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Renal measuring

Michael Z L Zhu, Andrew Martin, Andrew D Cochrane, Julian A Smith, Amanda G Thrift, Gerard K Harrop, Jennifer P Ngo, Roger G Evans
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after cardiac surgery and profoundly affects postoperative mortality and morbidity. There are no validated methods to assess risk of AKI intraoperatively. Methods: We determined the association between postoperative AKI and intraoperative urinary oxygen tension (PO2), measured via a fiber optic probe in the tip of the urinary catheter, in 65 patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)...
March 14, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Tristan Pascart, Frédéric Lioté
This review article summarizes the relevant English literature on gout from 2010 through April 2017. It emphasizes that the current epidemiology of gout indicates a rising prevalence worldwide, not only in Western countries but also in Southeast Asia, in close relationship with the obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemics. New pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hyperuricaemia focus on the gut (microbiota, ABCG2 expression) after the kidney. Cardiovascular and renal comorbidities are the key points to consider in terms of management...
March 13, 2018: Rheumatology
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Daniela Stefania Trifu, Anna Kamocka, Julia Álvarez Hernández
CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery has beneficial effects on obesity and associated comorbidities such as glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and renal and hepatic function. Nevertheless, this surgery is not free of complications and possible side effects due to restrictive and/or malabsorptive related components. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 60-year-old woman whose past medical history included morbid obesity, hypertension and Scopinaro biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with duodenal switch in 1998...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Bhavik N Patel, Alfredo Farjat, Christoph Schabel, Petar Duvnjak, Achille Mileto, Juan Carlos Ramirez-Giraldo, Daniele Marin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo the optimal threshold for renal lesion vascularity at low-energy (40-60 keV) virtual monoenergetic imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rod simulating unenhanced renal parenchymal attenuation (35 HU) was fitted with a syringe containing water. Three iodinated solutions (0.38, 0.57, and 0.76 mg I/mL) were inserted into another rod that simulated enhanced renal parenchyma (180 HU). Rods were inserted into cylindric phantoms of three different body sizes and scanned with single- and dual-energy MDCT...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Nicola Schieda, Robert S Lim, Satheesh Krishna, Matthew D F McInnes, Trevor A Flood, Rebecca E Thornhill
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate tumor attenuation and texture on unenhanced CT for potential differentiation of low-grade from high-grade chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 37 consecutive patients with chromophobe RCC (high-grade, n = 13; low-grade, n = 24) who underwent preoperative unenhanced CT between 2011 and 2016 was performed. Two radiologists (readers 1 and 2) blinded to the histologic grade of the tumor and outcome of the patients subjectively evaluated tumor homogeneity (3-point scale: completely homogeneous, mildly heterogeneous, or mostly heterogeneous)...
March 16, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Thomas Tängdén, Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Jason A Roberts, Federico Pea
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valganciclovir is used as oral prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients. However, limited pharmacokinetic data exist to guide dosing in this patient group. This study aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of valganciclovir in a large sample of kidney transplant recipients and predict optimal dosing based on Monte Carlo simulations. METHODS: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data from adult kidney transplant recipients who received valganciclovir prophylaxis during a 10-year study period were collected retrospectively...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Hai-Tao Hou, Ya-Nan Wang, Shi-Ze Shao, Song Fu, Xiang-Peng Huang, Xiao-Hui Wang
Dietary calcium (Ca) supplementation has beneficial effects on bone health. However, it is not clear whether a high calcium diet (HCD) following 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) is beneficial to bone health. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an HCD on bone metabolism using a chronic kidney disease (CKD) mouse model. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: Sham group, 5/6 Nx group and 5/6 Nx + HCD group. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks post-surgery. Calcium (Ca) and creatinine (Cr) were measured using standard colorimetric methods and picric acid methods, respectively...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Margarita Braunagel, Florian Ortner, Ulf Schönermarck, Antje Habicht, Andreas Schindler, Manfred Stangl, Frederik F Strobl, Maximilian Reiser, Dirk A Clevert, Christoph Trumm, Andreas Helck
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess an optimized renal multiphase computed tomography angiography (MP-CTA) protocol regarding reduction of contrast volume. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients underwent MP-CTA (12 phases, every 3.5 seconds, 80 kV/120 mAs) using 30 mL of contrast medium. The quality of MP-CTA was assessed quantitatively measuring vessel attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio. MP-CTA was evaluated qualitatively regarding depiction of vessels, cortex differentiation, and motion artifacts (grades 1-4, 1 = best)...
March 12, 2018: Academic Radiology
Tereza Kmentova, Anna Valerianova, Lucie Kovarova, Jana Lachmanova, Zuzana Hladinova, Jan Malik
BACKGROUND: Creation of vascular access leads to considerable local haemodynamic changes with decreased hand perfusion. Distal limb tissues then represent a model of hand ischaemia effect on muscles. The aim of our study was to investigate how the presence of vascular access influences the hand muscle strength in end-stage renal disease patients. METHODS: We included 52 chronically haemodialysed patients with upper limb access without clinical signs of hand ischaemia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Yuhui Yang, Xue Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Hui Fu, Ying Gao, Xing Liu, Xiaoliang Jiang
Background and objective: Chronic inflammatory is involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PSGL-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Methods and results: In this study, we used PSGL-1-/- and PSGL-1+/+ mice fed with high salt diet to measure the blood pressure, inflammatory response and vascular injury. We found that, in PSGL-1+/+ mice, high salt diet resulted in high blood pressure with the increased expression of serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNFɑ, vascular injury markers MCP-1, ET-1, and VWF, and renal macrophages and T cells infiltration, and endothelium-dependent acetylcholine vasodilation dysfunction...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
N R Hill, H T Cook, C D Pusey, R M Tarzi
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing glomerular lesions are a feature of severe glomerulonephritis. Unlike apoptosis, cellular necrosis has the potential to release damage-associated proteins into the microenvironment, thereby potentiating inflammation. Until recently necrosis was thought to be an unregulated cellular response to injury. However, recent evidence suggests that under certain circumstances receptor mediated necrosis occurs in response to death ligand signalling, one form of which is termed necroptosis...
March 14, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Fen Chen, Shulin Li, Dong Sun
Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) has recently been utilized as a noninvasive tool for evaluating renal oxygenation. Several methods have been proposed for analyzing BOLD images. Regional ROI selection is the earliest and most widely used method for BOLD analysis. In the last 20 years, many investigators have used this method to evaluate cortical and medullary oxygenation in patients with ischemic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury and renal allograft rejection...
March 8, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Nicole A Pilch, Vinayak Rohan, Vinaya Rao, Patrick D Mauldin, Zemin Su, Derek A Dubay, Thomas A Morinelli, David J Taber
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been performed to evaluate surrogate markers of long-term allograft function in renal transplant recipients. These include serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), slope of eGFR, and more recently eGFR variability. The aim of this study was to measure eGFR slope while assessing the variability of this slope and if high variability occurring at any time post-transplant was predictive of poorer long-term outcomes in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Bernadette O Erokwu, Christian E Anderson, Chris A Flask, Katherine M Dell
BACKGROUND: Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity and there are currently no disease-specific treatments available for ARPKD patients. One major limitation in establishing new therapies for ARPKD is a lack of sensitive measures of kidney disease progression. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide multiple quantitative assessments of disease. METHODS: We applied quantitative image analysis of high resolution (non-contrast) T2-weighted MRI techniques to study cystic kidney disease progression and response to therapy in the PCK rat model of ARPKD...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Yong-Soon Cho, Yook-Hwan Noh, Hyeong-Seok Lim, Sang-Heon Cho, Jong-Lyul Ghim, Sangmin Choe, Soon-Bae Kim, Jung-Sik Park, Sang-Koo Lee, Won-Seok Yang, Jai-Won Chang, Mi-Young Bahng, Kyun-Seop Bae
Udenafil is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction. Although udenafil is not predominantly eliminated by the kidney, renal impairment can alter its secretion/transport pathways. Drug pharmacokinetics and safety must therefore be assessed in subjects with a renal impairment. We investigated the effects of impaired renal function on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single 100-mg oral dose of udenafil in a single-dose, open-label, parallel-group study of 31 subjects. Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance was used to stratify these subjects into healthy controls (>80 mL·min-1 ) and individuals with mild (50 to ≤80 mL·min-1 ), moderate (30 to ≤50 mL·min-1 ), and severe (<30 mL·min-1 ) renal impairment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Chang-Hua Li, Wen-Liang Chen, Guang-Mao Lin
OBJECTIVE: To study the risk factors of perioperative heart failure in the elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture by the regression analysis, so as to provide relevant clinical reference. METHODS: From July 2012 to April 2017, 143 elderly patients with femoral shaft fracture who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital were retrospectively studied. Among them, 25 patients with perioperative heart failure included 10 males and 15 females with a mean age of (77...
February 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Hisayo Fujita, Seiji Matsuoka, Midori Awazu
BACKGROUND: Increase in blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events, target organ damage, and arterial stiffness in adults. We previously reported that 24-h BPV may be associated with arterial stiffness and underlie white-coat hypertension (WCH). In this study, we examined whether visit-to-visit variability (VVV) could predict WCH and whether VVV correlated with eGFR, eGFR slope, and albuminuria/proteinuria in children and adolescents with renal diseases...
March 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Yoshitaka Isaka, Hideki Fujii, Yoshihiro Tsujimoto, Satoshi Teramukai, Takayuki Hamano
BACKGROUND: In dialysis patients, mortality risk due to cardiovascular diseases is remarkably high and prognosis is poor; coronary artery calcification is considered one of the major contributing factors. It is known that hyperphosphatemia is associated with coronary artery calcification. Therefore, controlling serum phosphate level and thereby mitigating vascular calcification could improve the poor prognosis of dialysis patients. However, the optimal phosphate level in dialysis patients remains unknown; hence, this study was planned to compare the effects of two types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders, and examine the effect of strict control of phosphate on coronary artery calcification...
March 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
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