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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347131/preclinical-in-vivo-cancer-straightway-to-patients
#1
Marion de Jong, Stephen Mather, Theodosia Maina
Detection of useful cellular targets has strongly stimulated personalized tumor-targeted imaging and therapy approaches, also involving synthesis and evaluation of nuclear imaging probes with potential for clinical applications. Reviews of preclinical and translational studies concerning such probes, including radiolabeled antibodies, nanobodies, affibodies, peptides, small molecule inhibitors, and nanoparticles, are presented in this issue. As most tracers described in these articles have been developed for the field of cancer imaging and radionuclide therapy, the current article on preclinical studies will focus on cancer research as well...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346991/an-integrated-assessment-framework-for-the-analysis-of-multiple-pressures-in-aquatic-ecosystems-and-the-appraisal-of-management-options
#2
A Pistocchi, A Udias, B Grizzetti, E Gelati, P Koundouri, R Ludwig, A Papandreou, I Souliotis
The contribution illustrates an integrated assessment framework aimed at evaluating the relationships between multiple pressures and water body status for the purposes of river basin management. The framework includes the following steps. (1) Understanding how the different pressures affect the status of water bodies. This entails the characterization of biophysical state variables and the definition of a causal relationship between pressures and status. Therefore this step involves interaction between experts bearing ecological understanding and experts providing models to represent the effect of pressures...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346901/boundary-work-for-implementing-adaptive-management-a-water-sector-application
#3
Blal Adem Esmail, Davide Geneletti, Christian Albert
Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346828/chemical-transformation-of-colloidal-nanostructures-with-morphological-preservation-by-surface-protection-with-capping-ligands
#4
Wenjing Xu, Mingsheng Wang, Zhiwei Li, Xiaojing Wang, Yongqiang Wang, Mingyang Xing, Yadong Yin
When nanocrystals are made to undergo chemical transformations, there are often accompanying large mechanical deformations and changes to overall particle morphology. These effects can constrain development of multi-step synthetic methods through loss of well-defined particle morphology and functionality. Here, we demonstrate a surface protection strategy for solution phase chemical conversion of colloidal nanostructures that allows for preservation of overall particle morphology despite large volume changes...
March 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346826/imaging-successive-intermediate-states-of-the-on-surface-ullmann-reaction-on-cu-111-role-of-the-metal-coordination
#5
Sören Zint, Daniel Ebeling, Tobias Schlöder, Sebastian Ahles, Doreen Mollenhauer, Hermann A Wegner, Andre Schirmeisen
The in-depth knowledge about on-surface reaction mechanisms is crucial for the tailor-made design of covalently bonded organic frameworks, for applications such as nanoelectronic or -optical devices. Latest developments in atomic force microscopy, which rely on functionalizing the tip with single CO molecules at low temperatures allow to image molecular systems with submolecular resolution. Here, we are using this technique to study the complete reaction pathway of the on-surface Ullmann-type coupling between bromotriphenylene molecules on a Cu(111) surface...
March 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346788/three-step-catalytic-asymmetric-total-syntheses-of-13-methyltetrahydroprotoberberine-alkaloids
#6
Shiqiang Zhou, Rongbiao Tong
(S,R)-N-PINAP was identified to be the chiral ligand for highly enantioselective CuI-catalyzed reaction of tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQs), alkynes, and 2-bromobenzaldehyde derivatives. This enables us to accomplish the first asymmetric total synthesis of 12 natural 13-methyltetrahydroprotoberberine (13-MeTHPB) alkaloids in only three catalytic steps with 47-64% overall yields. In addition, the Pd-catalyzed reductive Heck cyclization was successfully extended to three Pd-catalyzed domino reactions (Heck/Suzuki, Heck/Sonogashira, and Heck/Heck), which greatly expands the synthetic utility of this catalytic strategy and allows expeditious access to 13-substituted tetrahydroprotoberberines for further bioactivity evaluation...
March 27, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346704/the-chloroplast-rna-helicase-ise2-is-required-for-multiple-chloroplast-rna-processing-steps-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#7
Krzysztof Bobik, Tyra N McCray, Ben Ernest, Jessica C Fernandez, Katharine A Howell, Thomas Lane, Margaret Staton, Tessa M Burch-Smith
INCREASED SIZE EXCLUSION LIMIT2 (ISE2) is a chloroplast-localized RNA helicase that is indispensable for proper plant development. Chloroplasts in leaves with reduced ISE2 expression have previously been shown to exhibit reduced thylakoid contents and increased stromal volume, indicative of defective development. It has recently been reported that ISE2 is required for the splicing of group II introns from chloroplast transcripts. The current study extends these findings, and presents evidence for ISE2's role in multiple aspects of chloroplast RNA processing beyond group II intron splicing...
March 27, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346622/future-of-family-medicine-faculty-development-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Paul R Larson, Patrick Chege, Bruce Dahlman, Christine Gibson, Ann Evensen, Maria C Colon-Gonzalez, Stephanie Onguka, Roberta Lamptey, William E Cayley, Bich-May Nguyen, Brian Johnson, Sawra Getnet, Memoona Hasnain
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: High-quality family medicine education is needed in sub-Saharan Africa to facilitate the future growth of primary care health systems. Current faculty educators recognize the value of dedicated teacher training and ongoing faculty development. However, they are constrained by inadequate faculty development program availability and institutional support. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct a qualitative needs assessment comprised of 37 in-depth, semi-structured interviews of individual faculty trainers from postgraduate family medicine training programs in eight sub-Saharan African countries...
March 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346552/incorporation-of-vanadium-into-the-framework-of-hydroxyapatites-importance-of-the-vanadium-content-and-ph-conditions-during-the-precipitation-step
#9
Sarah Petit, Thrimurthulu Gode, Cyril Thomas, Stanislaw Dzwigaj, Yannick Millot, Dalil Brouri, Jean-Marc Krafft, Gwenaelle Rousse, Christel Laberty-Robert, Guylène Costentin
Even though vanadium-modified hydroxyapatite (V-HAp) samples are very promising systems for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, the incorporation of vanadium into the hydroxyapatite framework was reported to be limited and to lead to over-stoichiometric compounds. Here, the synthesis of a Ca10(PO4)6-x(VO4)x(OH)2 stoichiometric solid solution using a co-precipitation method is monitored in the whole composition range (0 ≤ x ≤ 6) by controlling the pH of the precipitation medium, with continuous (the first series of samples) or periodic (the second series of samples) addition of NH4OH during the precipitation step or during the maturation step, respectively...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346521/hiv-1-gp120-envelope-glycoprotein-determinants-for-cytokine-burst-in-human-monocytes
#10
Benoît Levast, Lucie Barblu, Mathieu Coutu, Jérémie Prévost, Nathalie Brassard, Adam Peres, Camille Stegen, Joaquín Madrenas, Daniel E Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi
The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346519/views-of-senior-health-personnel-about-quality-of-emergency-obstetric-care-a-qualitative-study-in-nigeria
#11
Friday Okonofua, Abdullahi Randawa, Rosemary Ogu, Kingsley Agholor, Ola Okike, Rukayat Adeola Abdus-Salam, Mohammed Gana, Eghe Abe, Adetoye Durodola, Hadiza Galadanci
BACKGROUND: Late arrival in hospital by women experiencing pregnancy complications is an important background factor leading to maternal mortality in Nigeria. The use of effective and timely emergency obstetric care determines whether women survive or die, or become near-miss cases. Healthcare managers have the responsibility to deploy resources for implementing emergency obstetric care. OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature of institutional policies and frameworks for managing obstetric complications and reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346511/is-manure-an-alternative-to-topsoil-in-road-embankment-restoration
#12
Begoña Peco, Desirée Rivera, Pablo García-Palacios, Berta M Jauregui
One of the main steps in road and railway embankment restoration is the spreading of previously removed topsoil, which provides an input of seeds, organic matter and microorganisms and encourages the establishment of a vegetation cover, essential to stabilise the embankment and blend it with the landscape. However, topsoil is a scarce resource, prompting the search for economic alternatives with similar results. The present study compares the results of spreading topsoil with an organic amendment (manure) for the soil's physico-chemical properties, erosion resistance and microbial activity, floristic richness and composition, and bare soil cover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346435/aav9-mediated-engineering-of-autotransplanted-kidney-of-non-human-primates
#13
S Tomasoni, P Trionfini, N Azzollini, L Zentilin, M Giacca, S Aiello, L Longaretti, E Cozzi, N Baldan, G Remuzzi, A Benigni
Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic anti-rejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein CTLA4-Ig prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here, we generated AAV2 and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346416/jacie-accreditation-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation-past-present-and-future-directions-of-an-international-model-for-healthcare-quality-improvement
#14
J A Snowden, E McGrath, R F Duarte, R Saccardi, K Orchard, N Worel, J Kuball, C Chabannon, M Mohty
Blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) is a complex and evolving medical speciality that makes substantial demands on healthcare resources. To meet a professional responsibility to both patients and public health services, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) initiated and developed the Joint Accreditation Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy and EBMT-better known by the acronym, JACIE. Since its inception, JACIE has performed over 530 voluntary accreditation inspections (62% first time; 38% reaccreditation) in 25 countries, representing 40% of transplant centres in Europe...
March 27, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346400/t-lymphocyte-homing-an-underappreciated-yet-critical-hurdle-for-successful-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
Robert Sackstein, Tobias Schatton, Steven R Barthel
Advances in cancer immunotherapy have offered new hope for patients with metastatic disease. This unfolding success story has been exemplified by a growing arsenal of novel immunotherapeutics, including blocking antibodies targeting immune checkpoint pathways, cancer vaccines, and adoptive cell therapy (ACT). Nonetheless, clinical benefit remains highly variable and patient-specific, in part, because all immunotherapeutic regimens vitally hinge on the capacity of endogenous and/or adoptively transferred T-effector (Teff) cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to home efficiently into tumor target tissue...
March 27, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346372/-bligh-and-dyer-and-folch-methods-for-solid-liquid-liquid-extraction-of-lipids-from-microorganisms-comprehension-of-solvatation-mechanisms-and-towards-substitution-with-alternative-solvents
#16
Cassandra Breil, Maryline Abert Vian, Thomas Zemb, Werner Kunz, Farid Chemat
Bligh and Dyer (B & D) or Folch procedures for the extraction and separation of lipids from microorganisms and biological tissues using chloroform/methanol/water have been used tens of thousands of times and are "gold standards" for the analysis of extracted lipids. Based on the Conductor-like Screening MOdel for realistic Solvatation (COSMO-RS), we select ethanol and ethyl acetate as being potentially suitable for the substitution of methanol and chloroform. We confirm this by performing solid-liquid extraction of yeast (Yarrowia lipolytica IFP29) and subsequent liquid-liquid partition-the two steps of routine extraction...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346366/automatic-camera-calibration-using-active-displays-of-a-virtual-pattern
#17
Lei Tan, Yaonan Wang, Hongshan Yu, Jiang Zhu
Camera calibration plays a critical role in 3D computer vision tasks. The most commonly used calibration method utilizes a planar checkerboard and can be done nearly fully automatically. However, it requires the user to move either the camera or the checkerboard during the capture step. This manual operation is time consuming and makes the calibration results unstable. In order to solve the above problems caused by manual operation, this paper presents a full-automatic camera calibration method using a virtual pattern instead of a physical one...
March 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346293/comparison-of-experts-and-residents-performing-a-complex-procedure-in-a-temporal-bone-surgery-simulator
#18
Ioanna Ioannou, Yun Zhou, Sudanthi Wijewickrema, Patorn Piromchai, Bridget Copson, Gregor Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of automated metrics from a virtual reality (VR) temporal bone surgery simulator to determine how the performance of experts and trainees differs when performing a complex otological procedure (mastoidectomy with posterior tympanotomy and cochleostomy). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Using the University of Melbourne VR temporal bone surgery simulator, seven ENT consultants and seven ENT residents performed two trials of the surgical approach to cochlear implantation on a virtual temporal bone...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346290/endoscopic-ear-surgery-for-external-auditory-canal-cholesteatoma
#19
Jörg Dähn, Lukas Anschuetz, Masaya Konishi, Mark Sayles, Marco Caversaccio, Patrick Dubach
BACKGROUND: Treatment of external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC) has been a question of debate. To our knowledge and according to a systematic review of endoscopic ear surgery (EES) in 2015, this study describes for the first time the technique and outcome by solely transcanal EES for EACC. STUDY METHOD: Retrospective case series, level of evidence IV. METHODS: Between October 2014 and December 2016, nine patients with unilateral EACC have been treated by EES...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346133/creating-a-climate-that-catalyses-healthcare-innovation-in-the-united-kingdom-learning-lessons-from-international-innovators
#20
Kathrin Cresswell, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Aziz Sheikh
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. METHODS: We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
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