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Neurology Resident

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353456/in-vivo-transient-and-partial-cell-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
REVIEW
S Tamanini, G P Comi, S Corti
In theory, human diseases in which a specific cell type degenerates, such as neurodegenerative diseases, can be therapeutically addressed by replacement of the lost cells. The classical strategy for cell replacement is exogenous cell transplantation, but now, cell replacement can also be achieved with in situ reprogramming. Indeed, many of these disorders are age-dependent, and "rejuvenating" strategies based on cell epigenetic modifications are a possible approach to counteract disease progression. In this context, transient and/or partial reprogramming of adult somatic cells towards pluripotency can be a promising tool for neuroregeneration...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351677/use-of-risk-model-for-assessment-of-residents-perception-of-complexity-of-surgical-steps-example-of-modular-component-steps-of-lumbar-spinal-fusion-surgery
#2
Jeffrey S Raskin, Jesse J Liu, Katherine Holste, Sarah Brown, Fran Hardaway, Priscilla Pang, Ahmed M Raslan
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement projects increasingly emphasize standardization of surgical work flow to optimize operative room efficiency. Removing special cause variability resulting from nonsurgical waste is an obvious target; however, resident surgical education must be maintained, even in the setting of process improvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of resident-identified "risky" or "uncomfortable" procedural steps on operative time during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346176/rapid-response-to-scan-or-not-to-scan-the-utility-of-noncontrast-ct-head-for-altered-mental-status
#3
Purujit J Thacker, Mansha Sethi, Jonathan Sternlieb, Doron Schneider, Mary Naglak, Rajeshkumar R Patel
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were the following: (1) to determine how often computed tomography (CT) scans of the head are obtained on rapid responses called for altered mental status (AMS), (2) to determine whether CT imaging of the head is required during all rapid responses called for AMS, (3) to determine which patients would benefit from CT scans of the head in this setting, (4) to note whether an adequate neurologic exam was documented, (5) to determine the cost of CT scans that did not change management, and (6) to examine the role of medications leading to AMS...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345513/no-benefit-in-neurologic-outcomes-of-survivors-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-with-mechanical-compression-device
#4
Ryan Newberry, Ted Redman, Elliot Ross, Rachel Ely, Clayton Saidler, Allyson Arana, David Wampler, David Miramontes
INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death and morbidity in the United States. Quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has proven to be a key factor in improving survival. The aim of our study was to investigate the outcomes of OHCA when mechanical CPR (LUCAS 2 Chest Compression System™) was utilized compared to conventional CPR. Although controlled trials have not demonstrated a survival benefit to the routine use of mechanical CPR devices, there continues to be an interest for their use in OHCA...
January 18, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343469/entrustable-professional-activities-a-useful-concept-for-neurology-education
#5
Holli Horak, Robert Englander, Diana Barratt, Jeff Kraakevik, Madhu Soni, Ezgi Tiryaki
Medical education is currently undergoing a paradigm shift from process-based to competency-based education, focused on measuring the desired competence of a physician. In an attempt to improve the assessment framework used for medical education, the concept of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) has gained traction. EPAs are defined as professional activities that can be entrusted to an individual in a clinical context. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) defined a set of 13 such EPAs to define the core of what all students should be able to do on day 1 of residency, regardless of specialty choice...
January 17, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341025/multiple-sclerosis-prevalence-and-impact
#6
Heather Gilmour, Pamela L Ramage-Morin, Suzy L Wong
This article provides new information about multiple sclerosis (MS) using the 2010/2011 Neurological Conditions Prevalence File, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 93,500 Canadians living in private households and 3,800 residents of long-term care institutions had been diagnosed with MS. Prevalence estimates were 159 and 418 cases per 100,000 population for men and women, respectively; 2...
January 17, 2018: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333903/the-first-report-of-relative-incidence-of-inherited-white-matter-disorders-in-an-asian-country-based-on-an-iranian-bioregistry-system
#7
Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Zahra Rezaei, Morteza Heidari, Sedigheh Nikbakht, Reza Azizi Malamiri, Mahmoud Mohammady, Gholam Reza Zamani, Reza Shervin Badv, Parastoo Rostami, Mojtaba Movahedinia, Mostafa Qorbani, Man Amanat, Ali Reza Tavasoli
Childhood leukodystrophies are a fast-growing field of pediatric neurology practice. Epidemiologic studies on the incidence of these disorders in children show different results. This is the first report of childhood leukodystrophies incidence from Iran. The enrolled patients were recruited from the neurometabolic bioregistry system that was organized in 2010 in the Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. Herein is reported the incidence rate of leukodystrophies in those patients who were residents of 2 big popular provinces near Iran's capital city Tehran, with an average child population of 2 988 800 children...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332185/handedness-and-the-risk-of-glioma
#8
Briana Miller, Noah C Peeri, Louis Burt Nabors, Jordan H Creed, Zachary J Thompson, Carrie M Rozmeski, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel Chowdhary, Jeffrey J Olson, Reid C Thompson, Kathleen M Egan
Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and few risk factors have been linked to their development. Handedness has been associated with several pathologic neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy, but few studies have evaluated a connection between handedness and risk of glioma. In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case-control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330383/development-of-a-pet-radioligand-for-potassium-channels-to-image-cns-demyelination
#9
Pedro Brugarolas, Jorge E Sánchez-Rodríguez, Hsiu-Ming Tsai, Falguni Basuli, Shih-Hsun Cheng, Xiang Zhang, Andrew V Caprariello, Jerome J Lacroix, Richard Freifelder, Dhanabalan Murali, Onofre DeJesus, Robert H Miller, Rolf E Swenson, Chin-Tu Chen, Peter Herscovitch, Daniel S Reich, Francisco Bezanilla, Brian Popko
Central nervous system (CNS) demyelination represents the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to other neurological conditions. Quantitative and specific imaging of demyelination would thus provide critical clinical insight. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting axonal potassium channels to image demyelination by positron emission tomography (PET). These channels, which normally reside beneath the myelin sheath, become exposed upon demyelination and are the target of the MS drug, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324959/surveillance-of-intradomiciliary-contacts-of-leprosy-cases-perspective-of-the-client-in-a-hyperendemic-municipality
#10
Helizandra Simoneti Bianchini Romanholo, Eliana Amorim de Souza, Alberto Novaes Ramos Júnior, Adélia Cileode Gomes Castelo Branco Kaiser, Ismália Oliveira da Silva, Aline Lima Brito, Cídia Vasconcellos
OBJECTIVE: To characterize approach methods for intradomiciliary contacts (IdC) of leprosy cases resident in Northern Brazil, during 2001-2012. METHOD: A cross-sectional and descriptive study in the state of Rondônia. Included IdC of leprosy cases diagnosed/reported in SINAN-Ministry of Health (MS), 2001-2012. A semi-structured instrument was applied to the IdCs, with six interventions: complete dermatological examination; complete neurological examination; BCG vaccination; instructions for return to the health unit; BCG guidance; and guidance to mobilize other contacts...
January 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316871/listeria-monocytogenes-sepsis-in-the-nursing-home-community-a-case-report-and-short-review-of-the-literature
#11
Griet Buyck, Veronique Devriendt, Anne-Marie Van den Abeele, Christian Bachmann
Objective and importance Listeria monocytogenes is a rare foodborne pathogen, causing both outbreaks and sporadic infections. Severe, systemic infections are more prevalent in at-risk populations, such as pregnant women, but occur mostly in older people and immunocompromised individuals. In this case report, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Listeria monocytogenes sepsis in an older patient, and we briefly review the literature about listeriosis and the importance of safe food practices...
January 9, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310506/neuronal-activity-organization-features-in-human-consciousness-summary-of-introductory-remarks-in-a-dialogue-with-neurological-surgery-residents
#12
Cristian L Vera, Sunil J Patel, Fraser C Henderson, Donna R Roberts, Vibhor Krishna
Agreeing with Damasio's statement defining the "process" of consciousness, we propose the self as created by mind-based knowledge and a combination of images of an organism's intentional motor responses interacting with its environment. The lemniscal system, with plastic capabilities, manages gravity in voluntary movement. The spinal segment motor reflex represents the schema of gravity-managing neuronal activity, and it can become "nested" in cortical areas participating in consciousness-building, allowing consideration of the brain as a hyper-evolved nervous system segment harboring atavic spinal organization...
January 9, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304919/cranial-tumor-surgical-outcomes-at-a-high-volume-academic-referral-center
#13
Desmond A Brown, Benjamin T Himes, Brittny T Major, Benjamin F Mundell, Ravi Kumar, Bruce Kall, Fredric B Meyer, Michael J Link, Bruce E Pollock, John D Atkinson, Jamie J Van Gompel, W Richard Marsh, Giuseppe Lanzino, Mohamad Bydon, Ian F Parney
OBJECTIVE: To determine adverse event rates for adult cranial neuro-oncologic surgeries performed at a high-volume quaternary academic center and assess the impact of resident participation on perioperative complication rates. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adult patients undergoing neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial neoplastic lesion between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, were included. Cases were categorized as biopsy, extra-axial/skull base, intra-axial, or transsphenoidal...
January 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302928/trends-in-md-phd-graduates-entering-psychiatry-assessing-the-physician-scientist-pipeline
#14
Melissa R Arbuckle, Sean X Luo, Harold Alan Pincus, Joshua A Gordon, Joyce Y Chung, Mark Chavez, Maria A Oquendo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to identify trends in MD/PhD graduates entering psychiatry, to compare these trends with other specialties, and to review strategies for enhancing the physician-scientist pipeline. METHODS: Data on 226,588 medical students graduating from Liaison Committee on Medical Education accredited programs between 1999 and 2012 (6626 MD/PhDs) were used to evaluate the number, percentage, and proportion of MD/PhDs entering psychiatry in comparison with other specialties (neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, family medicine, and radiation oncology)...
January 4, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302325/prevalence-of-epilepsy-in-china-between-1990-and-2015-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Peige Song, Yezhou Liu, Xinwei Yu, Jingjing Wu, Adrienne N Poon, Alessandro Demaio, Wei Wang, Igor Rudan, Kit Yee Chan
Background: Epilepsy is a major neurological disorder that affects approximately 65 million people worldwide. Globally, the burden of epilepsy is not evenly distributed, with more than 80% of sufferers residing in low- and middle-income countries. This study estimates the burden of epilepsy in mainland China from 1990 to 2015 and explores the variations of burden by age and gender. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2015 using Chinese and English academic databases (CNKI, WanFang, VIP and PubMed) to identify population-based prospective studies on the prevalence of epilepsy in mainland Chinese...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289717/exploring-the-interaction-between-eif2%C3%AE-dysregulation-acute-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-dyt1-dystonia-in-the-mammalian-brain
#16
Genevieve Beauvais, Noela Rodriguez-Losada, Lei Ying, Zuchra Zakirova, Jaime L Watson, Ben Readhead, Paul Gadue, Deborah L French, Michelle E Ehrlich, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre
DYT1 dystonia is a neurological disease caused by dominant mutations in the TOR1A gene, encoding for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein torsinA. Recent reports linked expression of the DYT1-causing protein with dysregulation of eIF2α, a key component of the cellular response to ER stress known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the response of the DYT1 mammalian brain to acute ER stress inducers has not been evaluated in vivo. We hypothesized that torsinA regulates the neuronal UPR and expression of its mutant form would alter this process...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284650/residency-training-the-review-committee-for-neurology-revisions-to-the-common-program-requirements
#17
Kathryn S Nevel, Andrew M Southerland, Shannon M Kilgore, Laurie Gutmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279256/the-popularity-of-neurology-in-spain-an-analysis-of-specialty-selection
#18
J Curbelo, J M Romeo, J M Galván-Román, J Vega-Villar, E H Martinez-Lapiscina, P Jiménez-Fonseca, T Villacampa, F Sánchez-Lasheras, A Fernández-Somoano, J Baladrón
INTRODUCTION: Neurology is one of the medical specialties offered each year to residency training candidates. This project analyses the data associated with candidates choosing neurology residency programmes in recent years. METHODS: Data related to specialty selection were obtained from official reports by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services, and Equality. Information was collected on several characteristics of teaching centres: availability of stroke units, endovascular intervention, national reference clinics for neurology, specific on-call shifts for neurology residents, and links with medical schools or national research networks...
December 23, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279178/radiologic-discrepancies-in-children-with-special-healthcare-needs-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#19
Ara Festekjian, Karen Y Kwan, Todd P Chang, Hollie Lai, Margil Fahit, Danica B Liberman
BACKGROUND: After-hours radiologic interpretation by nonradiology attendings or resident radiologists introduces the risk of discrepancies. Clinical outcomes following radiologic discrepancies among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients are poorly described. In particular, children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN), have more opportunities for discrepancies and potential consequences than non- CSHCN. Our objective was to determine the rates and types of radiologic discrepancies, and to compare CSHCN to non-CSHCN...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277489/c-547-a-6-methyluracil-derivative-with-long-lasting-binding-and-rebinding-on-acetylcholinesterase-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-studies
#20
Konstantin Petrov, Irina Zueva, Irina Kovyazina, Igor Sedov, Sofya Lushchekina, Alexandra Kharlamova, Oksana Lenina, Sergei Koshkin, Yurii Shtyrlin, Evgeny Nikolsky, Patrick Masson
C-547, a potent slow-binding inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was intravenously administered to rat (0.05 mg/kg). Pharmacokinetic profiles were determined in blood and different organs: extensor digitorum longus muscle, heart, liver, lungs and kidneys as a function of time. Pharmacokinetics (PK) was studied using non-compartmental and compartmental analyses. A 3-compartment model describes PK in blood. Most of injected C-547 binds to albumin in the bloodstream. The steady-state volume of distribution (3800 ml/kg) is 15 times larger than the distribution volume, indicating a good tissue distribution...
December 24, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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