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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#1
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223554/oral-administration-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-thymoquinone-attenuates-long-term-cisplatin-treatment-induced-toxicity-and-oxidative-damage-in-rat-kidney
#2
Zeba Farooqui, Faaiza Shahid, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is an effective anti-cancer drug which causes remarkable toxicity to the kidney, particularly to proximal tubules, by generating reactive oxygen species. Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as "black cumin" reduces the progression of various kidney disorders. Thymoquinone (TQ), the major bioactive constituent of NS seeds, has been credited for various pharmacological effects of NS. Since, a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves CP administration in multiple cycles over a long time duration, hence the present study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective efficacy of NS oil and TQ against multiple dose CP treatment induced deleterious biochemical and histological alterations in rat kidney...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221949/anti-cancer-activity-of-a-new-dihydropyridine-derivative-vdie-2n-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Renata Nishida Goto, Lays Martin Sobral, Lucas Oliveira Sousa, Cristiana Bernadelli Garcia, Norberto Peporine Lopes, Javier Marín-Prida, Estael Ochoa-Rodríguez, Yamila Verdecia-Reyes, Gilberto Lázaro Pardo-Andreu, Carlos Curti, Andréia Machado Leopoldino
This study aims to examine the effects of a new 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative, VdiE-2N, on cell signaling pathways and mitochondrial events in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells, and on a mice model of xenograft tumor growth/cell proliferation. Four HNSCC cell lines (HN13, HN12, HN6, and CAL27), HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney 293 cells), and human oral healthy mucosa fibroblasts (OHMF) were used for in vitro assessment of cell viability (resazurin assay) and invasion capacity (modified Boyden chamber assay), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1 fluorescence assay), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and number of mitochondria (MitoTracker® imaging)...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221736/differential-effects-of-operative-complications-on-survival-after-surgery-for-primary-lung-cancer
#4
Felix G Fernandez, Andrzej S Kosinski, Anthony P Furnary, Mark Onaitis, Sunghee Kim, Robert H Habib, Betty C Tong, Patricia Cowper, Daniel Boffa, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Cameron D Wright, Joe B Putnam
OBJECTIVE: Complications adversely affect survival after lung cancer surgery. We tested the hypothesis that effects of complications after lung cancer surgery on survival vary substantially across the spectrum of postoperative complications. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database was linked to Medicare data for lung cancer resections from 2002 through 2013. Linkage was achieved for 29,899 patients. A survival model was created that included operative complications as explanatory variables and adjusted for relevant baseline covariates...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221517/urban-rural-disparity-in-helicobacter-pylori-infection-related-upper-gastrointestinal-cancer-in-china-and-the-decreasing-trend-in-parallel-with-socioeconomic-development-and-urbanization-in-an-endemic-area
#5
Xiaoduo Wen, Denggui Wen, Yi Yang, Yuetong Chen, Guiying Wang, Baoen Shan
BACKGROUND: Globally China has the largest urban-rural disparity in socioeconomic development, and the urban-rural difference in upper gastrointestinal cancer (UGIC) is similar to the difference between developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe urban-rural disparity in UGIC and to emphasize prevention by socioeconomic development and urbanization in China. METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) of cancers in 2012 were compared between urban Shijiazhuang city and rural Shexian County, and trends from 2000-2015 in Shexian County were analyzed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221192/tumor-suppressive-function-of-unc5d-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#6
Man-Man Zhang, Feng Sun, Bing Cui, Le-Le Zhang, Ya Fang, Yan Li, Rui-Jia Zhang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Yu-Ru Ma, Bing Han, Huai-Dong Song
Background: Studies have shown an association of the UNC5D gene with kidney and bladder cancer and neuroblastoma. We investigated whether UNC5D acts as a tumor suppressor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: Primary PTC tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues were obtained from 112 patients to detect UNC5D mRNA by real-time PCR. Genomic DNA sequencing was performed to detect BRAF mutation in PTC tumors. The association between UNC5D expression and clinicopathological data from PTC patients was reviewed retrospectively...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220099/supportive-palliative-care-should-be-integrated-into-routine-care-for-paediatric-patients-with-life-limiting-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Julia Thumfart, Tobias Reindl, Cornelia Rheinlaender, Dominik Müller
AIM: Paediatric palliative care is no longer restricted to patients with cancer and has been extended to patients with other chronic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders. This review focused on the current state of palliative care for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHOD: We assessed the literature on CKD published up to August 2017. All the papers, except one from 1996, were published this century. This review discusses the role that palliative care plays in the process of decision-making and explores the possibilities of implementing palliative care into the routine therapy of affected patients and providing support for their families...
December 8, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217769/structural-insights-into-ankyrin-repeat-mediated-recognition-of-the-kinesin-motor-protein-kif21a-by-kank1-a-scaffold-protein-in-focal-adhesion
#8
Wenfei Pan, Kang Sun, Kun Tang, Qingpin Xiao, Chenxue Ma, Cong Yu, Zhiyi Wei
Kidney ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (KANK1/2/3/4) belong to a family of scaffold proteins, playing critical roles in cytoskeleton organization, cell polarity and migration. Mutations in KANK proteins are implicated in cancers and genetic diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome. KANK proteins can bind various target proteins through different protein regions, including a highly conserved ankyrin repeat domain (ANKRD). However, the molecular basis for target recognition by the ANKRD remains elusive. In this study, we solved a high-resolution crystal structure of the ANKRD of KANK1 in complex with a short sequence of the motor protein kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A), revealing that the highly specific target-binding mode of the ANKRD involves combinatorial use of two interfaces...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217733/sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-preclinical-imaging-research-initial-observations-with-18f-fluorothymidine
#9
Szeman Ruby Chan, Kelley Salem, Justin Jeffery, Ginny L Powers, Yongjun Yan, Kooresh I Shoghi, Aparna M Mahajan, Amy M Fowler
The study objective was to investigate whether sex influences 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) uptake and tissue distribution in mouse models of cancer. Methods:18F-FLT biodistribution was measured in three strains of male and female mice (129S6/SvEv, athymic nude, and BALB/c). 18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose (18F-FDG) biodistribution was performed for comparison. 18F-FLT uptake was also measured in female 129S6/SvEv mice bearing estrogen-dependent SSM3 mouse mammary tumors, male athymic nude mice bearing androgen-dependent CWR22 prostate cancer xenografts, and male and female athymic nude mice bearing estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217467/why-should-we-measure-free-25-oh-vitamin-d
#10
REVIEW
Oleg Tsuprykov, Xin Chen, Carl-Friedrich Hocher, LianghongYin, Berthold Hocher
Vitamin D, either in its D2 or D3 form, is essential for normal human development during intrauterine life, kidney function and bone health. Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to cancer development and some autoimmune diseases. Given this huge impact of vitamin D on human health, it is important for daily clinical practice and clinical research to have reliable tools to judge on the vitamin D status. The major circulating form of vitamin D3 is 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D), although is not the most active metabolite, the concentrations of total 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in the serum are currently routinely used in clinical practice to assess vitamin D status...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215474/assessment-of-ileostomy-output-using-telemedicine-a-feasibility-trial
#11
Brian K Bednarski, Rebecca S Slack, Matthew Katz, Y Nancy You, John Papadopolous, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, John M Skibber, Surena F Matin, George J Chang
BACKGROUND: Ileostomies are a routine part of the care of patients with rectal cancer, but are associated with significant risk for dehydration, readmission, and acute kidney injury. Telemedicine has proven beneficial in decreasing readmission in chronic medical illnesses, but its utility in patients with an ileostomy is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of televideoconferencing in the assessment of ileostomy output...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215458/recurrence-of-renal-cell-cancer-after-renal-transplantation-in-a-multicenter-french-cohort
#12
Noëlle Cognard, Dany Anglicheau, Philippe Gatault, Sophie Girerd, Marie Essig, Bruno Hurault de Ligny, Yann Le Meur, Franck Le Roy, Cyril Garrouste, Antoine Thierry, Charlotte Colosio, Joseph Rivalan, Johnny Sayegh, Gabriel Choukroun, Bruno Moulin, Sophie Caillard
BACKGROUND: Renal cancer accounts for 3% of adult malignancies; renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 80% of all renal cancers, and is characterized by late recurrences. Recurrences after kidney transplantation are associated with a high mortality rate. We aimed to determine if recurrences are linked to tumor characteristics and to delays between diagnosis and transplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from French kidney-transplanted patients with medical histories of pre-transplant renal cancer, focusing on the most common histological subtypes: clear cell and papillary cancers...
December 5, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212624/clinical-indices-can-standardize-and-monitor-pediatric-care-a-novel-mechanism-to-improve-quality-and-safety
#13
Wallace Crandall, J Terrance Davis, Jennifer Dotson, Charles Elmaraghy, Mike Fetzer, Don Hayes, Edwin Horwitz, Amy Kogon, Randal Olshefski, Hiren Patel, Richard J Brilli
OBJECTIVE: The Cancer Care Index (CCI), a single metric that sums the number of undesirable patient events in a given time frame (either preventable harm events or missed opportunities to provide optimal care), resulted in a 42% improvement in performance. Our objective was to test the index concept in other service lines to determine whether similar performance improvement occurred. STUDY DESIGN: Care indices were developed and introduced in 3 additional service lines: Nephrology (Chronic Kidney Disease Care Index; CKDCI), Pulmonology (Lung Transplantation Care Index; LTCI), and Otolaryngology (Tracheostomy Care Index; TCI)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212486/emerging-concepts-and-spectrum-of-renal-injury-following-intravesical-bcg-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#14
Azharuddin Mohammed, Zubair Arastu
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (IVBCG) therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has long been in use successfully. Albeit rarely, we still face with its safety concerns more than 25 years on since its approval by US Food and Drug Agency in 1990. Local and systemic infection following intravesical BCG is widely reported as compared to immune mediated local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions involving kidneys; acute kidney injury (AKI) and other renal manifestations are well reported but not of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210639/guanylate-cyclase-c-a-current-hot-target-from-physiology-to-pathology
#15
Jose Antonio Uranga, Marta Castro, Raquel Abalo
Guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor is a transmembrane receptor, predominantly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, that plays a main role in homeostasis and function of the digestive tract. The endogenous ligands for this receptor are the paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin. The heat-stable enterotoxin, produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria, is also a natural ligand of this receptor. Upon ligand binding, GC-C receptors increase the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, regulating a variety of key cell-type specific processes such as chloride and bicarbonate secretion (which increases luminal fluid and intestinal motility), epithelial cell growth, regulation of intestinal barrier integrity and visceral sensitivity...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210632/role-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-degenerative-kidney-disorders
#16
Shifa Narula, Chanderdeep Tandon, Simran Tandon
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of calcium dependent-zinc containing endopeptidases that play a pivotal role in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. MMPs are also known to cleave non-matrix proteins, including cell surface receptors, TNF-α, angiotensin-II, growth factors, (especially transforming growth factor-β1, ΤGF-β1) plasminogen, endothelin and other bioactive molecules. The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibit the activity of MMPs and decrease ECM degradation. Various patho-physiological conditions have been linked with the imbalance of ECM synthesis and degradation...
December 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208006/identification-and-validation-of-a-44-gene-expression-signature-for-the-classification-of-renal-cell-carcinomas
#17
Qifeng Wang, Hualei Gan, Chengshu Chen, Yifeng Sun, Jinying Chen, Midie Xu, Weiwei Weng, Liyu Cao, Qinghua Xu, Jian Wang
BACKGROUND: Renal cancers account for more than 3% of all adult malignancies and cause more than 23,400 deaths per year in China alone. The four most common types of kidney tumours include clear cell, papillary, chromophobe and benign oncocytoma. These histological subtypes vary in their clinical course and prognosis, and different clinical strategies have been developed for their management. Some kidney tumours can be very difficult to distinguish based on the pathological assessment of morphology and immunohistochemistry...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207723/papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-tubercular-paraaortic-lymphadenopathy-a-blessing-in-disguise
#18
Bhavna Sharma, Purnima Malhotra, Minakshi Bhardwaj
Incidental Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) can be found in a tubercular kidney; however, the vice versa i.e., finding tubercular lymphadenopathy after radical nephrectomy for cancer is exceptionally rare. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of coexistent renal cell carcinoma and tubercular paraaortic lymphadenopathy have been reported till date. Out of these, only one case was of papillary renal cell carcinoma. We hereby, report a rare case of papillary renal cell carcinoma with coexisting paraaortic tubercular lymphadenopathy, which was upstaged based on radiology findings...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207645/nitidine-chloride-acts-as-an-apoptosis-inducer-in-human-oral-cancer-cells-and-a-nude-mouse-xenograft-model-via-inhibition-of-stat3
#19
Lee-Han Kim, Sachita Khadka, Ji-Ae Shin, Ji-Youn Jung, Mi-Heon Ryu, Hyun-Ju Yu, Hae Nim Lee, Boonsil Jang, In-Hyoung Yang, Dong-Hoon Won, Hye-Jeong Kwon, Joseph H Jeong, Seong Doo Hong, Nam-Pyo Cho, Sung-Dae Cho
Nitidine chloride (NC) is a natural alkaloid compound derived from the plant Zanthoxylum nitidum and is known for its therapeutic anticancer potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of NC on growth and signaling pathways in human oral cancer cell lines and a tumor xenograft model. The apoptotic effects and related molecular targets of NC on human oral cancer were investigated using trypan blue exclusion assay, DAPI staining, Live/Dead assay, Western blotting, Immunohistochemistry/Immunofluorescence and a nude mouse tumor xenograft...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207627/orellanine-specifically-targets-renal-clear-cell-carcinoma
#20
Lisa Buvall, Heidi Hedman, Alina Khramova, Deman Najar, Lovisa Bergwall, Kerstin Ebefors, Carina Sihlbom, Sven Lundstam, Anders Herrmann, Hanna Wallentin, Emelie Roos, Ulf A Nilsson, Martin Johansson, Jan Törnell, Börje Haraldsson, Jenny Nyström
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), arising from the proximal tubule in the kidney, accounts for approximately 85% of kidney cancers and causes over 140,000 annual deaths worldwide. In the last decade, several new therapies have been identified for treatment of metastatic RCC. Although these therapies increase survival time compared to standard care, none of them has curative properties. The nephrotoxin orellanine specifically targets proximal tubular epithelial cells, leaving other organs unaffected. We therefore hypothesized that the selective toxicity of orellanine extends to clear cell RCC (ccRCC) cells since they emanate from proximal tubular cells...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
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