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Distributive justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771162/modelling-spatio-temporal-heterogeneities-in-groundwater-quality-in-ghana-a-multivariate-chemometric-approach
#1
Frederick Ato Armah, Arnold Paintsil, David Oscar Yawson, Michael Osei Adu, Justice O Odoi
Chemometric techniques were applied to evaluate the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in groundwater quality data for approximately 740 goldmining and agriculture-intensive locations in Ghana. The strongest linear and monotonic relationships occurred between Mn and Fe. Sixty-nine per cent of total variance in the dataset was explained by four variance factors: physicochemical properties, bacteriological quality, natural geologic attributes and anthropogenic factors (artisanal goldmining). There was evidence of significant differences in means of all trace metals and physicochemical parameters (p < 0...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752794/relationship-between-perceived-organizational-justice-and-moral-distress-in-intensive-care-unit-nurses
#2
Ghazaleh Haghighinezhad, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Tahereh Ashktorab, Jamileh Mohtashami, Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad
BACKGROUND: The nature of the nursing profession pays more attention to ethics of healthcare than its therapeutic dimension. One of the prevalent moral issues in this profession is moral distress. Moral distress appears more in intensive care units due to the widespread need for moral decision-making regarding treatment and care in emergency situations. In this connection, organizational justice is of high importance and, as a significant motivational tool, leaves important impacts upon attitude and behavior of personnel...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749953/approaches-to-detect-genetic-effects-that-differ-between-two-strata-in-genome-wide-meta-analyses-recommendations-based-on-a-systematic-evaluation
#3
Thomas W Winkler, Anne E Justice, L Adrienne Cupples, Florian Kronenberg, Zoltán Kutalik, Iris M Heid
Genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMAs) conducted separately by two strata have identified differences in genetic effects between strata, such as sex-differences for body fat distribution. However, there are several approaches to identify such differences and an uncertainty which approach to use. Assuming the availability of stratified GWAMA results, we compare various approaches to identify between-strata differences in genetic effects. We evaluate type I error and power via simulations and analytical comparisons for different scenarios of strata designs and for different types of between-strata differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749596/climate-change-climate-justice-and-environmental-health-implications-for-the-nursing-profession
#4
Patrice K Nicholas, Suellen Breakey
PURPOSE: Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749156/employee-conscientiousness-agreeableness-and-supervisor-justice-rule-compliance-a-three-study-investigation
#5
Jason L Huang, Russell Cropanzano, Andrew Li, Ping Shao, Xin-An Zhang, Yuhui Li
Researchers have paid limited attention to what makes organizational authority figures decide to treat their employees either justly or unjustly. Drawing from the actor-focused model of justice, as well as the stereotype content model, we argue that employee conscientiousness and agreeableness can impact the extent to which supervisors adhere to normative rules for distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice, as a result of supervisors' evaluations of their employees' effort and their liking of the employees...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746165/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-positive-individuals-aged-50-years-or-older
#6
Sara Lodi, Dominique Costagliola, Caroline Sabin, Julia Del Amo, Roger Logan, Sophie Abgrall, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, Sophie Jose, Jose-Ramon Blanco, Victoria Hernando, Heiner C Bucher, Helen Kovari, Ferran Segura, Juan Ambrosioni, Charalambos A Gogos, Nikos Pantazis, Francois Dabis, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Laurence Meyer, Rémonie Seng, John Gill, Hartmut Krentz, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Antonio G Pacheco, Roberto Muga, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend immediate initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive individuals. However, those guidelines are based on trials of relatively young participants. METHODS: We included HIV-positive ART-naïve, AIDS-free individuals aged 50-70 years after 2004 in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 5-year risk of all-cause and non-AIDS mortality under: i) immediate initiation at baseline, and initiation at CD4 count ii) <500 cells/mm, and iii) <350 cells/mm...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741248/lessons-learned-from-arsenic-mitigation-among-private-well-households
#7
REVIEW
Yan Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. RECENT FINDINGS: This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions...
July 24, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740618/ethical-issues-associated-with-medical-tourism-in-africa
#8
REVIEW
John J O Mogaka, Lucia Mupara, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni
Global disparities in medical technologies, laws, economic inequities, and social-cultural differences drive medical tourism (MT), the practice of travelling to consume healthcare that is either too delayed, unavailable, unaffordable or legally proscribed at home. Africa is simultaneously a source and destination for MT. MT however, presents a new and challenging health ethics frontier, being largely unregulated and characterized by policy contradictions, minority discrimination and conflict of interest among role-players...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739637/distributive-justice-and-the-harm-to-medical-professionals-fighting-epidemics
#9
Andreas Albertsen, Jens Damgaard Thaysen
The exposure of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals to risks in the context of epidemics is significant. While traditional medical ethics offers the thought that these dangers may limit the extent to which a duty to care is applicable in such situations, it has less to say about what we might owe to medical professionals who are disadvantaged in these contexts. Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice, appears to fare particularly bad in that regard. If we want to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their decisions to help, cure and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734745/why-are-some-people-who-have-received-overdose-education-and-naloxone-reticent-to-call-emergency-medical-services-in-the-event-of-overdose
#10
Stephen Koester, Shane R Mueller, Lisa Raville, Sig Langegger, Ingrid A Binswanger
BACKGROUND: Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training for persons who inject drugs (PWID) underlines the importance of summoning emergency medical services (EMS). To encourage PWID to do so, Colorado enacted a Good Samaritan law providing limited immunity from prosecution for possession of a controlled substance and/or drug paraphernalia to the overdose victim and the witnesses who in good faith provide emergency assistance. This paper examines the law's influence by describing OEND trained PWIDs' experience reversing overdoses and their decision about calling for EMS support...
July 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715161/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-acryl-fentanyl-into-schedule-i-temporary-scheduling-order
#11
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylacrylamide (acryl fentanyl or acryloylfentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into Schedule I. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of acryl fentanyl into Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
July 14, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713432/haematological-profile-and-intensity-of-urogenital-schistosomiasis-in-ghanaian-children
#12
Justice Afrifa, Desmond Gyedu, Eric Ofori Gyamerah, Samuel Essien-Baidoo, Isaac Mensah-Essilfie
BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis is a widely contracted parasitic helminth infection often associated with haematological abnormalities. AIM: We investigated the relationship between the haematological profile and the intensity of schistosomiasis among children in the Yeji district. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 participants comprising 50 Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) infected and 50 noninfected controls aged 6-17 years matched for age and sex were recruited into the study...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713147/to-enroll-or-not-to-enroll-a-researcher-struggles-with-the-decision-to-involve-study-participants-in-a-clinical-trial-that-could-save-their-lives
#13
Roberto Abadie
Hundreds of thousands of clinical trials are conducted annually around the world, working to further scientific knowledge and expand medical treatment. At the same time, clinical trials also present novel challenges to researchers who have access to large pools of research participants and are routinely approached by pharmaceutical companies seeking to recruit subjects for clinical trials. This case study discusses the ethical dilemmas faced by a community health investigator who received an invitation to enroll people who inject drugs (PWID) into a clinical trial of a drug that promised a new treatment option for Hepatitis C...
2017: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709927/determining-the-distribution-of-fitness-effects-using-a-generalized-beta-burr-distribution
#14
Paul Joyce, Zaid Abdo
In Beisel et al. (2007), a likelihood framework, based on extreme value theory (EVT), was developed for determining the distribution of fitness effects for adaptive mutations. In this paper we extend this framework beyond the extreme distributions and develop a likelihood framework for testing whether or not extreme value theory applies. By making two simple adjustments to the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) we introduce a new simple five parameter probability density function that incorporates nearly every common (continuous) probability model ever used...
July 12, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701003/-the-impact-of-migration-background-on-health-results-of-the-austrian-health-interview-survey-athis-2014
#15
Anja Waxenegger, Hannes Mayerl, Éva Rásky, Erwin Stolz, Wolfgang Freidl
Objectives Previous research has shown migrants to have a poorer health status than those without a migration background in many respects. So far, it is not completely clear whether the poorer health results of migrants are mainly the cause of their socioeconomic status (SES), which on average is lower than the SES of people without a migration background. The present study explores the question whether the fact of having a migration background has an impact on health, even though SES and health-related behavior are taken into account...
July 12, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690425/an-unsettled-bargain-mothers-perceptions-of-justice-and-fairness-in-paid-work
#16
Mara A Yerkes, Bill Martin, Janeen Baxter, Judy Rose
Mothers' return to work following childbirth is widely recognized as a key stage in establishing employment arrangements that disadvantage them in the long run. This article investigates why mothers accept these unequal arrangements using data from a qualitative study of 109 Australian mothers. It focuses on mothers' perceptions of the fairness and justice of the flexibility of arrangements they commonly enter into upon return to work. The article draws attention to the importance of different justice frameworks, distributive, procedural and interactional, in understanding women's acceptance of gender inequality in paid work...
June 2017: Journal of Sociology: the Journal of the Australian Sociological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652920/perception-of-and-attitude-toward-ethical-issues-among-korean-occupational-physicians
#17
Junghye Choi, Chunhui Suh, Jong-Tae Lee, Segyeong Lee, Chae-Kwan Lee, Gyeong-Jin Lee, Taekjoong Kim, Byung-Chul Son, Jeong-Ho Kim, Kunhyung Kim, Dae Hwan Kim, Ji Young Ryu
BACKGROUND: Occupational physicians (OPs) have complex relationships with employees, employers, and the general public. OPs may have simultaneous obligations towards third parties, which can lead to variable conflicts of interests. Among the various studies of ethical issues related to OPs, few have focused on the Korean OPs. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the ethical contexts, the practical resolutions, and the ethical principles for the Korean OPs. METHODS: An email with a self-administered questionnaire was sent to members of the Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, comprising 150 specialists and 130 residents...
2017: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645979/the-2015-middle-childhood-survey-mcs-of-mental-health-and-well-being-at-age-11-years-in-an-australian-population-cohort
#18
Kristin R Laurens, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kimberlie Dean, Sally A Brinkman, Miles Bore, Rhoshel K Lenroot, Maxwell Smith, Allyson Holbrook, Kim M Robinson, Robert Stevens, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
PURPOSE: The Middle Childhood Survey (MCS) was designed as a computerised self-report assessment of children's mental health and well-being at approximately 11 years of age, conducted with a population cohort of 87 026 children being studied longitudinally within the New South Wales (NSW) Child Development Study. PARTICIPANTS: School Principals provided written consent for teachers to administer the MCS in class to year 6 students at 829 NSW schools (35.0% of eligible schools)...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627155/-environmental-justice-in-the-epidemiological-surveillance-system-of-residents-in-italian-national-priority-contaminated-sites-sentieri-project
#19
Roberto Pasetto, Nicolás Zengarini, Nicola Caranci, Marco De Santis, Fabrizio Minichilli, Michele Santoro, Roberta Pirastu, Pietro Comba
OBJECTIVES: descriptive evaluation of distributional justice in the epidemiological surveillance system of populations residing in Italian National priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) of SENTIERI project. Analysis of the feasibility of monitoring different Environmental Justice dimensions in SENTIERI. DESIGN: descriptive study and ecological meta-analysis. SETTING AN PARTICIPANTS: residents in 298 municipalities included in 44 NPCSs in SENTIERI. Description of their level of deprivation and mortality analysis by deprivation level in the first period evaluated in SENTIERI, years 1995-2002...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614350/ranking-and-characterization-of-established-bmi-and-lipid-associated-loci-as-candidates-for-gene-environment-interactions
#20
Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q Deng, Tibor V Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P Morris, Nita G Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y Chu, Anne E Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W Winkler, Lynda M Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L Adrienne Cupples, Paul M Ridker, Nicholas J Wareham, Ken K Ong, Ruth J F Loos, Daniel I Chasman, Erik Ingelsson, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Robert A Scott, Reedik Mägi, Guillaume Paré, Paul W Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G×E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G×E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ = 0...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
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