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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303920/the-golgi-protein-acbd3-facilitates-enterovirus-71-replication-by-interacting-with-3a
#1
Xiaobo Lei, Xia Xiao, Zhenzhen Zhang, Yijie Ma, Jianli Qi, Chao Wu, Yan Xiao, Zhuo Zhou, Bin He, Jianwei Wang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human pathogen that causes hand, foot, mouth disease and neurological complications. Although EV71, as well as other enteroviruses, initiates a remodeling of intracellular membrane for genomic replication, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. By screening human cDNA library, we uncover that the Golgi resident protein acyl-coenzyme A binding domain-containing 3 (ACBD3) serves as a target of the 3A protein of EV71. This interaction occurs in cells expressing 3A or infected with EV71...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291057/mild-cognitive-impairment-and-exposure-to-general-anesthesia-for-surgeries-and-procedures-a-population-based-case-control-study
#3
Juraj Sprung, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Lauren L Price, Hunter P Schulz, Christie L Tatsuyama, Toby N Weingarten, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Ronald C Petersen, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: To examine whether exposure to general anesthesia for procedures at age ≥40 years is associated with prevalent mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly. METHODS: A case-control study nested within a population-based cohort. Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, aged 70-91 years, underwent baseline evaluations that included the Clinical Dementia Rating scale, a neurologic evaluation, and neuropsychologic testing. Individuals identified with MCI (cases) at enrollment were matched 1:2 on age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein genotype with participants who were cognitively normal at the time of the index visit...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290467/long-term-survival-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-70-year-british-study
#4
G Savic, M J DeVivo, H L Frankel, M A Jamous, B M Soni, S Charlifue
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective and prospective observational. OBJECTIVES: Analyse long-term survival after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in Great Britain over the 70-year study period, identify mortality risk factors and estimate current life expectancy. SETTING: Two spinal centres in Great Britain. METHODS: The sample consisted of patients with traumatic SCI injured 1943-2010 who survived the first year post-injury, had residual neurological deficit on discharge and were British residents...
March 14, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274986/use-of-simulation-training-to-prepare-pharmacy-residents-for-medical-emergencies
#5
Melissa L Thompson Bastin, Aaron M Cook, Alexander H Flannery
PURPOSE: The use of high-fidelity simulation training for preparing pharmacy residents for various high-stress and high-impact medical emergencies and the impact of this training on pharmacy residents' perception of preparedness are described. SUMMARY: During the 2015-16 residency year at the University of Kentucky Medical Center, simulation training, in addition to lecture-based orientation training, was chosen as a method to reinforce skills and knowledge learned throughout the orientation, before residents began working on-call shifts...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264141/neuroanatomy-education-the-impact-on-perceptions-attitudes-and-knowledge-of-an-intensive-course-on-general-practice-residents
#6
Mavilde Arantes, Joselina Maria Barbosa, Maria Amélia Ferreira
General practitioners are responsible for the management of an increasing number of patients with neurological illness, and thus a solid education in neurosciences is a necessary component of their training. This study examines the effects of an intensive clinical neuroanatomy course on twenty general practice residents' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge. A knowledge test was completed by the participants and by a control group at four different time points. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire about their reasons for signing up for the course and their attitudes and perceptions toward the course experience...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255460/the-polarization-states-of-microglia-in-tbi-a-new-paradigm-for-pharmacological-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Hangzhe Xu, Zhijiang Wang, Jianru Li, Haijian Wu, Yucong Peng, Linfeng Fan, Jingyin Chen, Chi Gu, Feng Yan, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Because of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI, effective pharmacotherapy is still lacking. The microglial cells are resident tissue macrophages located in the brain and have two major polarization states, M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype, when activated. The M1 phenotype is related to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and secondary brain injury, while the M2 phenotype has been proved to be responsible for the release of anti-inflammation cytokines and for central nervous system (CNS) repair...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253233/differentiation-of-human-and-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-microglia-like-cells
#8
Hetal Pandya, Michael J Shen, David M Ichikawa, Andrea B Sedlock, Yong Choi, Kory R Johnson, Gloria Kim, Mason A Brown, Abdel G Elkahloun, Dragan Maric, Colin L Sweeney, Selamawit Gossa, Harry L Malech, Dorian B McGavern, John K Park
Microglia are resident inflammatory cells of the CNS and have important roles in development, homeostasis and a variety of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. Difficulties in procuring human microglia have limited their study and hampered the clinical translation of microglia-based treatments shown to be effective in animal disease models. Here we report the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into microglia-like cells by exposure to defined factors and co-culture with astrocytes...
March 2, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243343/spanish-version-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-stroke-scale-awareness-and-use-in-united-states-a-survey-study
#9
Enrique Villalobos, Scott R Barnes, Ihtesham A Qureshi, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the awareness and the use of Spanish version of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) throughout the United States (US) by regions using a web-based survey. METHODS: A survey targeting physicians from two specialties that regularly manage acute stroke patients was conducted from February to August of 2015. Academic centers from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education online directory belonging to emergency medicine (EM) and neurology residency programs were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228565/a-dedicated-scholarly-research-program-in-an-adult-and-pediatric-neurology-residency-program
#10
Matthew S Robbins, Sheryl R Haut, Richard B Lipton, Mark J Milstein, Lenore C Ocava, Karen Ballaban-Gil, Solomon L Moshé, Mark F Mehler
OBJECTIVE: To describe and assess the effectiveness of a formal scholarly activity program for a highly integrated adult and pediatric neurology residency program. METHODS: Starting in 2011, all graduating residents were required to complete at least one form of scholarly activity broadly defined to include peer-reviewed publications or presentations at scientific meetings of formally mentored projects. The scholarly activity program was administered by the associate residency training director and included an expanded journal club, guided mentorship, a required grand rounds platform presentation, and annual awards for the most scholarly and seminal research findings...
February 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228563/formal-research-exposure-during-neurology-residency-training-matters
#11
Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodríguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223337/functional-expression-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-is-regulated-by-tetraspanin-7-mediated-postendocytic-trafficking
#12
Seol-Ae Lee, Yeongjun Suh, Saebom Lee, Jaehoon Jeong, Soo Jeong Kim, So Jung Kim, Sang Ki Park
The dopaminergic system plays an essential role in various functions of the brain, including locomotion, memory, and reward, and the deregulation of dopaminergic signaling as a result of altered functionality of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is implicated in multiple neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Tetraspanin-7 (TSPAN7) is expressed to variable degrees in different tissues, with the highest level in the brain, and multiple mutations in TSPAN7 have been implicated in intellectual disability. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TSPAN7 may be a binding partner of DRD2 that is involved in the regulation of its functional activity...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207688/transmission-of-zika-virus-haiti-october-12-2015-september-10-2016
#13
Ito Journel, Lesly L Andrécy, Dudley Metellus, Jean S Pierre, Rose Murka Faublas, Stanley Juin, Amber M Dismer, David L Fitter, Daniel Neptune, Marie José Laraque, Salomon Corvil, Manise Pierre, Josiane Buteau, Donald Lafontant, Roopal Patel, Jean Frantz Lemoine, David W Lowrance, Macarthur Charles, Jacques Boncy, Paul Adrien
Zika virus disease is caused by infection with a flavivirus with broad geographic distribution and is most frequently transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. The disease was first identified in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas in 2015 and was followed by a surge in reported cases of congenital microcephaly in Brazil; Zika virus disease rapidly spread to the rest of the region and the Caribbean (1), including Haiti. Infection with the virus is associated with adverse fetal outcomes (1) and rare neurologic complications in adults...
February 17, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202700/postmenopausal-hormone-therapy-and-alzheimer-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Bushra Imtiaz, Marjo Tuppurainen, Toni Rikkonen, Miia Kivipelto, Hilkka Soininen, Heikki Kröger, Anna-Maija Tolppanen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47-56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999-2009)...
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193763/neurologic-involvement-in-patients-with-atypical-chediak-higashi-disease
#15
Wendy J Introne, Wendy Westbroek, Catherine A Groden, Vikas Bhambhani, Gretchen A Golas, Eva H Baker, Tanya J Lehky, Joseph Snow, Shira G Ziegler, May Christine V Malicdan, David R Adams, Heidi M Dorward, Richard A Hess, Marjan Huizing, William A Gahl, Camilo Toro
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the developmental and progressive neurodegenerative features in 9 young adults with the atypical form of Chediak-Higashi disease (CHD) enrolled in a natural history study. METHODS: Patients with atypical clinical features, but diagnostically confirmed CHD by standard evaluation of blood smears and molecular genotyping, underwent complete neurologic evaluation, MRI of the brain, electrophysiologic examination, and neuropsychological testing...
February 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193109/child-neurology-education-for-pediatric-residents
#16
Dara V F Albert, Anup D Patel, Maria Behnam-Terneus, Beatriz Cunill-De Sautu, Nicole Verbeck, Alisa McQueen, H Barrett Fromme, John D Mahan
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems...
March 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181903/widespread-activity-of-multiple-lineages-of-usutu-virus-western-europe-2016
#17
Daniel Cadar, Renke Lühken, Henk van der Jeugd, Mutien Garigliany, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Jennifer Lahoreau, Lars Lachmann, Norbert Becker, Marja Kik, Bas B Oude Munnink, Stefan Bosch, Egbert Tannich, Annick Linden, Volker Schmidt, Marion P Koopmans, Jolianne Rijks, Daniel Desmecht, Martin H Groschup, Chantal Reusken, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment...
January 26, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157295/vitamin-derived-nanolipoidal-carriers-for-brain-delivery-of-dimethyl-fumarate-a-novel-approach-with-preclinical-evidences
#18
Pramod Kumar, Gajanand Sharma, Rajendra Kumar, Ruchi Malik, Bhupinder Singh, O P Katare, Kaisar Raza
Various oral treatment options have been reported for relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has been approved for the management of the same. Though effective, DMF is associated with concerns like multiple dosing, patient incompliance, gastrointestinal flushing, lower brain permeation and economic hurdles. Henceforth, the objective of the present study was to develop vitamin-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) for effective brain delivery of DMF with a promise of once-a-day dosing...
February 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155572/exploring-the-role-of-microglia-in-cortical-spreading-depression-in-neurological-disease
#19
Mamoru Shibata, Norihiro Suzuki
Microglia play a pivotal role in innate immunity in the brain. During development, they mature from myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the yolk sac and colonize the brain to establish a resident population of tissue macrophages. In the postnatal brain, they exert phagocytosis and induce inflammatory response against invading pathogens. Microglia also act as guardians of brain homeostasis by surveying the microenvironment using motile processes. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly propagating (2-5 mm/min) wave of rapid, near-complete depolarization of neurons and astrocytes followed by a period of electrical suppression of a distinct population of cortical neurons...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153514/association-of-acute-toxic-encephalopathy-with-litchi-consumption-in-an-outbreak-in-muzaffarpur-india-2014-a-case-control-study
#20
Aakash Shrivastava, Anil Kumar, Jerry D Thomas, Kayla F Laserson, Gyan Bhushan, Melissa D Carter, Mala Chhabra, Veena Mittal, Shashi Khare, James J Sejvar, Mayank Dwivedi, Samantha L Isenberg, Rudolph Johnson, James L Pirkle, Jon D Sharer, Patricia L Hall, Rajesh Yadav, Anoop Velayudhan, Mohan Papanna, Pankaj Singh, D Somashekar, Arghya Pradhan, Kapil Goel, Rajesh Pandey, Mohan Kumar, Satish Kumar, Amit Chakrabarti, P Sivaperumal, A Ramesh Kumar, Joshua G Schier, Arthur Chang, Leigh Ann Graham, Thomas P Mathews, Darryl Johnson, Liza Valentin, Kathleen L Caldwell, Jeffery M Jarrett, Leslie A Harden, Gary R Takeoka, Suxiang Tong, Krista Queen, Clinton Paden, Anne Whitney, Dana L Haberling, Ram Singh, Ravi Shankar Singh, Kenneth C Earhart, A C Dhariwal, L S Chauhan, S Venkatesh, Padmini Srikantiah
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of unexplained illness frequently remain under-investigated. In India, outbreaks of an acute neurological illness with high mortality among children occur annually in Muzaffarpur, the country's largest litchi cultivation region. In 2014, we aimed to investigate the cause and risk factors for this illness. METHODS: In this hospital-based surveillance and nested age-matched case-control study, we did laboratory investigations to assess potential infectious and non-infectious causes of this acute neurological illness...
April 2017: Lancet Global Health
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