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Neurology Resident

John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Markus Kneihsl, Christian Enzinger, Kurt Niederkorn, Gerit Wünsch, Lisa Müller, Valeriu Culea, Andreas Lueger, Franz Fazekas, Thomas Gattringer
BACKGROUND: Stroke has become a treatable condition with increasing evidence of treatment benefits in older people. However, stroke mimics in geriatric patients are especially prevalent, causing incorrect suspicion and consecutive burden to patients and emergency room resources. We therefore examined the dimension of this problem by investigating emergency room admissions from nursing homes for suspected stroke. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all nursing home residents who were admitted to the neurological emergency room of our primary and tertiary care university hospital between 2013 and 2015...
March 14, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Aroon La-Up, Phongtape Wiwatanadate, Sureeporn Uthaikhup, Sakda Pruenglampoo
Cadmium exposure is known to cause adverse health effects in different organs of the human body but whether the effects result in chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) remain inclusive. The present study, therefore, aims to examine the relationship between urinary cadmium levels and CMP. An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted in two areas having different levels of cadmium contamination for comparison. The subjects enrolled into the study were individuals ages 18 and above who have lived in the studied areas for 1 year or more...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Diane C McLaughlin, Margaret M Margretta, William D Freeman
INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that a nocturnist advanced practice provider (APP) model compared with overnight neurocritical care coverage with general critical care physicians and neurology residents would provide similar patient outcomes, as measured by patient mortality. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of healthcare outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients from 2013 and 2016, after implementation of specialty-trained neurocritical care nocturnist APPs...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Jyoti Roy, Bibekanand Mallick
Remarkable attempts have been exercised in recent years using high-throughput technologies to identify and decipher the functions of piRNAs in various abnormalities like cancer. However, piRNAs in the oncogenesis of neuroblastoma (NB) has not been reported yet even after their illustrated roles in neurological processes. Therefore, we investigated the piRNA transcriptome in IMR-32 and SH-SY-5Y NB cell lines by employing high-throughput next-generation sequencing after confirming the expression of three associated PIWILs both at mRNAs and protein level by qRT-PCR and immunofluroscence respectively...
March 8, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Michael T Halpern, Heather Kane, Stephanie Teixeira-Poit, Corey Ford, Barbara Giesser, June Halper, Shana Johnson, Nicholas G LaRocca, Aaron Miller, Steven P Ringel
Background: Anecdotal reports suggest shortages among neurologists who provide multiple sclerosis (MS) patient care. However, little information is available regarding the current and future supply of and demand for this neurologist workforce. Methods: We used information from neurologist and neurology resident surveys, professional organizations, and previously reported studies to develop a model assessing the projected supply and demand (ie, expected physician visits) of neurologists providing MS patient care...
January 2018: International Journal of MS Care
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Danny Mollerup Sørensen, Tine Holemans, Sarah van Veen, Shaun Martin, Tugce Arslan, Ida Winther Haagendahl, Henrik Waldal Holen, Norin Nabil Hamouda, Jan Eggermont, Michael Palmgren, Peter Vangheluwe
Several human P5-type transport ATPases are implicated in neurological disorders, but little is known about their physiological function and properties. Here, we investigated the relationship between the five mammalian P5 isoforms ATP13A1-5 in a comparative study. We demonstrated that ATP13A1-4 isoforms undergo autophosphorylation, which is a hallmark P-type ATPase property that is required for substrate transport. A phylogenetic analysis of P5 sequences revealed that ATP13A1 represents clade P5A, which is highly conserved between fungi and animals with one member in each investigated species...
2018: PloS One
Magdalena Bełdowska, Dominika Saniewska, Karolina Gębka, Urszula Kwasigroch, Ewa Korejwo, Justyna Kobos
The threat connected to mercury results from its capacity to be transported over long distances and its ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the trophic chain, making it a global problem. Humans are situated at the top of the trophic ladder, and excess mercury manifests itself mainly in the onset of neurological conditions. The toxicity of mercury, as well as its residence time, depends on the form in which it occurs. However, analysis of mercury speciation is time-consuming and poses a high risk of additional or negative contamination...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Alena Randáková, Vladimír Rudajev, Vladimír Doležal, John Boulos, Jan Jakubík
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop potent and long-acting antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 4-hexyloxy and 4-butyloxy derivatives of 1-[2-(4-oxidobenzoyloxy)ethyl]-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-1-ium were synthesized and tested for biological activity. Antagonists with long- residence time at receptors are therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric human diseases. Their long acting effects allow for reduced daily doses and adverse effects...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Kathleen Sullivan, Harry Pantazopoulos, Elizabeth Liebson, T-U W Woo, Ross J Baldessarini, John Hedreen, Sabina Berretta
Postmortem studies on the human brain reside at the core of investigations on neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Ground-breaking advances continue to be made on the pathologic basis of many of these disorders, at molecular, cellular, and neural connectivity levels. In parallel, there is increasing emphasis on improving methods to extract relevant demographic and clinical information about brain donors and, importantly, translate it into measures that can reliably and effectively be incorporated in the design and data analysis of postmortem human investigations...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Cláudia Saraiva, Daniela Talhada, Akhilesh Rai, Raquel Ferreira, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, Karsten Ruscher
There is a high quest for novel therapeutic strategies to enhance recovery after stroke. MicroRNA-124 (miR-124) has been described as neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory molecule. Moreover, miR-124 is a well described enhancer of adult neurogenesis that could offer potentially beneficial effects. Herein, we used miR-124-loaded nanoparticles (miR-124 NPs) to evaluate their therapeutic potential in an in vitro and in vivo model of stroke. For that, neuroprotective and neurogenic responses were assessed in an in vitro model of stroke...
2018: PloS One
Chia-Chun Chiang, Oana M Dumitrascu, Dean M Wingerchuk, Cumara B O'Carroll
BACKGROUND: Acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is a devastating, life-threatening condition that accounts for approximately 1% of all strokes. Currently, there is no consensus on the best treatment strategy for patients with BAO. Whereas endovascular reperfusion therapy is proven to improve outcomes in anterior circulation stroke, its benefit in acute BAO has not been confirmed in randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE: To critically assess the current evidence regarding recanalization in acute BAO, and to discuss the outcomes of different treatment strategies in the management of acute BAO...
March 2018: Neurologist
Louise Vera Hilmer, Kee Bum Park, Iv Vycheth, Michael Wirsching
Introduction: Cerebral contusions are a common type of injury among the Cambodian population, mostly due to road traffic accidents. This article aims to assess various aspects around brain contusion focusing on the condition at admission, residing province, mechanism and time of injury, age and sex distribution with differing helmet wearing, and alcohol consumption patterns. Hospitalization-related data such as treatment and outcome were analyzed. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 406 cases who have been admitted during the period between May 2013 and May 2016...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Sanaz Nasoohi, Saifudeen Ismael, Tauheed Ishrat
Neurological diseases, including acute attacks (e.g., ischemic stroke) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), have always been one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These debilitating diseases represent an enormous disease burden, not only in terms of health suffering but also in economic costs. Although the clinical presentations differ for these diseases, a growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in brain tissue significantly contribute to their pathology...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Michael R Pranzatelli, Tyler J Allison, Nathan R McGee, Elizabeth D Tate
Studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) γδ T cells in children are limited, especially due to the lack of control data. In adults, gamma/delta T cells (TCR-γδ) residing in the intrathecal space are sometimes involved in neuroinflammation. To evaluate the possible role of γδ T cells in pediatric neuroinflammation, we immunophenotyped CSF and blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry in a case-control study of 100 children with non-inflammatory neurologic disorders (NIND), 312 with opsoclonus-myoclonus (OMS), and 23 with other inflammatory neurologic disorders (OIND)...
February 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
P J Garcia-Ruiz, P Sanz-Cartagena, J C Martinez-Castrillo, B Ares-Pensado, I Aviles-Olmos, M Blazquez-Estrada, S Fanjul-Arbos, J Garcia-Caldentey, J Gazulla, J Gutierrez-Garcia, B Huete-Anton, C Lucas-Rodenas, M R Luquin, I Martinez-Torres, P Medialdea-Natera, A Mendoza-Rodriguez, P Mir-Rivera, I J Posada, J Ruiz-Martinez, P Sanchez-Alonso, J M Trejo-Gabriel Y Galan, L Vela, J L Pena-Segura
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is a bacterial endotoxin, whose therapeutic use has had a dramatic impact on different neurological disorders, such as dystonia and spasticity. AIM: To analyze and summarize different questions about the use of BTA in our clinical practice. DEVELOPMENT: A group of experts in neurology developed a list of topics related with the use of BTA. Two groups were considered: neuropharmacology and dystonia...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Mohamed Macki, Mohamed Fakih, Pridvi Kandagatla, Ilan Rubinfeld, Victor Chang
OBJECTIVE: Because of the healthcare initiative on quality improvement projects in academic healthcare, this study explores the impact of different postgraduate years (PGYs) on unexpected re-operation rates. METHODS: Using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2014, adult neurosurgical cases were divided into subspecialties: spine, open-vascular, cranial, and functional. Comparison groups: cases involving junior residents [PGY 1-PGY 3], mid-level residents [PGY 4+PGY 5], and senior residents [PGY 6+PGY 7]...
February 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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