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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634518/role-of-albumin-in-cirrhosis-from-a-hospitalist-s-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Saqib Walayat, Daniel Martin, Jaymon Patel, Umair Ahmed, Muhammad N Asghar, Aparna U Pai, Sonu Dhillon
Albumin, a negatively charged globular protein encoded on chromosome 4, is one of the most abundant proteins in the plasma and accounts for approximately 75% of plasma oncotic pressure. The role of albumin in the management of various disease states has shown to be beneficial historically. Low serum albumin is a predictor of mortality and poor outcomes. In cirrhotics undergoing paracentesis, albumin infusion prevents rapid re-accumulation of ascitic fluid while simultaneously decreasing the risk of post-paracentesis related circulatory dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628116/cadherin-composition-and-multicellular-aggregate-invasion-in-organotypic-models-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-intraperitoneal-metastasis
#2
Y Klymenko, O Kim, E Loughran, J Yang, R Lombard, M Alber, M S Stack
During epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression, intraperitoneally disseminating tumor cells and multicellular aggregates (MCAs) present in ascites fluid adhere to the peritoneum and induce retraction of the peritoneal mesothelial monolayer prior to invasion of the collagen-rich submesothelial matrix and proliferation into macro-metastases. Clinical studies have shown heterogeneity among EOC metastatic units with respect to cadherin expression profiles and invasive behavior; however, the impact of distinct cadherin profiles on peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions remains poorly understood...
June 19, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620570/perforated-bladder-as-a-cause-of-abdominal-ascites-in-a-patient-presenting-with-acute-onset-abdominal-pain
#3
Raj Shah, Madhuri Ramakrishnan, Beenish Ahmed, Khalil Abuamr, Osama Yousef
Bladder perforation, especially when atraumatic, is a rare cause of ascites and is often difficult to differentiate from other causes of abdominal pain and ascites in the acute setting.  A 43-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of multiple sclerosis presented with acute abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan of her abdomen and pelvis without contrast revealed ascites, acute kidney injury (AKI) was noted on laboratory workup, and very little urine was drained by Foley catheter. Over the next several days, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated with no definitive diagnosis...
May 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614632/high-pressure-nebulization-as-application-route-for-the-peritoneal-administration-of-sirna-complexes
#4
An-Katrien Minnaert, George R Dakwar, Juan M Benito, José M García Fernández, W Ceelen, Stefaan C De Smedt, Katrien Remaut
Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a severe form of cancer in the abdomen, currently treated with cytoreductive surgery and intravenous chemotherapy. Recently, nebulization has been proposed as a less invasive strategy for the local delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Also, RNA interference has been considered as a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of cancer. In this study, Lipofectamine RNAiMAX/siRNA complexes and cyclodextrin/siRNA complexes are evaluated before and after nebulization. Nebulization of the siRNA complexes does not significantly lower transfection efficiency when compared to non-nebulized complexes...
June 14, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#5
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611026/map4k4-impairs-energy-metabolism-in-endothelial-cells-and-promotes-insulin-resistance-in-obesity
#6
Rachel J Roth Flach, Marina T DiStefano, Laura V Danai, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Joseph C Yawe, Mark Kelly, Lorena Garcia Menendez, Michael P Czech
The blood vasculature responds to insulin, influencing hemodynamic changes in the periphery, which promotes tissue nutrient and oxygen delivery and thus metabolic function. The lymphatic vasculature regulates fluid and lipid homeostasis, and impaired lymphatic function can contribute to atherosclerosis and obesity. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as atherosclerosis...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607529/ev-associated-mmp9-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-is-preferentially-localized-to-annexin-v-binding-evs
#7
Agnes T Reiner, Sisareuth Tan, Christiane Agreiter, Katharina Auer, Anna Bachmayr-Heyda, Stefanie Aust, Nina Pecha, Mattias Mandorfer, Dietmar Pils, Alain R Brisson, Robert Zeillinger, Sai Kiang Lim
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the most aggressive type of ovarian cancer and is responsible for most deaths caused by gynecological cancers. Numerous candidate biomarkers were identified for this disease in the last decades, but most were not sensitive or specific enough for clinical applications. Hence, new biomarkers for HGSOC are urgently required. This study aimed to identify new markers by isolating different extracellular vesicle (EV) types from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients according to their affinities for lipid-binding proteins and analyzing their protein cargo...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586146/locating-the-level-and-extent-of-congenital-high-airway-obstruction-fluid-in-the-airway-tract-as-reference-points
#8
Mamatha Gowda, Shilpa Gupta, Ashraf Ali, Shanthi Paranthaman
Described here are a series of four cases of congenital high airway obstruction in the fetus. All of the patients presented in the second trimester and all had hydrops fetalis. Three cases had bilateral hyperinflated lungs, midline shift of heart, flattening or inversion of the diaphragm, and fetal ascites. Autopsy was performed in one of these three and showed laryngeal atresia. In one fetus, there was only a unilateral huge enlargement of the lung with mediastinal shift. On autopsy, this fetus had atresia of right main bronchus...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579346/combined-spontaneous-bacterial-empyema-and-peritonitis-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-ascites-and-hepatic-hydrothorax
#9
Anwar Mohamed, Mohammed Atef, Ayman Alsebaey, Mahmoud Musa Elhabshy, Mohsen Salama
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial empyema (SBEM) is an underestimated condition in patients with ascites and hepatic hydrothorax with a high mortality. This study aimed to find whether spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a prerequisite for SBEM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 3000 HCV-related cirrhotic patients with ascites and hydrothorax were screened for the presence of SBP (ascitic fluid neutrophils >250/mm(3)) and SBEM (positive pleural fluid culture and neutrophils >250/mm(3) or negative pleural fluid culture and neutrophils >500/mm(3) with no evidence of pneumonia/parapneumonic effusion on chest radiograph or CT)...
June 1, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567101/ascites-matters
#10
REVIEW
Velauthan Rudralingam, Clare Footitt, Ben Layton
The excess accumulation of intra-peritoneal fluid, referred to as ascites, is an important clue that points to a significant underlying illness. This may be due to a pathological event within the peritoneal cavity or secondary to an underlying systemic condition. Ascites is broadly classified into transudate and exudate, based on protein content, with a potential wide range of differential diagnoses. Traditionally, computed tomography has been regarded as the imaging modality of choice to demonstrate ascites and diagnose the underlying cause...
May 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554223/outpatient-management-of-severe-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-a-review-of-existing-guidelines
#11
Amr Gebril, Haitham Hamoda, Raj Mathur
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of assisted reproductive treatment. Management of women with severe OHSS has traditionally included hospitalisation for close monitoring and supportive treatment. The aim of this review is to assess the evidence for safety and efficacy of outpatient management of severe OHSS. A systematic review of studies describing outpatient management options was performed. Current guidance from advisory bodies was also reviewed. Outpatient management has been found in observational studies to be safe and cost-effective compared to inpatient management...
May 29, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540829/pseudomyxoma-peritonei-natural-history-and-treatment
#12
Rohin Mittal, Anuradha Chandramohan, Brendan Moran
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon disease characterized by mucinous ascites, classically originating from a ruptured low grade mucinous neoplasm of the appendix. The natural history of PMP revolves around the "redistribution phenomenon", whereby mucinous tumour cells accumulate at specific sites with relative sparing of the motile small bowel and to a lesser extent other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Peritoneal tumour accumulates due to gravity and at the sites of peritoneal fluid absorption, namely, the greater and lesser omentum and the under-surface of the diaphragm, particularly on the right...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539992/bi-directional-hepatic-hydrothorax
#13
Madhan Nellaiyappan, Anastasios Kapetanos
A 59-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis presented to our hospital with an acutely painful umbilical hernia, and 4 mo of exertional dyspnea. He was noted to be tachypneic and hypoxic. He had a massive right sided pleural effusion with leftward mediastinal shift and gross ascites, with a tense, fluid-filled, umbilical hernia. Emergent paracentesis with drain placement and a large volume thoracentesis were performed. Despite improvement in dyspnea and drainage of 15 L of ascitic fluid, the massive transudative pleural effusion remained largely unchanged...
May 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533908/ascites-refractory-ascites-and-hyponatremia-in-cirrhosis
#14
Brett Fortune, Andres Cardenas
Ascites is the most common complication related to cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Ascites is a consequence of the loss of compensatory mechanisms to maintain the overall effective arterial blood volume due to worsening splanchnic arterial vasodilation as a result of clinically significant portal hypertension. In order to maintain effective arterial blood volume, vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic pathways are activated, which increase overall sodium and fluid retention...
May 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507577/peritoneal-lavage-examination-as-a-prognostic-tool-in-cases-of-gastric-cancer
#16
David Hoskovec, Jozef Varga, Petr Dytrych, Ellen Konecna, Jan Matek
INTRODUCTION: Peritoneal tumor seeding is a common form of recurrence after gastric cancer surgery. The finding of free tumor cells and/or elevation of tumor markers in the peritoneal fluid could predict intraperitoneal tumor recurrence. The results of these examination can be used for indication of aggressive treatment modalities such as hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have operated on 105 patients suffering from gastric cancer...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502130/diagnostic-and-prognostic-values-of-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-in-ascitic-fluid-of-patients-with-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#17
Naglaa El-Toukhy, Sherin M Emam
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication in cirrhotics with ascites. Monocyte chemotactic protien-1 (MCP-1) is a chemotactic factor for monocytes/macrophages, and it activates lymphocytes and neutrophils during infection. This study aimed to evaluate the role of MPC-1 in the pathogenesis of SBP and assess its prognostic value and correlation to disease severity. The study included ninety patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I including 45 ascetic patients with SBP (polymorph nuclear cell count (PMN) >= 250 cell/mm3 in ascitic fluid), and Group II including 45 ascetic patients without SBP...
June 2016: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498260/combined-gene-therapy-using-adsvegfr2-and-adstie2-with-chemotherapy-reduces-the-growth-of-human-ovarian-cancer-and-formation-of-ascites-in-mice
#18
Laura Tuppurainen, Hanna Sallinen, Anni Karvonen, Elina Valkonen, Hanne Laakso, Timo Liimatainen, Elisa Hytönen, Kirsi Hämäläinen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Maarit Anttila, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
OBJECTIVES: Ovarian cancer is highly dependent on tumor microvessels and angiogenesis regulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs) and angiopoietins (Ang) and their Tie receptors. We studied the efficacy of adenoviral (Ad) gene therapy with soluble VEGFR2 and Tie2 combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin for the treatment of ovarian cancer. METHODS: An intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft model in nude mice (n = 44) was used in this study...
June 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485641/characterization-of-ascites-in-cardiac-cirrhosis-the-value-of-ascitic-fluid-protein-to-screen-for-concurrent-cardiac-cirrhosis
#19
Yuchen Wang, Bashar M Attar, Seema Gandhi, Palashkumar Jaiswal, Sara Bedsore, Neethi Paranji, Sachit Sharma
Abstracts Objectives: Cardiogenic ascites has been well described regarding its pathophysiology and fluid characteristics in prior literatures. However, ascites in patients with cardiac cirrhosis has not been characterized as a separate entity despite its unique pathophysiology and clinical aspects. This study aims to describe the fluid profile of ascites of cardiac cirrhosis and explore the utility of ascitic fluid protein (AFP) to predict concurrent cardiac cirrhosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively selected and reviewed samples from the patients with cardiogenic ascites with and without concurrent cardiac cirrhosis...
May 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484089/xenogeneic-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduce-mortality-in-rats-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-complicated-by-sepsis
#20
Fan-Yen Lee, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Pei-Hsun Sung, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Sheng-Ying Chung, Yung-Lung Chen, Hung-I Lu, Sheung-Fat Ko, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that xenogeneic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HUCDMSC) therapy would improve survival rates in rats with acute respiratory distress-syndrome (ARDS, induction by 48 h inhalation of 100% oxygen) and sepsis-syndrome (SS, induction by cecal-ligation and puncture) (ARDS-SS). Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were categorized into group 1 (sham-controls), group 2 (ARDS-SS), group 3 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1.2 x106 cells administered 1 h after SS-induction)], and group 4 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
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