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Distributive justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907112/a-systematic-review-of-stakeholder-views-of-selection-methods-for-medical-schools-admission
#1
M E Kelly, F Patterson, S O'Flynn, J Mulligan, A W Murphy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature with respect to stakeholder views of selection methods for medical school admissions. METHODS: An electronic search of nine databases was conducted between January 2000-July 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed all titles (n = 1017) and retained abstracts (n = 233) for relevance. Methodological quality of quantitative papers was assessed using the MERSQI instrument. The overall quality of evidence in this field was low...
June 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888649/dirty-hands-the-toxic-politics-of-denunciation
#2
Amelia Fiske
In September 2013, President Correa balanced himself on a felled log over an oil waste pit in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Extending a bare hand dripping with crude, he launched La Mano Sucia de Chevron campaign, demanding accountability for decades of contamination. This article explores the role of bodily knowledge in witnessing industrial contamination and struggles for environmental justice. Situating the mano sucia in the history of activism in the region, I show how the juxtaposition of different hands within the same motif reveals profoundly asymmetric relationships to the toxic entanglements that oil produces...
June 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886810/the-impacts-of-organizational-justice-on-early-childhood-educators-intention-to-participate-in-professional-associations-the-mediator-role-of-deliberative-beliefs
#3
Chun-Wen Lin
Guided by the general incentives rational action model and deliberative participatory democracy framework, we investigated whether deliberative beliefs, including normative and personal aspects, mediate the relationship between distributive, procedural, and interactive organizational justice and intention to participate in professional associations. Self-report measures of organizational justice, deliberative belief, and intention of participation were obtained from 789 early childhood educators in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed model...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882441/misconduct-within-the-four-walls-does-organizational-justice-matter-in-explaining-prison-officers-misconduct-and-job-stress
#4
Francis D Boateng, Ming-Li Hsieh
Primarily, this article examines the role of organizational justice in understanding prison officers' behavior. The authors surveyed 169 correctional officers across five correctional facilities in Ghana to explore the role of three organizational justice dimensions in prison misconduct and job stress. Results from the negative binomial and ordinal logistic analyses revealed the significant contributions of two dimensions of organizational justice in explaining misconduct and stress among officers. Officers who had higher perceptions of distributive fairness and interaction in the organization had lower odds of receiving misconduct-related complaints...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761367/in-vivo-pharmacokinetics-of-bromfenac-ophthalmic-solution-0-075-bromfenac-ophthalmic-solution-0-07-and-nepafenac-amfenac-ophthalmic-suspension-0-3-in-rabbits
#5
John D Sheppard, Paul C Cockrum, Angela Justice, Mark C Jasek
INTRODUCTION: Little is known of the ocular distribution characteristics of currently branded non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the United States. This study was designed to predict the ocular bioavailability characteristics in humans using Dutch Belted rabbits as a surrogate. Commercially available, topically-applied NSAIDs containing bromfenac or nepafenac/amfenac were evaluated. METHODS: 126 healthy adult Dutch Belted rabbits were randomly assigned to three treatment cohorts (BromSite® twice daily [BID] in the right eye, BromSite® once daily [QD] in the right eye, Prolensa® QD in the right eye and Ilevro™ QD in the left eye) and 7 post-dosing time points (0...
May 14, 2018: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760025/association-of-the-social-determinants-of-health-with-quality-of-primary-care
#6
Alan Katz, Dan Chateau, Jennifer E Enns, Jeff Valdivia, Carole Taylor, Randy Walld, Scott McCulloch
PURPOSE: In primary care, there is increasing recognition of the difficulty of treating patients' immediate health concerns when their overall well-being is shaped by underlying social determinants of health. We assessed the association of social complexity factors with the quality of care patients received in primary care settings. METHODS: Eleven social complexity factors were defined using administrative data on poverty, mental health, newcomer status, and justice system involvement from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository...
May 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758906/does-drought-always-cause-economic-losses-in-agriculture-an-empirical-investigation-on-the-distributive-effects-of-drought-events-in-some-areas-of-southern-europe
#7
Dario Antonino Musolino, Antonio Massarutto, Alessandro de Carli
Studies on the impacts of drought usually make the implicit assumption that there will always be a negative effect on the environment, the economy and society. However, other approaches, based for example on the framework provided by the consumer surplus theory, try to focus on the distributive effects of drought. In this paper, in the wake of such approaches, we address the question of the distributive effects of drought on agriculture, exploring and studying in depth the characteristics, the signs and the magnitude of the socio-economic impacts of droughts on specific significant agricultural areas in Europe...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753985/deliberations-about-a-perfect-storm-the-meaning-of-justice-for-food-energy-water-nexus-few-nexus
#8
Holger Schlör, Sandra Venghaus, Wiltrud Fischer, Carolin Märker, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake
The current global developments have the potential to cause a 'perfect storm' at the core of the Anthropocene: the Food-Energy-Water-Nexus. To discuss the ethical consequences of these developments, i.e., insufficient access to the life sustaining nexus resources, the analysis is focused on Rawls' theory of justice and its implementation in Germany with a special focus on the FEW nexus. Rawls stresses in his theory of justice the prominent meaning of institutions for a fair society to meet societal challenges and to meet the challenge of our time: a stable and just society...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751222/development-of-forensic-medicine-in-post-reform-indonesia
#9
Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K Sunjaya
Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736813/participatory-budgeting-could-it-diminish-health-disparities-in-the-united-states
#10
EDITORIAL
Carolin Hagelskamp, David Schleifer, Chloe Rinehart, Rebecca Silliman
Participatory budgeting (PB)-a democratic process where ordinary residents decide directly how to spend part of a public budget-has gained impressive momentum in US municipalities, spreading from one pilot project in Chicago's 49th ward in 2009 to 50 active PB processes across 14 cities in 2016-2017. Over 93,600 US residents voted in a PB process in 2015-2016, deciding over a total of about $49.5 million and funding 264 projects intended to improve their communities. The vast majority of US PB processes take place in large urban centers (e...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725725/-environmental-justice-as-an-approach-to-tackle-environmental-health-inequalities
#11
REVIEW
Gabriele Bolte, Christiane Bunge, Claudia Hornberg, Heike Köckler
Current international studies show that environment-related diseases disproportionately affect vulnerable people. This is a case of environmental injustice. Environmental justice goes beyond the mere description of environment- and health-related social inequalities by comprising two dimensions of justice as a normative approach: distributional and procedural justice. Attempts to explain the link between social circumstances, the environment and health deal with both the socially unequal distribution of environmental hazards and environmental resources (exposure variation) and social differences in vulnerability to the health effects of environmental exposures (effect modification)...
May 3, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707168/leadership-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-are-soldiers-perceptions-of-organizational-justice-during-deployment-protective
#12
Andreas F Elrond, Annie Høgh, Søren B Andersen
Background : Soldiers' perception of leadership during military deployment has gained research attention as a potentially modifiable factor to buffer against the development of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within nonmilitary research, the organizational justice (OJ) framework, i.e. distributive justice, procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ), has been found to relate to mental health outcomes. Aspects of OJ may, therefore, be protective against PTSD. Objectives : We examined the prospective relationship between aspects of OJ, namely the perceptions of PJ and IJ by subordinate soldiers without leadership obligations in relationship to immediate superiors and PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688646/-the-significance-of-the-legal-perspective-the-legal-world-s-contribution-to-the-medical-world
#13
REVIEW
Alona Sigler-Harcavi, Limor Cohen Ashkenazi
Working with medical and paramedical teams has taught us that the medical staff does not fully utilize the potential of judicial decisions and precedents as a source for learning, drawing conclusions and motivating progress. Judicial ruling is an essential part of the toolbox used by medical administrators in general, and healthcare risk managers in particular. Knowing the relevant legal rulings, before you embark on any given path, is the equivalent of looking before you leap. This is not necessarily an issue of "holy scripture", but should mainly be considered as a source for expanding your perspective...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627748/the-social-integration-of-healthcare-agency-workers-in-long-term-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Marie-Ève Lapalme, Olivier Doucet
BACKGROUND: Patient care quality is a key concern for long-term care facilities and is directly related to effective collaboration between healthcare professionals. The use of agency staff in long-term care facilities creates important challenges in terms of coordination and communication within work units. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to assess the mediating effect of common in-group identity in the relationship between permanent employees' perceptions regarding the use of agency workers -namely distributive justice, perceptions of threat, perceived similarities with agency workers, and leader inclusiveness toward agency staff- and the permanent employees' adoption of collaborative behaviours...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601546/assessing-vulnerability-to-urban-heat-a-study-of-disproportionate-heat-exposure-and-access-to-refuge-by-socio-demographic-status-in-portland-oregon
#15
Jackson Voelkel, Dana Hellman, Ryu Sakuma, Vivek Shandas
Extreme urban heat is a powerful environmental stressor which poses a significant threat to human health and well-being. Exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, heat events are expected to become more intense and frequent as climate change progresses, though we have limited understanding of the impact of such events on vulnerable populations at a neighborhood or census block group level. Focusing on the City of Portland, Oregon, this study aimed to determine which socio-demographic populations experience disproportionate exposure to extreme heat, as well as the level of access to refuge in the form of public cooling centers or residential central air conditioning...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590314/altruistic-decisions-following-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Jorge Moll, Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Rodrigo Basilio, Ivanei Edson Bramati, Barry Gordon, Geraldine Rodríguez-Nieto, Roland Zahn, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
The cerebral correlates of altruistic decisions have increasingly attracted the interest of neuroscientists. To date, investigations on the neural underpinnings of altruistic decisions have primarily been conducted in healthy adults undergoing functional neuroimaging as they engaged in decisions to punish third parties. The chief purpose of the present study was to investigate altruistic decisions following focal brain damage with a novel altruistic decision task. In contrast to studies that have focused either on altruistic punishment or donation, the Altruistic Decision Task allows players to anonymously punish or donate to 30 charitable organizations involved with salient societal issues such as abortion, nuclear energy and civil rights...
May 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576674/the-park-is-ruining-our-livelihoods-we-support-the-park-unravelling-the-paradox-of-attitudes-to-protected-areas
#17
Adrian Martin, Rodd Myers, Neil M Dawson
Despite considerable field-based innovation and academic scrutiny, the nexus between conservation approaches, local support for parks and park effectiveness remains quite puzzling. Common approaches to understanding notions of environmental justice are to understand distributional and procedural issues, representation in decision making, and recognition of authorities and claims. We took a different approach and analysed environmental justice claims through institutional, ideational and psychological lenses...
2018: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574337/socioeconomic-and-ethnic-inequalities-in-exposure-to-air-and-noise-pollution-in-london
#18
Cathryn Tonne, Carles Milà, Daniela Fecht, Mar Alvarez, John Gulliver, James Smith, Sean Beevers, H Ross Anderson, Frank Kelly
BACKGROUND: Transport-related air and noise pollution, exposures linked to adverse health outcomes, varies within cities potentially resulting in exposure inequalities. Relatively little is known regarding inequalities in personal exposure to air pollution or transport-related noise. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to quantify socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in London in 1) air pollution exposure at residence compared to personal exposure; and 2) transport-related noise at residence from different sources...
June 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574235/just-rewards-17-month-old-infants-expect-agents-to-take-resources-according-to-the-principles-of-distributive-justice
#19
Ying Wang, Annette M E Henderson
Adults expect distributive justice-that rewards are distributed according to the principles of equality and equity. Previous research has demonstrated that preschool-aged children are sensitive to distributive justice, yet the age at which these sensitivities emerge remains unknown. The current research demonstrates that 17-month-old infants (N = 84) expect individuals to distribute shared resources based on the amount of work each partner contributed to attain the resources. These findings provide evidence that sensitivity to two principles of distributive justice, equity and equality, emerges much earlier than has previously been suggested...
August 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568114/population-genomic-analysis-of-the-rice-blast-fungus-reveals-specific-events-associated-with-expansion-of-three-main-clades
#20
Zhenhui Zhong, Meilian Chen, Lianyu Lin, Yijuan Han, Jiandong Bao, Wei Tang, Lili Lin, Yahong Lin, Rewish Somai, Lin Lu, Wenjing Zhang, Jian Chen, Yonghe Hong, Xiaofeng Chen, Baohua Wang, Wei-Chiang Shen, Guodong Lu, Justice Norvienyeku, Daniel J Ebbole, Zonghua Wang
We examined the genomes of 100 isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae), the causal agent of rice blast disease. We grouped current field populations of M. oryzae into three major globally distributed groups. A genetically diverse group, clade 1, which may represent a group of closely related lineages, contains isolates of both mating types. Two well-separated clades, clades 2 and 3, appear to have arisen as clonal lineages distinct from the genetically diverse clade. Examination of genes involved in mating pathways identified clade-specific diversification of several genes with orthologs involved in mating behavior in other fungi...
March 22, 2018: ISME Journal
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