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Clearance glomerular filtration rate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345163/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-letermovir-a-novel-anti-human-cytomegalovirus-drug-in-patients-with-renal-impairment
#1
D Kropeit, J Scheuenpflug, K Erb-Zohar, A Halabi, H-P Stobernack, E G J Hulskotte, A van Schanke, H Zimmermann, H Rübsamen-Schaeff
AIMS: Human cytomegalovirus remains a significant issue for immunocompromised patients and existing viral polymerase targeting therapies are associated with significant toxicity. Accordingly, the viral terminase complex inhibitor, letermovir, is in development. We assessed letermovir pharmacokinetics in renal impairment. METHODS: This was a Phase 1, open-label, non-randomised trial. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on the Modification of Diet Renal Disease equation was used to create 3 groups of 8 subjects: healthy function (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1...
March 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340373/influence-of-sex-on-cardiovascular-drug-responses-role-of-estrogen
#2
REVIEW
Abdel A Abdel-Rahman
In this review we discuss the sex/estrogen-specific modulation of cardiovascular function and responses to current therapeutics. We discuss how anatomical differences such as a smaller kidney size, and lower glomerular filtration rate in females, reduce the clearance and increase the toxicity of some drugs in females. Other important sex differences include the dampening effect of estrogen on central sympathetic and renin angiotensin systems. Further, we discuss how a shift in myocardial redox status leads to paradoxical transformation of estrogen into a pro-inflammatory hormone...
March 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340152/sarcopenia-and-relationships-between-muscle-mass-measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-and-physical-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-3-5
#3
Yunan Zhou, Matthias Hellberg, Philippa Svensson, Peter Höglund, Naomi Clyne
Background.: Sarcopenia and poor physical function are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to investigate the relationships between muscle mass and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and between muscle mass and strength and balance, respectively, in patients with CKD stages 3-5. Methods.: This is a baseline data analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 148 adult patients with an estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340079/measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-does-not-improve-prediction-of-mortality-by-cystatin-c-and-creatinine
#4
Per-Ola Sundin, Per Sjöström, Ian Jones, Lovisa A Olsson, Ruzan Udumyan, Anders Grubb, Veronica Lindström, Scott Montgomery
Background: Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339801/routinely-measured-iohexol-glomerular-filtration-rate-versus-creatinine-based-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-as-predictors-of-mortality-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-a-swedish-chronic-kidney-disease-registry-cohort-study
#5
Shona Methven, Alessandro Gasparini, Juan J Carrero, Fergus J Caskey, Marie Evans
Background.: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) becomes less reliable in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods.: Using the Swedish CKD Registry (2005-11), linked to the national inpatient, dialysis and death registers, we compared the performance of plasma-iohexol measured GFR (mGFR) and urinary clearance measures versus eGFR to predict death in adults with CKD stages 4/5. Performance was assessed using survival and prognostic models...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329736/delay-in-renal-hemodynamic-response-to-a-meat-meal-in-severe-obesity
#6
Pietro Anastasio, Davide Viggiano, Miriam Zacchia, Claudia Altobelli, Giovambattista Capasso, Natale Gaspare De Santo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Little information is available about the tubular functions and the renal adjustments that take place in obese subjects after a protein meal. How the excess fat may affect renal response to dietary proteins is currently only partially understood. This paper aims to address (i) whether severe obesity, in the absence of other comorbidities, is responsible of kidney dysfunction at either the glomerular or the tubular level and (ii) whether it compromises renal adaptations to a large protein meal...
March 23, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325783/renal-handling-of-ketones-in-response-to-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibition-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Ele Ferrannini, Simona Baldi, Silvia Frascerra, Brenno Astiarraga, Elisabetta Barsotti, Aldo Clerico, Elza Muscelli
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologically induced glycosuria elicits adaptive responses in glucose homeostasis and hormone release, including decrements in plasma glucose and insulin levels, increments in glucagon release, enhanced lipolysis, and stimulation of ketogenesis, resulting in an increase in ketonemia. We aimed at assessing the renal response to these changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured fasting and postmeal urinary excretion of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), lactate, and sodium in 66 previously reported patients with type 2 diabetes and preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL · min(-1) · 1...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317454/comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-treated-with-cisplatin
#8
Lotte Lindberg, Kasper Brødbæk, Erik G Hägerström, Jens Bentzen, Bent Kristensen, Bo Zerahn
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. Cisplatin induces nephrotoxicity and may lead to long-term reduction of kidney function. Consequently, determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used to monitor potential kidney damage. This study aimed to compare two commonly used algorithms for estimating GFR (eGFR) from plasma creatinine (PCr) with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance (CrCl) as a reference method. This was a retrospective single center study of 94 head and neck cancer patients treated with cisplatin...
March 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296256/estimation-of-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-elderly-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-comparison-of-three-novel-sophisticated-equations-and-simple-cystatin-c-equation
#9
Sebastjan Bevc, Nina Hojs, Radovan Hojs, Robert Ekart, Maksimiljan Gorenjak, Ludvik Puklavec
Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in elderly patients is a problem, since they are poorly represented in studies developing GFR equations. Serum cystatin C is a better indicator of GFR than serum creatinine in elderly patients. Therefore the aim of our study was to compare frequently used serum cystatin C based GFR equations with a gold standard ((51) CrEDTA clearance) in elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. 106 adult Caucasian patients, older than 65 years (58 women, 48 men; mean age 72...
March 10, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294855/-relationship-between-blood-serum-galectin-and-renal-dysfunction-in-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#10
V N Karetnikova, A V Osokina, M V Evseeva, O V Gruzdeva, M V Zykov, V V Kalaeva, V V Kashtalap, K S Shafranskaya, O N Khryachkova, O L Barbarash
AIM: to assess value for inhospital and 1 year prognosis of unfavorable course of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) of blood serum galectin and markers of renal dysfunction (RD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard laboratory and instrumental examination, calculation of glomerular filtration rate using MDRD formula and by cystatin C level, determination of galectin in blood serum were carried out in 128 patients with STEMI. According to GFR by cystatin C level on day 12 of STEMI patients were divided into 2 groups - with normal renal function (GFR more or equal 60 ml/min/1...
April 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279893/population-pharmacokinetics-and-dose-response-relationship-of-levetiracetam-in-adult-patients-with-epilepsy
#11
Su-Jin Rhee, Jung-Won Shin, SeungHwan Lee, Jangsup Moon, Tae-Joon Kim, Ki-Young Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
Levetiracetam (LEV) is commonly used as a mono- or adjunctive therapy for treating patients with partial and generalized epilepsy. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model of LEV, based on sparse data, and to explore LEV efficacy relative to its PK properties in patients with epilepsy. We included 483 LEV concentrations from 425 patients with epilepsy that received multiple oral LEV doses. We performed a population PK analysis, implemented in NONMEM (version 7.2). In addition, we explored the relationships between seizure control and PK variables (i...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276070/a-retrospective-evaluation-of-furosemide-and-mannitol-for-prevention-of-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#12
C M Mach, C Kha, D Nguyen, J Shumway, K M Meaders, M Ludwig, M Y Williams-Brown, M L Anderson
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Nephrotoxicity is a recognized side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy. However, the optimal strategy for preventing cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, if any, remains unclear. The primary objective for this study was to determine whether mannitol or furosemide provides better nephroprotection when administered with hydration prior to weekly, low-dose cisplatin concurrently with whole pelvic radiotherapy. METHODS: Clinical data were abstracted from all women who underwent chemoradiation for FIGO IB2-IVA cervical cancer at a regional safety net health system between January 2009 and December 2014...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245797/blood-pressure-and-age-related-gfr-decline-in-the-general-population
#13
Bjørn O Eriksen, Vidar T N Stefansson, Trond G Jenssen, Ulla D Mathisen, Jørgen Schei, Marit D Solbu, Tom Wilsgaard, Toralf Melsom
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important causes of end-stage renal disease, but it is unclear whether elevated blood pressure (BP) also accelerates the gradual decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) seen in the general population with increasing age. The reason may be that most studies have considered only baseline BP and not the effects of changes in BP, antihypertensive treatment and other determinants of GFR during follow-up. Additionally, the use of GFR estimated from creatinine or cystatin C instead of measurements of GFR may have biased the results because of influence from non-GFR related confounders...
February 28, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230646/effect-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-free-everolimus-based-immunosuppressive-regimen-on-albuminuria-and-glomerular-filtration-rate-after-heart-transplantation
#14
Lærke M Nelson, Arne K Andreassen, Bert Andersson, Einar Gude, Hans Eiskjær, Göran Rådegran, Göran Dellgren, Lars Gullestad, Finn Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Albuminuria in maintenance heart transplantation (HTx) is associated with poor renal response when switching to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-lowered or free immunosuppressive regimen using everolimus (EVR), but the significance of albuminuria associated with EVR treatment after early CNI withdrawal in de novo HTx is unknown. METHODS: We tested if glomerular filtration rate (mGFR, measured by CrEDTA clearance) was associated with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) post-HTx in a subgroup of patients included in the SCHEDULE trial, where de novo HTx patients (n=115) were randomized to EVR with complete CNI elimination 7-11 weeks post-HTx or standard CNI immunosuppression...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226034/omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#15
Jing Hu, Zuoliang Liu, Hao Zhang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was performed to find relevant literature. All eligible studies assessed proteinuria, the serum creatinine clearance rate, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or the occurrence of end-stage renal disease. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for continuous data were used to estimate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on renal function, as reflected by the serum creatinine clearance rate, proteinuria, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relative risk...
January 1, 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223468/high-ambulatory-arterial-stiffness-index-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-rapid-age-related-glomerular-filtration-rate-decline-in-the-general-middle-aged-population
#16
Bjørn Odvar Eriksen, Vidar Tor Nyborg Stefansson, Trond Geir Jenssen, Ulla Dorte Mathisen, Jørgen Schei, Marit Dahl Solbu, Tom Wilsgaard, Toralf Melsom
Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. However, the role of arterial stiffness as a predictor of the age-related glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline in the general population remains unresolved because of difficulty in measuring GFR with sufficient precision in epidemiological studies. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is a proposed indicator of arterial stiffness easily calculated from ambulatory blood pressure. We investigated whether AASI could predict GFR decline measured as iohexol clearance in the general population...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220472/renal-denervation-for-resistant-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Giuseppe Coppolino, Anna Pisano, Laura Rivoli, Davide Bolignano
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is highly prevalent among the general hypertensive population and the clinical management of this condition remains problematic. Different approaches, including a more intensified antihypertensive therapy, lifestyle modifications, or both, have largely failed to improve patients' outcomes and to reduce cardiovascular and renal risk. As renal sympathetic hyperactivity is a major driver of resistant hypertension, renal sympathetic ablation (renal denervation) has been recently proposed as a possible therapeutic alternative to treat this condition...
February 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218361/arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-in-patients-with-permanent-access-created-prior-to-or-after-hemodialysis-initiation
#18
Juan C Duque, Laisel Martinez, Marwan Tabbara, Denise Dvorquez, Sushil K Mehandru, Arif Asif, Roberto I Vazquez-Padron, Loay H Salman
INTRODUCTION: Multiple factors and comorbidities have been implicated in the ability of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) to mature, including vessel anatomy, advanced age, and the presence of coronary artery disease or peripheral vascular disease. However, little is known about the role of uremia on AVF primary failure. In this study, we attempt to evaluate the effect of uremia on AVF maturation by comparing AVF outcomes between pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage five patients and those who had their AVF created after hemodialysis (HD) initiation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216932/role-of-calculated-glomerular-filtration-rate-using-percutaneous-nephrostomy-creatinine-clearance-in-the-era-of-radionuclide-scintigraphy
#19
Sunil Raghunath Patil, Prakash Wamanrao Pawar, Abhishek Jaysukhbhai Savalia, Shankar Tanaji Mundhe, Sayalee Suryabhan Narwade, Ashwin Sunil Tamhankar
CONTEXT: Gates method tends to over-estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in borderline functioning kidneys. We study the role of calculated GFR in these cases in decision-making regarding performing kidney-sparing surgery or nephrectomy. AIMS: The aim of this study is to find the correlation between GFR calculated by percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) urine creatinine clearance in obstructed kidneys and GFR by radionuclide scintigraphy. It also studies the role of this calculated GFR in borderline functioning kidneys...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182038/study-of-anemia-in-nondialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease-with-special-reference-to-serum-hepcidin
#20
H Goyal, S Mohanty, M Sharma, A Rani
We studied the role of serum hepcidin in anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Serum hepcidin, ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were evaluated in patients of CKD. Hepcidin levels were increased in patients as compared to healthy adults. Hepcidin levels increased as CKD progressed through stage 3-5 (P trend = 0.015) but did not correlate with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Hepcidin correlated positively with ferritin (P < 0...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
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