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Distributive justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455436/older-adults-in-jail-high-rates-and-early-onset-of-geriatric-conditions
#1
Meredith Greene, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Lia Metzger, Brie Williams
BACKGROUND: The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults...
February 17, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449245/selection-for-family-medicine-residency-training-in-canada-how-consistently-are-the-same-students-ranked-by-different-programs
#2
Keith Wycliffe-Jones, Kent G Hecker, Shirley Schipper, Maureen Topps, Jeanine Robinson, Tasnima Abedin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consistency of the ranking of Canadian and US medical graduates who applied to Canadian family medicine (FM) residency programs between 2007 and 2013. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Family medicine residency programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 17 Canadian medical schools allowed access to their anonymized program rank-order lists of students applying to FM residency programs submitted to the first iteration of the Canadian Resident Matching Service match from 2007 to 2013...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424494/accidents-and-ethics-a-visual-narrative-approach
#3
Catherine Gadd, Colin Jones
Emergency department (ED) attendances are continuing to rise, and medical and nursing teams are working under considerable strain. ED clinicians are used to thinking on their feet and possess the skills to multitask, and juggle ever-changing and competing priorities against the clock. This article reports the findings of a study that enabled ED clinicians to take time out to reflect on some of the difficult decisions they make daily, and to ask whether they consider ethical principles in depth, and if they are of any practical help...
February 9, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414488/examining-social-supply-among-nonmedical-prescription-stimulant-users-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#4
Fiona Murphy, Sheigla Murphy, Paloma Sales, Nicholas Lau
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375073/medical-futility-and-involuntary-passive-euthanasia
#5
Michael Nair-Collins
Conflicts between providers and patients or their families surrounding end-of-life care are both regrettable and extremely challenging, interpersonally and ethically, for all involved. These conflicts often implicate the concept of medical futility. The concept of futility is too often conflated with distinct concepts that are more ethically salient, including the fiduciary responsibility to assess surrogate decision-making, and distributive justice. By distinguishing these concepts from futility, it becomes clear that there are some situations in which forgoing life-sustaining treatment over objection is permissible, and perhaps even obligatory...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340509/uncovering-a-tragic-flaw-in-revolutionary-health-policies-from-health-and-communicative-inequities-to-communicative-justice-in-health
#6
Charles L Briggs
This article analyzes a contradiction facing efforts by left-leaning governments in Latin America to transform health into a fundamental social right. Policies and practices that confront health inequities generally fail to address health/communicative inequities, hierarchical distributions of rights to shape what counts as legitimate knowledge of health. This ethnographic analysis focuses on an epidemic of a mysterious disease - identified clinically as bat-transmitted rabies - in the Delta Amacuro rainforest of Venezuela in 2007-2008, tracing how parents who lost 1-3 children faced acute health/communicative inequities in clinical settings, epidemiological investigations, work with healers, news coverage, health policy, and health communication...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319947/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-cyclopropyl-fentanyl-in-schedule-i-temporary-amendment-temporary-scheduling-order
#7
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, -(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide (cyclopropyl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts, and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers in schedule I. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of cyclopropyl fentanyl in schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
January 4, 2018: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313976/personality-traits-and-perceptions-of-organisational-justice
#8
Maria Törnroos, Marko Elovainio, Taina Hintsa, Mirka Hintsanen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Markus Jokela, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli T Raitakari, Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
This study examined the association between five-factor model personality traits and perceptions of organisational justice. The sample for the study comprised 903 participants (35-50 years old; 523 women) studied in 2007 and 2012. Measures used were the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory questionnaire and the short organisational justice measure. The results showed that high neuroticism was associated with low distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Furthermore, high agreeableness was associated with high procedural and interactional justice and high openness with high distributive justice...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289843/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-race-a-meta-analysis
#9
Shannon Lea Watkins, Ed Gerrish
There is ample evidence that urban trees benefit the physical, mental, and social health of urban residents. The environmental justice hypothesis posits that environmental amenities are inequitably low in poor and minority communities, and predicts these communities experience fewer urban environmental benefits. Some previous research has found that urban forest cover is inequitably distributed by race, though other studies have found no relationship or negative inequity. These conflicting results and the single-city nature of the current literature suggest a need for a research synthesis...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288878/distributive-justice-an-ethical-priority-in-global-palliative-care
#10
Rachel A Hadler, William E Rosa
Providing care to cancer patients in resource-poor settings often demands complex trade-offs regarding resource allocation. It is estimated that over 60% of all cancer deaths worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where channels to care and appropriate symptom management interventions are overstressed or obsolete. Concepts of distributive justice underlie much of global health policy. As appetites for expanding global palliative care services increase so do questions of fair and culturally appropriate distribution...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274616/integrating-social-justice-concerns-into-economic-evaluation-for-healthcare-and-public-health-a-systematic-review
#11
Vadim Dukhanin, Alexandra Searle, Alice Zwerling, David W Dowdy, Holly A Taylor, Maria W Merritt
Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face...
December 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249844/the-relationship-between-urban-forests-and-income-a-meta-analysis
#12
Ed Gerrish, Shannon Lea Watkins
Urban trees provide substantial public health and public environmental benefits. However, scholarly works suggest that urban trees may be unequally distributed among poor and minority urban communities, meaning that these communities are potentially being deprived of public environmental benefits, a form of environmental injustice. The evidence of this problem is not uniform however, and evidence of inequity varies in size and significance across studies. This variation in results suggests the need for a research synthesis and meta-analysis...
February 2018: Landscape and Urban Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240043/nurses-work-functioning-questionnaire-nwfq-refinement-and-validation-of-the-italian-version
#13
Nicola Magnavita, Carlo Chiorri
BACKGROUND: The availability of an assessment measure for work impairment in nurses, or nursing students, is of crucial importance for early detection of workers/students at risk. Recently, a new measure, the Nurses Work Functioning Questionnaire (NWFQ), has become available, but there is no validated Italian version. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and validate an Italian version of the NWFQ. METHODS: We evaluated the factor structure, the internal consistency, and the convergent and discriminant construct validity with respect to organizational justice and job strain of the Italian NWFQ using data from 645 nursing students...
December 14, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235771/schedules-of-controlled-substances-placement-of-mt-45-into-schedule-i-final-order
#14
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final order, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places the substance MT-45 (Systematic IUPAC Name: 1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine), including its salts, isomers, and salts of isomers into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act and is required in order for the United States to discharge its obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. This action imposes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, import, export, engage in research or conduct instructional activities with, or possess), or propose to handle, MT-45...
December 13, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199914/rethinking-the-relationship-between-socioeconomic-status-and-health-challenging-how-socioeconomic-status-is-currently-used-in-health-inequality-research
#15
Thierry Gagné, Adrian E Ghenadenik
AIMS: The Scandinavian Journal of Public Health recently reiterated the importance of addressing social justice and health inequalities in its new editorial policy announcement. One of the related challenges highlighted in that issue was the limited use of sociological theories able to inform the complexity linking the resources and mechanisms captured by the concept of socioeconomic status. This debate article argues that part of the problem lies in the often unchallenged reliance on a generic conceptualization and operationalization of socioeconomic status...
December 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172557/expanding-the-early-and-late-starter-model-of-criminal-justice-involvement-for-forensic-mental-health-clients
#16
Anne G Crocker, Michael S Martin, Marichelle C Leclair, Tonia L Nicholls, Michael C Seto
The early and late starter model provides one of the most enduring frameworks for understanding the developmental course and severity of violence and criminality among individuals with severe mental illness. We expanded the model to account for differences in the age of onset of criminal behavior and added a group with no prior contact with the justice or mental health systems. We sampled 1,800 men and women found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder in 3 Canadian provinces. Using a retrospective file-based study, we explored differences in criminal, health, demographic, and social functioning characteristics, processing through the forensic psychiatric system and recidivism outcomes of 5 groups...
November 27, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170833/inclusion-of-assistive-technologies-in-a-basic-package-of-essential-healthcare-service
#17
Fiachra O'Brolcháin, Bert Gordijn
This paper outlines the potential and necessity of the development of assistive technologies (AT) for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). We analyse a policy recommendation designed to determine the contents of a basic health package supplied by the state, known as the Dunning Funnel. We contend that the Dunning Funnel is a useful methodology, but is weakened by a potentially relativistic understanding of "necessity" in relation to the requirements of people with IDs (i.e., community standards will determine whether AT are necessary)...
November 23, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144594/on-the-origin-of-obesity-identifying-the-biological-environmental-and-cultural-drivers-of-genetic-risk-among-human-populations
#18
REVIEW
A Qasim, M Turcotte, R J de Souza, M C Samaan, D Champredon, J Dushoff, J R Speakman, D Meyre
Genetic predisposition to obesity presents a paradox: how do genetic variants with a detrimental impact on human health persist through evolutionary time? Numerous hypotheses, such as the thrifty genotype hypothesis, attempt to explain this phenomenon yet fail to provide a justification for the modern obesity epidemic. In this critical review, we appraise existing theories explaining the evolutionary origins of obesity and explore novel biological and sociocultural agents of evolutionary change to help explain the modern-day distribution of obesity-predisposing variants...
November 16, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#19
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124449/the-evolution-of-public-health-ethics-frameworks-systematic-review-of-moral-values-and-norms-in-public-health-policy
#20
REVIEW
Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi, Forouzan Akrami
Given the evolution of the public health (PH) and the changes from the phenomenon of globalization, this area has encountered new ethical challenges. In order to find a coherent approach to address ethical issues in PH policy, this study aimed to identify the evolution of public health ethics (PHE) frameworks and the main moral values and norms in PH practice and policy. According to the research questions, a systematic search of the literature, in English, with no time limit was performed using the main keywords in databases Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed...
November 9, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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