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Distributive justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627748/the-social-integration-of-healthcare-agency-workers-in-long-term-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Marie-Ève Lapalme, Olivier Doucet
BACKGROUND: Patient care quality is a key concern for long-term care facilities and is directly related to effective collaboration between healthcare professionals. The use of agency staff in long-term care facilities creates important challenges in terms of coordination and communication within work units. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating effect of common in-group identity in the relationship between permanent employees' perceptions regarding the use of agency workers -namely distributive justice, perceptions of threat, perceived similarities with agency workers, and leader inclusiveness toward agency staff- and the permanent employees' adoption of collaborative behaviours...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601546/assessing-vulnerability-to-urban-heat-a-study-of-disproportionate-heat-exposure-and-access-to-refuge-by-socio-demographic-status-in-portland-oregon
#2
Jackson Voelkel, Dana Hellman, Ryu Sakuma, Vivek Shandas
Extreme urban heat is a powerful environmental stressor which poses a significant threat to human health and well-being. Exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, heat events are expected to become more intense and frequent as climate change progresses, though we have limited understanding of the impact of such events on vulnerable populations at a neighborhood or census block group level. Focusing on the City of Portland, Oregon, this study aimed to determine which socio-demographic populations experience disproportionate exposure to extreme heat, as well as the level of access to refuge in the form of public cooling centers or residential central air conditioning...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590314/altruistic-decisions-following-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Rodrigo Basilio, Ivanei Edson Bramati, Barry Gordon, Geraldine Rodríguez-Nieto, Roland Zahn, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
The cerebral correlates of altruistic decisions have increasingly attracted the interest of neuroscientists. To date, investigations on the neural underpinnings of altruistic decisions have primarily been conducted in healthy adults undergoing functional neuroimaging as they engaged in decisions to punish third parties. The chief purpose of the present study was to investigate altruistic decisions following focal brain damage with a novel altruistic decision task. In contrast to studies that have focused either on altruistic punishment or donation, the Altruistic Decision Task allows players to anonymously punish or donate to 30 charitable organizations involved with salient societal issues such as abortion, nuclear energy and civil rights...
March 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576674/the-park-is-ruining-our-livelihoods-we-support-the-park-unravelling-the-paradox-of-attitudes-to-protected-areas
#4
Adrian Martin, Rodd Myers, Neil M Dawson
Despite considerable field-based innovation and academic scrutiny, the nexus between conservation approaches, local support for parks and park effectiveness remains quite puzzling. Common approaches to understanding notions of environmental justice are to understand distributional and procedural issues, representation in decision making, and recognition of authorities and claims. We took a different approach and analysed environmental justice claims through institutional, ideational and psychological lenses...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574337/socioeconomic-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-exposure-to-air-and-noise-pollution-in-london
#5
Cathryn Tonne, Carles Milà, Daniela Fecht, Mar Alvarez, John Gulliver, James Smith, Sean Beevers, H Ross Anderson, Frank Kelly
BACKGROUND: Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources...
March 22, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574235/just-rewards-17-month-old-infants-expect-agents-to-take-resources-according-to-the-principles-of-distributive-justice
#6
Ying Wang, Annette M E Henderson
Adults expect distributive justice-that rewards are distributed according to the principles of equality and equity. Previous research has demonstrated that preschool-aged children are sensitive to distributive justice, yet the age at which these sensitivities emerge remains unknown. The current research demonstrates that 17-month-old infants (N = 84) expect individuals to distribute shared resources based on the amount of work each partner contributed to attain the resources. These findings provide evidence that sensitivity to two principles of distributive justice, equity and equality, emerges much earlier than has previously been suggested...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568114/population-genomic-analysis-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-reveals-specific-events-associated-with-expansion-of-three-main-clades
#7
Zhenhui Zhong, Meilian Chen, Lianyu Lin, Yijuan Han, Jiandong Bao, Wei Tang, Lili Lin, Yahong Lin, Rewish Somai, Lin Lu, Wenjing Zhang, Jian Chen, Yonghe Hong, Xiaofeng Chen, Baohua Wang, Wei-Chiang Shen, Guodong Lu, Justice Norvienyeku, Daniel J Ebbole, Zonghua Wang
We examined the genomes of 100 isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae), the causal agent of rice blast disease. We grouped current field populations of M. oryzae into three major globally distributed groups. A genetically diverse group, clade 1, which may represent a group of closely related lineages, contains isolates of both mating types. Two well-separated clades, clades 2 and 3, appear to have arisen as clonal lineages distinct from the genetically diverse clade. Examination of genes involved in mating pathways identified clade-specific diversification of several genes with orthologs involved in mating behavior in other fungi...
March 22, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561115/-health-care-research-within-international-normative-frameworks-and-the-literature-assessment-stakes-and-recommendations
#8
Patrick Gogognon, Béatrice Godard
Research in health occupies a central place in the elaboration of public policies and the interventions that aim to reduce inequality and make the right to health effective. However, research in health remains marked by inequalities which particularly affect developing countries. The objective of this critical recension of the international normative frameworks and the scientific literature is to present a summary of the assessment, underline the challenges and identify the main recommendations as well as the ethical principles that aim to reduce inequalities in the field of health research...
May 22, 2017: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551952/environmental-injustice-and-flood-risk-a-conceptual-model-and-case-comparison-of-metropolitan-miami-and-houston-usa
#9
Timothy W Collins, Sara E Grineski, Jayajit Chakraborty
This article outlines a conceptual model and comparatively applies it to results from environmental justice (EJ) studies of flood risk in the Miami, Florida, and Houston, Texas, metropolitan areas. In contrast to most EJ studies of air pollution, which have found that socially-vulnerable groups experience disproportionate risk, distributive EJ studies of flooding reveal inconsistent findings regarding the relationship between social vulnerability and flood exposure. Counterintuitively (from a conventional EJ perspective), some pre-flood EJ studies have found that socially-advantaged people experience the highest residential exposure to flood risks...
February 2018: Regional Environmental Change
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509127/justice-at-the-workplace-a-review
#10
Marianna Virtanen, Marko Elovainio
Modern work life is characterized by constant change, reorganizations, and requirements of efficiency, which make the distribution of resources and obligations, as well as justice in decisionmaking, highly important. In the work life context, it is a question not only of distributing resources and obligations, but also of the procedures and rules that guide the decisionmaking in the organization. Studies of these rules and procedures have provided the basis for a new line of research that evaluates leadership and social relationships in working communities; that is, distributive, procedural, and relational justice...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509117/genetics-and-justice-must-one-theory-fit-all-contexts
#11
Darryl Gunson
Appeals to social justice that argue medicine and healthcare should have certain priorities and not others are common. It is an obvious question to ask: What does social justice demand of the new genetic technologies? However, it is important to note that there are many theories and sub-theories of justice. There are utilitarian theories, libertarian theories, and egalitarian theories. There are so-called luck egalitarians, equality-as-fairness thinkers, and capability theorists, with each having his or her own distinctive approach to the distribution of medical goods and technologies, and to healthcare priorities...
April 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502021/the-construction-of-feelings-of-justice-in-environmental-management-an-empirical-study-of-multiple-biodiversity-conflicts-in-calakmul-mexico
#12
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Violaine Lemay, Sophie Calmé
A failure to address social concerns in biodiversity conservation can lead to feelings of injustice among some actors, and hence jeopardize conservation goals. The complex socio-cultural and political context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico, has historically led to multiple biodiversity conflicts. Our goal, in this case study, was to explore perceptions of justice held by local actors in relation to biodiversity conflicts. We then aimed to determine the following: 1) people's definitions of their feelings of justice; 2) the criteria used in this assessment; 3) variability in the criteria influencing them; and 4) implications for environmental management in the region and beyond...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481702/how-to-perform-an-ethical-risk-analysis-era
#13
Sven Ove Hansson
Ethical analysis is often needed in the preparation of policy decisions on risk. A three-step method is proposed for performing an ethical risk analysis (eRA). In the first step, the people concerned are identified and categorized in terms of the distinct but compatible roles of being risk-exposed, a beneficiary, or a decisionmaker. In the second step, a more detailed classification of roles and role combinations is performed, and ethically problematic role combinations are identified. In the third step, further ethical deliberation takes place, with an emphasis on individual risk-benefit weighing, distributional analysis, rights analysis, and power analysis...
February 26, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478391/prisoners-perception-of-legitimacy-of-the-prison-staff-a-qualitative-study-in-slovene-prisons
#14
Rok Hacin, Gorazd Meško
The purpose of this article is to explore prisoners' perception of legitimacy of prison staff and examine the compliance of prisoners with the authority of prison staff to highlight the differences between instrumental and normative compliance of prisoners. This study draws on data collected from a random sample of 193 prisoners in all Slovene prisons. Using a qualitative approach based on structured interviews, our findings suggest that distributive justice, procedural justice, the quality of relations with prison staff, and the effectiveness of prison staff influence prisoners' perception of legitimacy in a prison environment...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473147/agency-and-responsibility-in-adolescent-students-a-challenge-for-the-societies-of-tomorrow
#15
Consuelo Mameli, Luisa Molinari, Stefano Passini
BACKGROUND: The literature in educational psychology converges on the idea that students should take an active and accountable position in their learning processes. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of research that has systematically put the constructs of agency and responsibility at the core of their interests. AIMS: In this study, we explore whether good experiences at school - here conceptualized as the general level of basic needs fulfilment and interpersonal justice - impact on student agency and responsibility, which in turn are considered as possible mediators between a good educational experience and two outcome measures, that is, academic achievement and career decision-making self-efficacy...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466133/ethical-dilemmas-in-protecting-susceptible-subpopulations-from-environmental-health-risks-liberty-utility-fairness-and-accountability-for-reasonableness
#16
David B Resnik, D Robert MacDougall, Elise M Smith
Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; (2) show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (3) argue that an approach to public decision making known as accountability for reasonableness can complement theories of justice in establishing acceptable environmental health risks for the general population and susceptible subpopulations...
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466125/distributive-justice-and-priority-setting-in-health-care
#17
Yolonda Y Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455436/older-adults-in-jail-high-rates-and-early-onset-of-geriatric-conditions
#18
Meredith Greene, Cyrus Ahalt, Irena Stijacic-Cenzer, Lia Metzger, Brie Williams
BACKGROUND: The number of older adults in the criminal justice system is rapidly increasing. While this population is thought to experience an early onset of aging-related health conditions ("accelerated aging"), studies have not directly compared rates of geriatric conditions in this population to those found in the general population. The aims of this study were to compare the burden of geriatric conditions among older adults in jail to rates found in an age-matched nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults...
February 17, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449245/selection-for-family-medicine-residency-training-in-canada-how-consistently-are-the-same-students-ranked-by-different-programs
#19
Keith Wycliffe-Jones, Kent G Hecker, Shirley Schipper, Maureen Topps, Jeanine Robinson, Tasnima Abedin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consistency of the ranking of Canadian and US medical graduates who applied to Canadian family medicine (FM) residency programs between 2007 and 2013. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Family medicine residency programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 17 Canadian medical schools allowed access to their anonymized program rank-order lists of students applying to FM residency programs submitted to the first iteration of the Canadian Resident Matching Service match from 2007 to 2013...
February 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424494/accidents-and-ethics-a-visual-narrative-approach
#20
Catherine Gadd, Colin Jones
Emergency department (ED) attendances are continuing to rise, and medical and nursing teams are working under considerable strain. ED clinicians are used to thinking on their feet and possess the skills to multitask, and juggle ever-changing and competing priorities against the clock. This article reports the findings of a study that enabled ED clinicians to take time out to reflect on some of the difficult decisions they make daily, and to ask whether they consider ethical principles in depth, and if they are of any practical help...
February 9, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
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