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Distributive justice

Laura Oxburgh, Fiona Gabbert, Rebecca Milne, Julie Cherryman
Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhasani, Sajad Khosravi, Mahya Tohidi
INTRODUCTION: In order to improve health, hospital sources such as beds and staffing should be properly allocated and used. The aim of this study is reallocation of Shafa hospital beds in Kerman using a goal-programming model. METHODS: This study was an applied cross-sectional study, which used the goal programming model and software WinQSB to optimize bed allocation. By review of the literature and interviews with experts, the constraints in beds allocation were identified, and using the collected data the desired model was designed...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Kasper Raus
BACKGROUND: When a new intervention or drug is developed, this has to pass through various phases of clinical testing before it achieves market approval, which can take many years. This raises an issue for drugs which could benefit terminally ill patients. These patients might set their hopes on the experimental drug but are unable to wait since they are likely to pass away before the drug is available. As a means of nevertheless getting access to experimental drug, many seriously ill and terminally ill patients are therefore very willing to participate in randomised controlled trials...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Karen Bell
Gender continues to be a relatively marginal issue in environmental justice debates and yet it remains an important aspect of injustice. To help redress the balance, this article explores women's experience of environmental justice through a review of the existing literature and the author's prior qualitative research, as well as her experience of environmental activism. The analysis confirms that women tend to experience inequitable environmental burdens (distributional injustice); and are less likely than men to have control over environmental decisions (procedural injustice), both of which impact on their health (substantive injustice)...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maria Gouveia-Pereira, Jorge Vala, Isabel Correia
BACKGROUND: Teachers' legitimacy is central to school functioning. Teachers' justice, whether distributive or procedural, predicts teachers' legitimacy. AIMS: What is still do be found, and constitutes the goal of this paper, is whether unjust treatment by a teacher affects the legitimacy of the teacher differently when the student knows that the teacher was fair to a peer (comparative judgement) or when the student does not have that information (autonomous judgement)...
October 15, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration places three synthetic phenethylamines: 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25I-NBOMe; 2C-I-NBOMe; 25I; Cimbi-5), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N- (2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25C-NBOMe; 2C-C-NBOMe; 25C; Cimbi-82), and 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B- NBOMe; 2C-B-NBOMe; 25B; Cimbi-36), including their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
September 27, 2016: Federal Register
Carleigh B Krubiner, Maria W Merritt
Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) present a promising approach to simultaneously tackle chronic poverty and poor health. While these programmes clearly embody beneficent aims, questions remain regarding the ethical design of CCTs. Limited guidance exists for the ethical evaluation of the defining feature of these programmes: the conditionalities. Drawing upon prominent public health ethics frameworks and social justice theories, this paper outlines five categories of morally relevant considerations that CCT programme designers should consider when assessing which behaviours or outcomes they select as conditionalities for payment: (1) likelihood of yielding desired health outcomes, (2) risks and burdens, (3) receptivity, (4) attainability and (5) indirect impacts and externalities...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Lisa M McKenzie, William B Allshouse, Troy Burke, Benjamin D Blair, John L Adgate
We evaluated population size and factors influencing environmental justice near oil and gas (O&G) wells. We mapped nearest O&G well to residential properties to evaluate population size, temporal relationships between housing and O&G development, and 2012 housing market value distributions in three major Colorado O&G basins. We reviewed land use, building, real estate, and state O&G regulations to evaluate distributive and participatory justice. We found that by 2012 at least 378,000 Coloradans lived within 1 mile of an active O&G well, and this population was growing at a faster rate than the overall population...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tatsuya Kameda, Keigo Inukai, Satomi Higuchi, Akitoshi Ogawa, Hackjin Kim, Tetsuya Matsuda, Masamichi Sakagami
Distributive justice concerns the moral principles by which we seek to allocate resources fairly among diverse members of a society. Although the concept of fair allocation is one of the fundamental building blocks for societies, there is no clear consensus on how to achieve "socially just" allocations. Here, we examine neurocognitive commonalities of distributive judgments and risky decisions. We explore the hypothesis that people's allocation decisions for others are closely related to economic decisions for oneself at behavioral, cognitive, and neural levels, via a concern about the minimum, worst-off position...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rawan Charafeddine, Hugo Mercier, Fabrice Clément, Laurence Kaufmann, Anne Reboul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst
Two experiments with preschoolers (36 to 78 months) and 8-year-old children (Experiment 1, N = 173; Experiment 2, N = 132) investigated the development of children's resource distribution in dominance contexts. On the basis of the distributive justice literature, 2 opposite predictions were tested. Children could match resource allocation with the unequal social setting they observe and thus favor a dominant individual over a subordinate 1. Alternatively, children could choose to compensate the subordinate if they consider that the dominance asymmetry should be counteracted...
September 26, 2016: Developmental Psychology
Muhammad Waseem Bari, Meng Fanchen, Muhammad Awais Baloch
UNLABELLED: The objective of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effect of management practices (procedural justice, coordination approach, communication system, integration strategy, and coping programs) on merger and acquisition (M&A) performance in the Pakistan banking industry. Psychological contract (PC) acts as a mediator between Management practices and M&A performance. The Present study distributes a structured questionnaire to 700 bank employees of different management cadres...
2016: SpringerPlus
Justin Healy, Rebecca Hope, Jacqueline Bhabha, Nir Eyal
With the expansion of antiretroviral treatment programmes, many children and adolescents with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa could expect to live healthy lives. Yet adolescents have the highest levels of poor antiretroviral adherence and of loss to follow-up compared with other age groups. This can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, to the development of drug-resistant strains, and to high societal costs. While financial incentives have been extensively used to promote medication adherence among adults, their use among adolescents remains rare...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration places quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (PB-22; QUPIC), quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5-fluoro-PB-22; 5F-PB-22), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA) and N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-PINACA), including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
September 6, 2016: Federal Register
Ronald Pope, Jianguo Wu, Christopher Boone
Quantifying spatial distribution patterns of air pollutants is imperative to understand environmental justice issues. Here we present a landscape-based hierarchical approach in which air pollution variables are regressed against population demographics on multiple spatiotemporal scales. Using this approach, we investigated the potential problem of distributive environmental justice in the Phoenix metropolitan region, focusing on ambient ozone and particulate matter. Pollution surfaces (maps) are evaluated against the demographics of class, age, race (African American, Native American), and ethnicity (Hispanic)...
November 2016: Environmental Management
Greg Stapleton
In the near future developments in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) may soon provide couples with the opportunity to test for and diagnose a much broader range of heritable and congenital conditions than has previously been possible. Inevitably, this has prompted much ethical debate on the possible implications of NIPT for providing couples with opportunities for reproductive choice by way of routine prenatal screening. In view of the possibility to test for a significantly broader range of genetic conditions with NIPT, the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) and American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) recommend that, pending further debate, prenatal screening for reproductive choice should only be offered where concerning serious congenital conditions and childhood disorders...
September 8, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Curtis S Florence, Chao Zhou, Feijun Luo, Likang Xu
IMPORTANCE: It is important to understand the magnitude and distribution of the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence to inform clinical practice, research, and other decision makers. Decision makers choosing approaches to address this epidemic need cost information to evaluate the cost effectiveness of their choices. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the economic burden of prescription opioid overdose, abuse, and dependence from a societal perspective...
October 2016: Medical Care
Matthew R Ginther, Richard J Bonnie, Morris B Hoffman, Francis X Shen, Kenneth W Simons, Owen D Jones, René Marois
UNLABELLED: The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Katinka van de Ven, Kyle J D Mulrooney
BACKGROUND: This paper explores the understudied phenomenon of performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) markets by examining the structure and formation of the market for PIEDs among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. This article specifically seeks to account for individual reasons and motivations for dealing PIEDs within these bodybuilding subcultures. Understanding illicit PIED markets is important for policy decisions as knowledge on the production and distribution of these substances may assist in designing law enforcement efforts, harm reduction initiatives and treatment options...
August 26, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Azgad Gold, Rael D Strous
Extreme intentional and deliberate violence against innocent people, including acts of terror and school shootings, poses various ethical challenges, some related to the practice of medicine. We discuss a dilemma relating to deliberate violence, in this case the aftermath of a terror attack, in which there are multiple injured individuals, including the terror perpetrator. Normally, the priority of medical treatment is determined based on need. However, in the case of a terror attack, there is reason to question this...
August 29, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Viniece Jennings, Jessica Yun, Lincoln Larson
Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e...
August 25, 2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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