can exert significant cis effects on the gene's expression level. However, whether the codon composition of a gene can also affect the translation efficiency of other genes has not been thoroughly explored. To study how codon usage bias influences the cellular economy of translation, we massively converted abundant codons to their rare synonymous counterpart in several highly expressed genes in Escherichia coli This perturbation reduces both the cellular fitness and the translation efficiency of genes that have high initiation rates and are naturally enriched with the manipulated codon, in agreement with theoretical predictions...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tatsuhiro Nomaguchi, Yoshiaki Maeda, Tomoko Yoshino, Toru Asahi, Leila Tirichine, Chris Bowler, Tsuyoshi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Allopolyploidy is a genomic structure wherein two or more sets of chromosomes derived from divergent parental species coexist within an organism. It is a prevalent genomic configuration in plants, as an important source of genetic variation, and also frequently confers environmental adaptability and increased crop productivity. We previously reported the oleaginous marine diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 to be a promising host for biofuel production and that its genome is allopolyploid, which had never previously been reported in eukaryotic microalgae...
May 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Waqasuddin Khan, Ganapathi Varma- Saripella, Thomas Ludwig, Tania Cuppens, Florian Thibord, Emmanuelle Génin, Jean-Francois Deleuze, David-Alexandre Trégouët
Summary: Predicted deleteriousness of coding variants is a frequently used criterion to filter out variants detected in next-generation sequencing projects and to select candidates impacting on the risk of human diseases. Most available dedicated tools implement a base-to-base annotation approach that could be biased in presence of several variants in the same genetic codon. We here proposed the MACARON program that, from a standard VCF file, identifies, re-annotates and predicts the amino acid change resulting from multiple single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within the same genetic codon...
May 3, 2018: Bioinformatics
Dongsheng Zhang, Peng Hu, Taigang Liu, Jian Wang, Shouwen Jiang, Qianghua Xu, Liangbiao Chen
BACKGROUND: Temperature adaptation of biological molecules is fundamental in evolutionary studies but remains unsolved. Fishes living in cold water are adapted to low temperatures through adaptive modification of their biological molecules, which enables their functioning in extreme cold. To study nucleotide and amino acid preference in cold-water fishes, we investigated the substitution asymmetry of codons and amino acids in protein-coding DNA sequences between cold-water fishes and tropical fishes...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yao Tan, Bing Jia, Yuan-Ming Chi, Hai-Bin Han, Xiao-Rong Zhou, Bao-Ping Pang
Lygus pratensis is a phytophagous pest responsible for yield losses in Bt alfalfa and other economic crops in Northwestern China. To better characterize Miridae at the genomic level, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of L. pratensis was sequenced and analyzed in this study. The mt genome was amplified via the polymerase chain reaction to generate overlapping fragments. These fragments were then sequenced, spliced, and analyzed to include the examination of nucleotide composition, codon usage, compositional biases, protein-coding genes (PCGs), and RNA secondary structures...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
Eli Goz, Zohar Zafrir, Tamir Tuller
Motivation: Understanding how viruses co-evolve with their hosts and adapt various genomic level strategies in order to ensure their fitness may have essential implications in unveiling the secrets of viral evolution, and in developing new vaccines and therapeutic approaches. Here, based on a novel genomic analysis of 2,625 different viruses and 439 corresponding host organisms, we provide evidence of universal evolutionary selection for high dimensional 'silent' patterns of information hidden in the redundancy of viral genetic code...
April 30, 2018: Bioinformatics
Maxwell Shapiro, Stephen Meier, Thomas MacCarthy
BACKGROUND: Activation induced deaminase (AID) and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) are deaminases that mutate C to U on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). AID is expressed primarily in germinal center B-cells, where it facilitates affinity maturation and class-switch recombination. APOBEC3 are a family of anti-viral proteins that act as part of the intrinsic immune response. In both cases, there are particular sequence motifs, also known as "mutation motifs", to which these deaminases prefer to bind and mutate...
May 2, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
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