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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048385/disease-and-health-inequalities-attributable-to-air-pollutant-exposure-in-detroit-michigan
#1
Sheena E Martenies, Chad W Milando, Guy O Williams, Stuart A Batterman
The environmental burden of disease is the mortality and morbidity attributable to exposures of air pollution and other stressors. The inequality metrics used in cumulative impact and environmental justice studies can be incorporated into environmental burden studies to better understand the health disparities of ambient air pollutant exposures. This study examines the diseases and health disparities attributable to air pollutants for the Detroit urban area. We apportion this burden to various groups of emission sources and pollutants, and show how the burden is distributed among demographic and socioeconomic subgroups...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035496/schedules-of-controlled-substances-placement-of-ab-chminaca-abpinaca-and-thj-2201-into-schedule-i-final-rule
#2
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration places N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-CHMINACA), N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-PINACA), and [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl](naphthalen-1-yl)methanone (THJ-2201), including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible, into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act...
October 16, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033634/sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-a-retrospective-autopsy-study-of-112-epileptic-patients
#3
İpek Esen Melez, Murat Nihat Arslan, Deniz Oğuzhan Melez, Ahmet Necati Şanli, Sermet Koç
INTRODUCTION: Sudden unexpected deaths comprise the most important and worthy investigation case profiles in both neurology and forensic medicine. Epilepsy, which is one of the neuropathological causes of sudden unexpected deaths, is an important disorder having mysterious aspects. The aim of this study is to make common the points of view between neurology and forensic medicine experts and to discuss the features of the findings together with the related clinical hypotheses, leading to the differential diagnosis of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) by presenting autopsy findings and available medical data of patients who had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028466/is-acute-care-oriented-research-ethical-in-resource-limited-settings
#4
Anwar D Jackson, Harold W Neighbors
In this case scenario, a medical student, Jenny, is conducting congenital heart disease research in a resource-limited setting faced with water insecurity. She has concerns about how ethical it is for her to conduct advanced clinical research in a region with more basic health needs. The first commentary argues that advanced clinical research in resource-limited settings follows the ethical principle of beneficence and interactional justice but violates the principle of distributive justice. The second commentary questions whether beneficence is enough, since the Belmont Report states that beneficence is the obligation to simultaneously reduce harm and increase benefit...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#5
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990740/schedules-of-controlled-substances-removal-of-naldemedine-from-control-final-rule
#6
(no author information available yet)
With the issuance of this final rule, the Drug Enforcement Administration removes the substance naldemedine (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4a,7,9-trihydroxy-N-(2-(3-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)propan-2-yl)-2,3,4,4a,5,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-6-carboxamide) including its salts from the schedules of the Controlled Substances Act. Prior to the effective date of this rule, naldemedine was a schedule II controlled substance because it can be derived from opium alkaloids. This action removes the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to controlled substances, including those specific to schedule II controlled substances, on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, dispense, conduct research, import, export, or conduct chemical analysis) or propose to handle naldemedine...
September 29, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976822/accelerating-regenerative-medicine-the-japanese-experiment-in-ethics-and-regulation
#7
Tamra Lysaght
In 2014, the Japanese National Diet introduced new laws aimed at promoting the clinical translation of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The basic action of these laws is to allow the early introduction of regenerative medicine products into the Japanese market through an accelerated approval process, while providing patients with access to certain types of stem cell and cell-based therapies in the context of private clinical practice. While this framework appears to offer enormous opportunities for the translation of stem cell science, it raises ethical challenges that have not yet been fully explored...
September 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971074/perceived-distributive-injustice-the-key-factor-in-nurse-s-disruptive-behaviors-a-qualitative-study
#8
Mahboobeh Afzali, Jamileh Mokhtari Nouri, Abbas Ebadi, Seyyed Mohamad Khademolhoseyni, Nahid Rejeh
Introduction: Disruptive behaviors are one of the most topics affecting the wellbeing of organizations, therefore, it has become a significant research area. The purpose of this study was to determine experiences and perceptions of nurses who were involved in disruptive behaviors. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted by using a conventional content analysis. The data was obtained through 15 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses in six hospitals of Tehran city, Iran. A purposive sampling method was used...
September 2017: Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967324/fentanyl-and-the-evolving-opioid-epidemic-what-strategies-should-policy-makers-consider
#9
Colleen L Barry
Major policy efforts are being aimed at combating the epidemic of opioid addiction and overdose deaths. In response to the epidemic, the medical community and policy makers have attempted to intervene; to date, these varied approaches have done little to reverse the increase in mortality related to opioid overdose. One factor that has complicated efforts to control overdose deaths has been the emergence of a public health crisis related to illicit fentanyl. The rise in fentanyl-related overdose deaths means that new approaches are needed to combat the opioid epidemic, including adoption of harm reduction strategies...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964506/chemical-composition-separation-of-a-propylene-ethylene-random-copolymer-by-high-temperature-solvent-gradient-interaction-chromatography
#10
Yonggang Liu, Mohau Justice Phiri, Anthony Ndiripo, Harald Pasch
A propylene-ethylene random copolymer was fractionated by preparative temperature rising elution fractionation (TREF). The structural heterogeneity of the bulk sample and its TREF fractions was studied by high temperature liquid chromatography with a solvent gradient elution from 1-decanol to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. HPLC alone cannot resolve those propylene-ethylene copolymers with high ethylene content in the bulk sample, due to their low weight fractions in the bulk sample and a small response factor of these components in the ELSD detector, as well as their broad chemical composition distribution...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948883/the-maternal-body-as-environment-in-autism-science
#11
Martine Lappé
Research on autism and environmental risk factors has expanded substantially in recent years. My analysis draws attention to the regimes of perceptibility that shape how the environment is materialized in post-genomic science. I focus on how more complex narratives of autism's causes and social anxieties surrounding child development have helped situate autism risk in women's bodies before and during pregnancy. This has resulted in what I call the maternal body as environment in autism science. I show that this figure involves three characteristics: the molecularization of the environment, an individualization of risk, and the internalization of responsibility...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939945/fairness-in-knowing-science-communication-and-epistemic-justice
#12
Fabien Medvecky
Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably...
September 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938175/telomere-length-and-procedural-justice-predict-stress-reactivity-responses-to-unfair-outcomes-in-african-americans
#13
Todd Lucas, Jennifer Pierce, Mark A Lumley, Douglas A Granger, Jue Lin, Elissa S Epel
This experiment demonstrates that chromosomal telomere length (TL) moderates response to injustice among African Americans. Based on worldview verification theory - an emerging psychosocial framework for understanding stress - we predicted that acute stress responses would be most pronounced when individual-level expectancies for justice were discordant with justice experiences. Healthy African Americans (N=118; 30% male; M age=31.63years) provided dried blood spot samples that were assayed for TL, and completed a social-evaluative stressor task during which high versus low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice were simultaneously manipulated...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932574/lung-allocation
#14
REVIEW
Jens Gottlieb
Shortage of donor lungs in most western countries and broadening of indications for lung transplantation (LTx) has led increased waiting list mortality in the past. Usually donor lungs and recipients are matched by size as measured by total lung capacity and blood type in first order. In some countries regional allocation comes first, in other countries a national wait list exists and some nations are organized in supranational allocation systems. Organ distribution should respect the ethical principles of equity, justice, beneficence and utility...
August 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921049/the-association-between-exposure-to-psychosocial-work-factors-and-mental-health-in-older-employees-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#15
Bo M Havermans, Cécile R L Boot, Trynke Hoekstra, Irene L D Houtman, Evelien P M Brouwers, Johannes R Anema, Allard J van der Beek
PURPOSE: Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. METHODS: The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249)...
September 18, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916453/making-the-legal-and-ethical-case-for-universal-screening-for-postpartum-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-in-pediatric-primary-care
#16
Amy Lewis Gilbert, Casey Balio, Nerissa S Bauer
Postpartum depression (PPD), part of a larger spectrum of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, affects up to 15% of women following the birth of an infant. Fathers may also be affected. PPD not only affects caregivers, but also impacts infants through mechanisms such as inadequate caregiver-infant interactions and non-adherence to safety practices. The negative impact on infants may extend across the life course through adulthood. This article seeks to move the needle toward universal screening for PPD using validated tools in pediatric primary care settings for new caregivers by making the legal and ethical case for this course of action in a manner that is both compelling and accessible for clinicians...
September 12, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901341/-healthcare-services-citizen-s-right-and-healthcare-systems-safeguard-considerations-rising-from-the-charlie-gard-story
#17
Giuseppe R Gristina
The story of Charlie Gard, an 11-month-old boy suffering from a rare inherited mitochondrial disease called 'infantile encephalomyopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome' and kept alive thanks to life supports, rises some issues regarding the provision of healthcare. Is there a right of an individual person to buy any healthcare benefits only because he has enough money to do so? If the answer is 'yes', in light of the distributive justice principle how do governments balance this right with the obligation to regulate health care systems ensuring that all treatments are useful and affordable for everybody? Many considerations of the best interest of patients can be found in this debate, but we cannot ignore neither the value of the scientific method as the cornerstone of the medical profession nor a commitment to support the moral integrity of clinical practice by refusing to provide treatments that do not meet a reasonable threshold of scientific justification evidence-based...
September 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880893/trends-in-summer-bottom-water-temperatures-on-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico-continental-shelf-from-1985-to-2015
#18
R Eugene Turner, Nancy N Rabalais, Dubravko Justić
We quantified trends in the 1985 to 2015 summer bottom-water temperature on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) continental shelf for data collected at 88 stations with depths ranging from 3 to 63 m. The analysis was supplemented with monthly data collected from 1963 to 1965 in the same area. The seasonal summer peak in average bottom-water temperature varied concurrently with air temperature, but with a 2- to 5-month lag. The summer bottom-water temperature declined gradually with depth from 30 oC at stations closest to the shore, to 20 oC at the offshore edge of the study area, and increased an average 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771162/modelling-spatio-temporal-heterogeneities-in-groundwater-quality-in-ghana-a-multivariate-chemometric-approach
#19
Frederick Ato Armah, Arnold Paintsil, David Oscar Yawson, Michael Osei Adu, Justice O Odoi
Chemometric techniques were applied to evaluate the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in groundwater quality data for approximately 740 goldmining and agriculture-intensive locations in Ghana. The strongest linear and monotonic relationships occurred between Mn and Fe. Sixty-nine per cent of total variance in the dataset was explained by four variance factors: physicochemical properties, bacteriological quality, natural geologic attributes and anthropogenic factors (artisanal goldmining). There was evidence of significant differences in means of all trace metals and physicochemical parameters (p < 0...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752794/relationship-between-perceived-organizational-justice-and-moral-distress-in-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#20
Ghazaleh Haghighinezhad, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Tahereh Ashktorab, Jamileh Mohtashami, Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad
BACKGROUND: The nature of the nursing profession pays more attention to ethics of healthcare than its therapeutic dimension. One of the prevalent moral issues in this profession is moral distress. Moral distress appears more in intensive care units due to the widespread need for moral decision-making regarding treatment and care in emergency situations. In this connection, organizational justice is of high importance and, as a significant motivational tool, leaves important impacts upon attitude and behavior of personnel...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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