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Neurology Resident

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069497/a-modified-collagen-scaffold-facilitates-endogenous-neurogenesis-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#1
Caixia Fan, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Hui Liang, Bin Wang, Sufang Han, Xiaoran Li, Bai Xu, Nuo Wang, Sumei Liu, Weiwei Xue, Jianwu Dai
Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063597/living-near-major-roads-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-sclerosis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Paul J Villeneuve, Aaron van Donkelaar, Perry Hystad, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Barry Jessiman, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that living near major roads might adversely affect cognition. However, little is known about its relationship with the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. We aimed to investigate the association between residential proximity to major roadways and the incidence of these three neurological diseases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we assembled two population-based cohorts including all adults aged 20-50 years (about 4·4 million; multiple sclerosis cohort) and all adults aged 55-85 years (about 2·2 million; dementia or Parkinson's disease cohort) who resided in Ontario, Canada on April 1, 2001...
January 4, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039266/malignant-astrocytic-tumor-progression-potentiated-by-jak-mediated-recruitment-of-myeloid-cells
#3
Prajwal Rajappa, William S Cobb, Emma Vartanian, Yujie Huang, Laura Daly, Caitlin Hoffman, Jane Zhang, Beiyi Shen, Rachel Yanowitch, Kunal Garg, Babacar Cisse, Sara Haddock, Jason T Huse, David J Pisapia, Timothy A Chan, David Lyden, Jacqueline Bromberg, Jeffrey P Greenfield
PURPOSE: While the tumor microenvironment has been known to play an integral role in tumor progression, the function of non-resident bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) remains to be determined in neurological tumors. Here we identified the contribution of BMDC recruitment in mediating malignant transformation from low- to high-grade gliomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed human blood and tumor samples from patients with low- and high-grade gliomas. A spontaneous platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) murine glioma model (RCAS) was utilized to recapitulate human disease progression...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025896/challenges-in-implementation-of-the-new-accreditation-system
#4
Terri B Feist, Julia L Campbell, Julie A LaBare, Donald L Gilbert
Despite major changes in US Graduate Medical Education, from Core Competencies (2002) to the Next Accreditation System (2012), few studies have evaluated the role of the Residency Coordinator in program accreditation. This role may be especially challenging in child neurology, which involves separate, accredited child and adult neurology residencies. The present study of Child Neurology Program Coordinators evaluated workforce factors and first-year implementation of new training requirements. The response rate was 65% (48/74)...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012438/on-the-nature-of-the-cu-rich-aggregates-in-brain-astrocytes
#5
Brendan Sullivan, Gregory Robison, Jenna Osborn, Martin Kay, Peter Thompson, Katherine Davis, Taisiya Zakharova, Olga Antipova, Yulia Pushkar
Fulfilling a bevy of biological roles, copper is an essential metal for healthy brain function. Cu dyshomeostasis has been demonstrated to be involved in some neurological conditions including Menkes and Alzheimer's diseases. We have previously reported localized Cu-rich aggregates in astrocytes of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in rodent brains with Cu concentrations in the hundreds of millimolar. Metallothionein, a cysteine-rich protein critical to metal homeostasis and known to participate in a variety of neuroprotective and neuroregenerative processes, was proposed as a binding protein...
December 9, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005425/a-hidden-epithelial-barrier-in-the-brain-with-a-central-role-in-regulating-brain-homeostasis-implications-for-aging
#6
Roosmarijn E Vandenbroucke
Despite increasing interest the last years, the choroid plexus still is a relatively understudied tissue in neuroscience. The choroid plexus contains fenestrated capillaries surrounded by tightly connected choroid plexus epithelial cells that form the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The choroid plexus is the main source of cerebrospinal fluid production, assures removal of toxic waste products, and acts as gatekeeper of the brain by the presence of resident inflammatory cells. Increasing evidence shows that choroid plexus' dysfunction, via altered secretory, transport, immune, and barrier function, plays a central role in a very diverse set of clinical conditions such as aging and the age-associated Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#7
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992429/high-prevalence-of-asymptomatic-neurocysticercosis-in-an-endemic-rural-community-in-peru
#8
Luz M Moyano, Seth E O'Neal, Viterbo Ayvar, Guillermo Gonzalvez, Ricardo Gamboa, Percy Vilchez, Silvia Rodriguez, Joe Reistetter, Victor C W Tsang, Robert H Gilman, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990473/a-station-based-concept-for-teaching-the-neurological-examination-a-prospective-quasi-experimental-study
#9
Jochen Brich, Michael Rijntjes
Background: The neurological examination is considered to be complex and contributes to the phenomenon of "neurophobia". It is traditionally taught in small groups by residents ("traditional concept"), making the learning success partially dependent on the resident's level of clinical training, didactic education and personal motivation. Aim of this study was to examine the effects of a newly developed concept ("station concept") for teaching the neurological examination on achieving an improved and more equal transfer of knowledge and practical skills...
2016: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987324/tudca-an-agonist-of-the-bile-acid-receptor-gpbar1-tgr5-with-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-microglial-cells
#10
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Bile acids are steroid acids found in the bile of mammals. The bile acid conjugate tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is neuroprotective in different animal models of stroke and neurological diseases. We have previously shown that TUDCA has anti-inflammatory effects on glial cell cultures and in a mouse model of acute neuroinflammation. We show now that microglial cells (central nervous system resident macrophages) express the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1/ Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (GPBAR1/TGR5) in vivo and in vitro...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964720/somatic-comorbidity-among-migrants-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-a-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Mette Lolk, Stine Byberg, Jessica Carlsson, Marie Norredam
BACKGROUND: In a cohort of migrants in Denmark, we compared somatic disease incidence among migrants diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with migrants without a diagnosed psychiatric disorder. METHODS: The study builds on a unique cohort of migrants who obtained residence permit in Denmark from 1993 to 2010 (N = 92,104). The association with somatic disease was explored via register linkage. We used Poisson regression to model incidence rate ratios (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, income and region of origin...
December 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959996/us-county-level-trends-in-mortality-rates-for-major-causes-of-death-1980-2014
#12
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Rebecca W Stubbs, Chloe Morozoff, Michael J Kutz, Chantal Huynh, Ryan M Barber, Katya A Shackelford, Johan P Mackenbach, Frank J van Lenthe, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: County-level patterns in mortality rates by cause have not been systematically described but are potentially useful for public health officials, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve health and reduce geographic disparities. Objectives: To demonstrate the use of a novel method for county-level estimation and to estimate annual mortality rates by US county for 21 mutually exclusive causes of death from 1980 through 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: Redistribution methods for garbage codes (implausible or insufficiently specific cause of death codes) and small area estimation methods (statistical methods for estimating rates in small subpopulations) were applied to death registration data from the National Vital Statistics System to estimate annual county-level mortality rates for 21 causes of death...
13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955837/child-neurology-recruitment-and-training-views-of-residents-and-child-neurologists-from-the-2015-aap-cns-workforce-survey
#13
Donald L Gilbert, Paul S Horn, Peter B Kang, Mark Mintz, Sucheta M Joshi, Holly Ruch-Ross, James F Bale
BACKGROUND: To assess and compare resident and practicing child neurologists' attitudes regarding recruitment and residency training in child neurology. METHODS: A joint task force of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey of child neurology residents (n = 305), practicing child neurologists (n = 1290), and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists (n = 30) in 2015. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#14
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926687/an-initiative-to-standardize-the-identification-of-and-acute-response-to-postoperative-lower-extremity-neurological-deficits-effects-on-provider-knowledge-confidence-and-communication-skills
#15
Peter B Derman, Sravisht Iyer, Matthew Garner, Steven Orr, Karla J Felix, Allison Goldberg, Titilayo Ologhobo, Minlun Wu, Laura Robbins, Charles Cornell
BACKGROUND: Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. METHODS: A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908656/child-neurology-residency-finding-the-right-fit
#16
Jonathan D Santoro, Paul G Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#17
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902351/protective-role-of-cx3cr1-signaling-in-resident-cells-of-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#18
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
CX3CR1 is an important chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of microglia and blood leukocytes including monocytes. Signaling through this receptor influences the immune activity of microglia and monocytes trafficking into the central nervous system (CNS) in several neurological diseases. During experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE), CX3CR1 deficiency has been reported to exacerbate the outcome of the disease. However, the precise contribution of CX3CR1 expressed in resident cells of the CNS or peripheral monocytes in protection against HSE remains unclear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899532/long-term-management-for-ventilator-assisted-children-in-hong-kong-2-decades-experience
#19
Shuk-Kuen Chau, Ada Wing-Yan Yung, So-Lun Lee
BACKGROUND: The population of children receiving long-term mechanical ventilation is growing worldwide, but only limited data exist in Asian regions. The objective of the study was to review the management of these children in Hong Kong over the past 2 decades. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital records from subjects receiving mechanical ventilation for >3 months were retrieved. Demographic characteristics and medical information of subjects (≤21 y old) under the care of the ventilator program at the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital between 1997 and 2015 were reviewed...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893672/risk-factors-of-severe-hypoglycemia-requiring-medical-assistance-and-neurological-sequelae-in-patients-with-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#20
Ja Young Jeon, Se Ran Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee, Jung-Dong Lee, Seung Jin Han
Hypoglycemia commonly occurs in patients who are being treated for diabetes. In some cases, these patients suffer from severe hypoglycemia that requires medical assistance and which can unfortunately result in long-term disabilities. Therefore, we investigated risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance (HMA) and the resulting neurological sequelae in patients with diabetes. This investigation was a case-control study that assessed 129 patients with diabetes and documented hypoglycemia from a single tertiary hospital between February 2013 and May 2015...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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