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Anemia in HIV

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100459/clinical-and-pathological-characteristics-of-hiv-and-hhv8-negative-castleman-disease
#1
Li Yu, Meifeng Tu, Jorge Cortes, Zijun Y Xu-Monette, Roberto N Miranda, Jun Zhang, Robert Z Orlowski, Sattva Neelapu, Prajwal C Boddu, Mary A Akosile, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Yong Li, David C Fajgenbaum, Ken H Young
Castleman disease (CD) comprises three poorly-understood lymphoproliferative variants that share several common histopathological features. Unicentric CD (UCD) is localized to a single region of lymph nodes. Multicentric CD (MCD) manifests with systemic inflammatory symptoms and organ dysfunction due to cytokine dysregulation, and involves multiple lymph node regions. Human herpes virus-8 causes MCD (HHV-8-associated MCD) in immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV infected patients. However, greater than 50% MCD cases are HIV and HHV-8 negative, defined as idiopathic (iMCD)...
January 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068675/nutrition-habits-and-health-outcomes-of-breastfeeding-hiv-positive-mothers-in-the-dschang-health-district-west-region-cameroon
#2
Martin Sanou Sobze, Tsi Kien-Atsu, Bruna Djeunang Dongho, Jimmy Roger Fotso, Armand TiotsiaTsapi, Yannick Azeufack Ngueko, Sali Ben Bechir, Augusto Pana, Lucia Ercoli, Vittorio Colizzi, Gianluca Russo
BACKGROUND: Amongst the different at-risk periods for mother-to-child HIV transmission that is, during pregnancy, labor and delivery and breastfeeding, much care and attention needs to be given, not only to the child as concerns its feeding options, but also to the mother. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional habits and health outcomes of HIV-positive breastfeeding mothers in the Dschang Health District, in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) activities...
September 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063951/transcriptomic-analysis-of-spleen-infected-with-infectious-salmon-anemia-virus-reveals-distinct-pattern-of-viral-replication-on-resistant-and-susceptible-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#3
Phillip Dettleff, Thomas Moen, Nina Santi, Victor Martinez
The infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) produces a systemic infection in salmonids, causing large losses in salmon production. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms exerting disease resistance. In this paper, we perform an RNA-seq analysis in Atlantic salmon challenged with ISAv (using individuals coming from families that were highly susceptible or highly resistant to ISAv infection). We evaluated the differential expression of both host and ISAv genes in a target organ for the virus, i.e. the spleen...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043314/hepatitis-b-leading-to-megaloblastic-anemia-and-catastrophic-peripheral-thrombocytopenia
#4
Muhammad Hafeez, Tariq Sarfraz, Raja Ghayas Khan, Abdul Rafe, Ghulam Rasool, Kamran Nazir Ahmed
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is associated with a variety of extrahepatic complications. We herein, present a rare extrahepatic complication of HBV infection. A 32-year man presented with melena, bleeding from gums and fever. Peripheral blood examination revealed anemia, macrocytosis and severe thrombocytopenia. His hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positive but deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative...
December 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028652/factors-associated-with-geophagy-and-knowledge-about-its-harmful-effects-among-native-sub-saharan-african-caribbean-and-french-guiana-hiv-patients-living-in-northern-france
#5
Isabelle Kmiec, Yohan Nguyen, Christine Rouger, Jean Luc Berger, Dorothée Lambert, Maxime Hentzien, Delphine Lebrun, Ailsa Robbins, Moustapha Drame, Firouzé Bani-Sadr
Geophagy, or the ingestion of earth or clay, is widespread among women of Sub-Saharan African, Caribbean or French Guiana origin. Little is known about this practice among HIV patients native of these countries and who are followed-up in France. The aims of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence and factors associated with geophagy among HIV patients native of these countries, (ii) patients' knowledge about the harmful effects of geophagy, and (iii) the association of geophagy with iron deficiency, or a history of anemia or constipation...
December 27, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024835/leukocytosis-and-neutrophilia-predicts-outcome-in-anal-cancer
#6
Antoine Schernberg, Alexandre Escande, Eleonor Rivin Del Campo, Michel Ducreux, France Nguyen, Diane Goere, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch
OBJECTIVE: Leukocytosis and neutrophilia could be the tip of the iceberg in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We aimed to validate their prognostic significance in a cohort of patients treated with definitive chemoradiation for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). MATERIALS & METHODS: Clinical records from all consecutive patients treated in a single institution between 2006 and 2016 with curative-intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia, defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count over 10,000 and 7500/mm(3), respectively, were studied in terms of overall survival (OS), progression (PFS), locoregional (LFS) and distant (DFS)-free survival...
December 23, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958243/prevalence-and-predictors-of-placental-malaria-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-women-in-nigeria
#7
E O Izuka, E O Ugwu, S N Obi, B C Ozumba, T U Nwagha, C E Obiora-Izuka
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women have alterations in cellular and humoral immunity that increase the risks to placental malaria infection. AIM: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of placental malaria among HIV-positive women in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a longitudinal cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Peripheral blood sample for packed cell volume estimation and placental blood sample for malaria parasite estimation were collected from each participant at a presentation in labor and upon delivery, respectively...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956203/syphilis-during-pregnancy-a-preventable-threat-to-maternal-fetal-health
#8
REVIEW
Martha W F Rac, Paula A Revell, Catherine S Eppes
Syphilis remains the most common congenital infection worldwide and has tremendous consequences for the mother and her developing fetus if left untreated. Recently, there has been an increase in the number of congenital syphilis cases in the United States. Thus, recognition and appropriate treatment of reproductive-age women must be a priority. Testing should be performed at initiation of prenatal care and twice during the third trimester in high-risk patients. There are 2 diagnostic algorithms available and physicians should be aware of which algorithm is utilized by their testing laboratory...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#9
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#10
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890886/anemia-in-combined-antiretroviral-treatment-naive-hiv-infected-patients-in-china-a-retrospective-study-of-prevalence-risk-factors-and-mortality
#11
Guorui Dai, Jiang Xiao, Guiju Gao, Xuejing Chong, Fang Wang, Hongyuan Liang, Liang Ni, Di Yang, Fengting Yu, Ling Xu, Di Wang, Junyan Han, Hui Zeng, Hongxin Zhao
Anemia is one of the most important complications of HIV infection. In China, the prevalence, risk factors, and association between anemia and prognosis in HIV-infected patients are poorly elucidated. We analyzed data from 3452 HIV-infected patients not yet on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) attending Beijing Ditan Hospital from June, 2003 to December, 2015. The overall prevalence of anemia was 9.8% (7.6% mild, 1.9% moderate, and 0.2% severe anemia). Female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...
November 26, 2016: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879338/functional-interplay-between-murine-leukemia-virus-glycogag-serinc5-and-surface-glycoprotein-governs-virus-entry-with-opposite-effects-on-gammaretroviral-and-ebolavirus-glycoproteins
#12
Yadvinder S Ahi, Shu Zhang, Yashna Thappeta, Audrey Denman, Amin Feizpour, Suryaram Gummuluru, Bjoern Reinhard, Delphine Muriaux, Matthew J Fivash, Alan Rein
: Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835614/depression-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-clinical-outcomes-among-a-cohort-of-tanzanian-women-living-with-hiv
#13
Christopher R Sudfeld, Sylvia Kaaya, Nilupa S Gunaratna, Fedinand Mugusi, Wafaie W Fawzi, Said Aboud, Mary C Smith Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the relationship of depression at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation with mortality and clinical outcomes among Tanzanian women living with HIV. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1487 women who initiated ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using a Tanzanian-adapted and validated version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist...
January 14, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829329/comparison-of-antibody-immune-responses-to-different-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mutants
#14
Jian-Dong Liu, Li Ren, Bin Ju, Wei Song, Xiang-Yang Ge, Kun-Xue Hong, Ying Liu, Wei Xu, Yan-Ling Hao, Yi-Ming Shao
The identification of immunogens is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development. In our previous study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)attenuated vaccine enhance immunogenicity, both for DNA immunization alone and as a combined DNA prime-vaccinia boost immunization. An RV144 clinical trial has demonstrated that an envelope protein boost may provide some degree of protection against HIV-1 infection. In order to explore the antibody immune responses to two HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the EIAV vaccine and wild-type envelope glycoprotein, mice and guinea pigs were immunized using a DNA prime-protein boost immunization strategy...
November 8, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829033/outcomes-of-nigeria-s-hiv-aids-treatment-program-for-patients-initiated-on-antiretroviral-treatment-between-2004-2012
#15
Ibrahim Dalhatu, Dennis Onotu, Solomon Odafe, Oseni Abiri, Henry Debem, Simon Agolory, Ray W Shiraishi, Andrew F Auld, Mahesh Swaminathan, Kainne Dokubo, Evelyn Ngige, Chukwuemeka Asadu, Emmanuel Abatta, Tedd V Ellerbrock
BACKGROUND: The Nigerian Antiretroviral therapy (ART) program started in 2004 and now ranks among the largest in Africa. However, nationally representative data on outcomes have not been reported. METHODS: We evaluated retrospective cohort data from a nationally representative sample of adults aged ≥15 years who initiated ART during 2004 to 2012. Data were abstracted from 3,496 patient records at 35 sites selected using probability-proportional-to-size (PPS) sampling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815018/-against-medical-advice-discharges-among-hiv-infected-patients-health-and-health-services-outcomes
#16
David Alfandre, Jingyan Yang, Katherine Harwood, Peter Gordon, Helen-Maria Lekas, Steven J Chang, Michael T Yin
Nurses are often first to identify and manage a patient leaving against medical advice (AMA), and so they are critical contributors to the development of strategies to address this problem. We studied AMA discharge in order to help develop useful interventions. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 55,938 discharges from a single urban hospital for the years 2002-2003 and 2012-2013. AMA discharge rates were higher for HIV-infected patients than for patients with alcohol-related disorders or sickle cell anemia in both time periods, even after adjustment for age, race, sex, insurance status, and household income...
January 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803322/s2-from-equine-infectious-anemia-virus-is-an-infectivity-factor-which-counteracts-the-retroviral-inhibitors-serinc5-and-serinc3
#17
Ajit Chande, Emilia Cristiana Cuccurullo, Annachiara Rosa, Serena Ziglio, Susan Carpenter, Massimo Pizzato
The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) encodes the small protein S2, a pathogenic determinant that is important for virus replication and disease progression in horses. No molecular function had been linked to this accessory protein. We report that S2 can replace the activity of Negative factor (Nef) in HIV-1 infectivity, being required to antagonize the inhibitory activity of Serine incorporator (SERINC) proteins on Nef-defective HIV-1. Like Nef, S2 excludes SERINC5 from virus particles and requires an ExxxLL motif predicted to recruit the clathrin adaptor, Adaptor protein 2 (AP2)...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781380/hodgkin-lymphoma-hiv-and-epstein-barr-virus-in-malawi-longitudinal-results-from-the-kamuzu-central-hospital-lymphoma-study
#18
Katherine D Westmoreland, Christopher C Stanley, Nathan D Montgomery, Bongani Kaimila, Edwards Kasonkanji, Nader Kim El-Mallawany, Peter Wasswa, Idah Mtete, Mercy Butia, Salama Itimu, Mary Chasela, Mary Mtunda, Maria Chikasema, Victor Makwakwa, Coxcilly Kampani, Bal M Dhungel, Marcia K Sanders, Robert Krysiak, Tamiwe Tomoka, N George Liomba, Dirk P Dittmer, Yuri Fedoriw, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Contemporary descriptions of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are lacking from sub-Saharan Africa where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent. METHODS: We describe a prospective cHL cohort in Malawi enrolled from 2013 to 2015. Patients received standardized treatment and evaluation, including HIV status and EBV testing of tumors and plasma. RESULTS: Among 31 patients with confirmed cHL, the median age was 19 years (range, 2-51 years) and 22 (71%) were male...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748043/the-small-molecule-3g11-inhibits-hiv-1-reverse-transcription
#19
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726805/selected-topics-in-aerobic-bacteriology
#20
Geraldine Hall, Karen C Carroll
Aerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can be important pathogens in the immunocompromised host. These bacteria can be found in many environments, as part of the normal microbiota of the human host and animals, in soil and water, on plants, on fomites in the hospital, and on hospital equipment. This review provides information from relevant studies about what are the most common aerobic bacteria associated with patients who have cancer and/or are being treated for it, or who have other diseases which lead to immunodeficiencies, such as HIV, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, chronic diseases, and aging...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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