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Neurology Resident

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168789/lead-emissions-and-population-vulnerability-in-the-detroit-michigan-usa-metropolitan-area-2006-2013-a-spatial-and-temporal-analysis
#1
Heather Moody, Sue C Grady
Objective: The purpose of this research is to geographically model airborne lead emission concentrations and total lead deposition in the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA) from 2006 to 2013. Further, this study characterizes the racial and socioeconomic composition of recipient neighborhoods and estimates the potential for IQ (Intelligence Quotient) loss of children residing there. Methods: Lead emissions were modeled from emitting facilities in the DMA using AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162061/medical-student-attitudes-and-educational-interventions-to-prevent-neurophobia-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Lisa Shiels, Pratish Majmundar, Aleksander Zywot, John Sobotka, Christine S M Lau, Tuula O Jalonen
BACKGROUND: With an aging American population, the burden of neurologic disease is intensifying and the decline in neurology residents and practicing neurologists is leaving these patients helpless and unable to find care. 'Neurophobia', a chronic illness that begins early in medical school, has been identified as a cause for the low number of neurology residents. METHODS: A longitudinal study surveyed medical students at the beginning of their first year (M1) and then again at the beginning of their second year (M2)...
November 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160858/hyperplanar-morphological-clustering-of-a-hippocampus-by-using-volumetric-computerized-tomography-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Sarawut Suksuphew, Paramate Horkeaw
Background: On diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD), most existing imaging-based schemes have relied on analyzing the hippocampus and its peripheral structures. Recent studies have confirmed that volumetric variations are one of the primary indicators in differentiating symptomatic AD from healthy aging. In this study, we focused on deriving discriminative shape-based parameters that could effectively identify early AD from volumetric computerized tomography (VCT) delineation, which was previously almost intangible...
November 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155976/description-of-a-mass-poisoning-in-a-rural-district-in-mozambique-the-first-documented-bongkrekic-acid-poisoning-in-africa
#4
Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kyla Cook, Amelia M Kasper, Alfredo Vergara, Cristolde Salomão, Fernanda Oliveira, Hamida Ismael, Cristovão Saeze, Carla Mosse, Quinhas Fernandes, Sofia Omar Viegas, Cynthia S Baltazar, Timothy J Doyle, Ellen Yard, Alaina Steck, Mayda Serret, Travis M Falconer, Sara E Kern, Jennifer L Brzezinski, James A Turner, Brian L Boyd, Ilesh V Jani
Background: On January 9, 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, over 230 people became sick and 75 died from an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage. Methods: An investigation was conducted to identify cases and determine the cause of the outbreak. A case was defined as any resident of Chitima who developed any new or unexplained neurologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular symptom from January 9 at 6:00 a.m. through January 12. We conducted medical record reviews; healthcare worker and community surveys; anthropological and toxicological investigations of local medicinal plants and commercial pesticides; and laboratory testing of the suspect and control pombe...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116817/perceptions-of-a-psychoeducation-program-for-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-at-end-of-life-a-qualitative-study
#5
Pamela Durepos, Sharon Kaasalainen, Sandra Carroll, Alexandra Papaioannou
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers (CG) of persons with dementia have described positive and challenging experiences related to caring for a person with a neurological disease. This study explored perceived benefits and challenges of a unique psychoeducation program provided at end of life (EOL) jointly attended by current and bereaved CGs of persons with dementia, residing in a hospital Specialized Care Unit. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were held with sixteen participants and analyzed with content analysis...
November 8, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116720/the-croatian-model-of-integrative-prospective-management-of-epilepsy-and-pregnancy
#6
Snježana Miškov, Romana Gjergja Juraški, Ivan Mikula, Silvio Bašić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Vesna Košec, Zlatko Sabol, Aleksandra Fučić, Tomislav Sajko, Vanja Bašić Kes
Epilepsy is the most common neurological complication in pregnancy. Women with epilepsy have a higher risk of complications in pregnancy. In Croatia, women with epilepsy are treated by neurologists at tertiary centers according to the place of residence. We prospectively followed-up pregnancies in women with epilepsy and healthy controls, and analyzed the factors responsible for their delivery outcomes and development of their babies. Healthy pregnant women had a higher level of education and economic status, but pregnant women with epilepsy took folic acid in a higher proportion than controls, possibly due to timely preconception counseling...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111451/brain-immune-interactions-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111352/use-of-antibiotics-in-paediatric-long-term-care-facilities
#8
Meghan T Murray, Candace L Johnson, Bevin Cohen, Olivia Jackson, Laney K Jones, Lisa Saiman, Elaine L Larson, Natalie Neu
BACKGROUND: Adult long term care (LTC) have high rates of antibiotic use, raising concerns about antimicrobial resistance. Few studies have examined antibiotic use in paediatric LTC. AIM: We sought to describe antibiotic use in three paediatric LTC facilities and to describe the factors associated with use. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted September 2012 - December 2015 in three paediatric LTC facilities. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, healthcare-associated infections (HAI), antimicrobial use, and diagnostic testing...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110250/treatment-with-the-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-in-the-early-post-ischemia-phase-inhibits-pro-inflammatory-responses-and-promotes-neurogenesis-via-the-activation-of-innate-and-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-in-rats
#10
Tomoya Kinouchi, Kenji Shimada, Kenji Yagi, Yoshiteru Tada, Nobuhisa Matsushita, Yoshitaka Kurashiki, Junichiro Satomi, Masataka Sata, Shinji Nagahiro
Neurogenesis is essential for a good post-stroke outcome. Exogenous stem cells are currently being tested to promote neurogenesis after stroke. Elsewhere, we demonstrated that treatment with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PGZ) before cerebral ischemia induction reduced brain damage and activated survival-related genes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here, we tested our hypothesis that post-ischemia treatment with PGZ inhibits brain damage and contributes to neurogenesis via activated stem cells. Bone marrow (BM) cells of 7-week-old Wistar female rats were replaced with BM cells from green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP(+BM)) rats...
November 6, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110213/correction-to-neuroimmune-response-in-ischemic-preconditioning
#11
Ashley McDonough, Jonathan R Weinstein
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a robust neuroprotective phenomenon in which a brief period of cerebral ischemia confers transient tolerance to subsequent ischemic challenge. Research on IPC has implicated cellular, molecular, and systemic elements of the immune response in this phenomenon. Potent molecular mediators of IPC include innate immune signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptors and type 1 interferons. Brain ischemia results in release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate the neuroinflammatory response, resolution of inflammation, and transition to neurological recovery and regeneration...
November 6, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107161/evaluation-of-problem-and-simulator-based-learning-on-lumbar-puncture-of-adult-neurology-residency-training
#12
Chenjing Sun, Xiaokun Qi
BACKGROUND: Lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential part of adult neurology residency training. It needs not only technological training but also non-technological training. However, the current assessment tools basically focus on the operated technology of LP. We propose a better training method-problem and simulator-based learning (PSBL) on LP residency training to develop overall skills of neurology residents. METHODS: We enrolled 60 neurology postgraduate-year-1 residents (PGY-1s) from our standardized residents training center and randomly divided them into two groups: the traditional teaching group and PSBL group...
October 26, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103040/association-of-low-level-ozone-with-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#13
Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Manuel Cifuentes, Georges Grinstein, Doug Brugge, Thomas B Shea
Increasing evidence points to an association of airborne pollutant exposure with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological pathology. We examined whether or not ground-level ozone or fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) was associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Using repeated measures mixed regression modeling, we analyzed cognitive performance of a geographically diverse sampling of individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center between 2004-2008. Ambient air concentrations of ozone and PM2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101377/a-high-throughput-model-for-investigating-neuronal-function-and-synaptic-transmission-in-cultured-neuronal-networks
#14
Jasmeet K Virdee, Gabriella Saro, Antoine Fouillet, Jeremy Findlay, Filipa Ferreira, Sarah Eversden, Michael J O'Neill, Joanna Wolak, Daniel Ursu
Loss of synapses or alteration of synaptic activity is associated with cognitive impairment observed in a number of psychiatric and neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore successful development of in vitro methods that can investigate synaptic function in a high-throughput format could be highly impactful for neuroscience drug discovery. We present here the development, characterisation and validation of a novel high-throughput in vitro model for assessing neuronal function and synaptic transmission in primary rodent neurons...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100047/prevalence-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-in-the-multi-ethnic-penang-island-malaysia-and-a-review-of-worldwide-prevalence
#15
Jyh Yung Hor, Thien Thien Lim, Yuen Kang Chia, Yee Ming Ching, Chun Fai Cheah, Kenny Tan, Han Bing Chow, Masita Arip, Gaik Bee Eow, P E Samuel Easaw, M Isabel Leite
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) occurs worldwide in all ethnicities. Recently, population-based studies have shown that NMOSD is more common among non-White populations. There is scarce data about NMOSD prevalence in South East Asian populations. METHODS: (1) A population-based study was undertaken to estimate NMOSD prevalence in the multi-ethnic Penang Island, Malaysia, comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Medical records of NMOSD patients followed up at the Penang General Hospital (the neurology referral centre in Penang Island) were reviewed...
October 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099299/perfusion-based-human-cadaveric-specimen-as-a-simulation-training-model-in-repairing-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks-during-endoscopic-endonasal-skull-base-surgery
#16
Eisha A Christian, Joshua Bakhsheshian, Ben A Strickland, Vance L Fredrickson, Ian A Buchanan, Martin H Pham, Andrew Cervantes, Michael Minneti, Bozena B Wrobel, Steven Giannotta, Gabriel Zada
OBJECTIVE Competency in endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) to repair high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks is an essential component of the neurosurgical training process. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a simulation model for EEA repair of anterior skull base CSF leaks. METHODS Human cadaveric specimens were utilized with a perfusion system to simulate a high-flow CSF leak. Neurological surgery residents (postgraduate year 3 or greater) performed a standard EEA to repair a CSF leak using a combination of fat, fascia lata, and pedicled nasoseptal flaps...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095771/the-3-m-backwards-walk-and-retrospective-falls-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-novel-clinical-measure
#17
Valerie Carter, Tarang Jain, Jodi James, Mark Cornwall, Anne Aldrich, Hendrik D de Heer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several measures of fall risk have been previously developed and include forward walking, turning, and stepping motions. However, recent research has demonstrated that backwards walking is more sensitive at identifying age-related changes in mobility and balance compared with forward walking. No clinical test of backwards walking currently exists. Therefore, this article describes a novel clinical test of backwards walking, the 3-m backwards walk (3MBW), and assessed whether it was associated with 1-year retrospective falls in a population of healthy older adults...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093546/socio-demographic-and-injury-related-factors-contributing-to-activity-limitations-and-participation-restrictions-in-people-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-bangladesh
#18
Manzur Kader, Nirmala K P Perera, Mohammad Sohrab Hossain, Redwanul Islam
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To identify socio-demographic and injury-related factors that contribute to activity limitations and participation restrictions in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Bangladesh. SETTING: Centre for the Rehabilitation of the Paralysed (CRP), Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: This study involved 120 (83% men) participants with SCI; their median (interquartile range) age and injury duration were 34 (25-43) years and 5 (2-10) years, respectively...
November 2, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074422/suboccipital-craniotomy-versus-craniectomy-a-survey-of-practice-patterns
#19
Elizabeth N Kuhn, Gustavo Chagoya, Bonita S Agee, Mark R Harrigan
OBJECT: Open surgical access to the posterior fossa has traditionally been achieved by permanent bone removal and remains the mainstay of posterior fossa surgery, although craniotomy is an alternative. Considerable variation exists at both the national and international levels within a variety of neurological and neurosurgical disciplines. In this study we surveyed current practice patterns regarding preference of suboccipital craniotomy or craniectomy. METHODS: The membership directory of the American Academy of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) was reviewed...
October 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068792/neurodevelopmental-and-neurological-effects-of-chemicals-associated-with-unconventional-oil-and-natural-gas-operations-and-their-potential-effects-on-infants-and-children
#20
REVIEW
Ellen Webb, Julie Moon, Larysa Dyrszka, Brian Rodriguez, Caroline Cox, Heather Patisaul, Sheila Bushkin, Eric London
Heavy metals (arsenic and manganese), particulate matter (PM), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been linked to significant neurodevelopmental health problems in infants, children and young adults. These substances are widely used in, or become byproducts of unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) development and operations. Every stage of the UOG lifecycle, from well construction to extraction, operations, transportation and distribution can lead to air and water contamination...
October 25, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
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