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Distributive justice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306592/bridging-the-gap-in-heart-transplantation
#1
Jacqueline M Smits, Undine Samuel, Guenther Laufer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Countries in Europe and in the USA are proclaiming their need for an objective allocation system that can cope with distribution of a scarce resource in a changing environment of an older donor and recipient population and of an increased number of patients on mechanical circulatory support, whose prospects are increasing. RECENT FINDINGS: The current heart allocation systems in Eurotransplant, France and the USA are all urgency tier systems, where within the same tier a first-come, first-served principle is applied...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299971/addressing-excess-risk-of-overdose-among-recently-incarcerated-people-in-the-usa-harm-reduction-interventions-in-correctional-settings
#2
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David H Cloud, Chelsea Davis, Nickolas Zaller, Ayesha Delany-Brumsey, Leah Pope, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Josiah Rich
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to reduce overdose deaths among those with recent incarceration. Jails and prisons are at the epicenter of the opioid epidemic but are a largely untapped setting for implementing overdose education, risk assessment, medication assisted treatment, and naloxone distribution programs...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274570/relationship-between-neighbourhood-socioeconomic-position-and-neighbourhood-public-green-space-availability-an-environmental-inequality-analysis-in-a-large-german-city-applying-generalized-linear-models
#3
Steffen Andreas Schüle, Katharina M A Gabriel, Gabriele Bolte
BACKGROUND: The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. METHODS: Two different measures were defined for green space availability...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274057/picrosirius-red-and-polarization-microscopy-a-tool-for-gender-differentiation
#4
Bk Charan Gowda, Ganganna Kokila, Pillai Arun Gopinathan, Kunigal Shivaprakash Praveen
INTRODUCTION: Forensic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which in collaboration with legal profession serves an important role to maintain justice system of a country. Forensic dentists play a major role in identification of an individual. Within the literature various methods have been found to be useful in gender differentiation. An attempt was made for differentiation of gender using picrosirius red and polarization microscopy. AIM: To evaluate picrosirius red and polarization microscopy as a tool for gender differentiation by observing birefringence pattern and distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers in males and females...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270785/whether-modulating-the-activity-of-the-temporalparietal-junction-alters-distribution-decisions-within-different-contexts-evidence-from-a-tdcs-study
#5
Jun Luo, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang, Hang Ye, Haoli Zheng
Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute income in a just or equal manner. We aimed to test the roles of social preference in behavioral distributive justice. We thus provide evidence of a causal link between the neural and behavioral results through the application of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) of our participants. The participants were found to make fairer distributions within the known position after receiving right anodal/left cathodal tDCS and receiving right cathodal/left anodal tDCS over the TPJ than the participants who received the sham stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260450/questionnaire-on-brain-death-and-organ-procurement
#6
Saleh Hammad, Manal Alnammourah, Farah Almahmoud, Mais Fawzi, Abdel-Hadi Breizat
OBJECTIVES: The subject of organs for transplant after brain death raises many concerns, including definition and timing of death, how to permit human organ transplant, and the idea of paying for organs. Many ethical concerns are raised regarding regulations and procedures for organ transplant in developing countries. These include where and how to obtain organs and the concept of justice in organ distribution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered 2682 questionnaires to 628 men and 2054 women over 24 months (range, 18 to 70 years old)...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238456/ethical-issues-in-dialysis-therapy
#7
Vivekanand Jha, Dominique E Martin, Joanne M Bargman, Simon Davies, John Feehally, Fred Finkelstein, David Harris, Madhukar Misra, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Adeera Levin
Treatment for end-stage kidney disease is a major economic challenge and a public health concern worldwide. Renal-replacement therapy poses several practical and ethical dilemmas of global relevance for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. These include how to: promote patients' best interests; increase access to dialysis while maintaining procedural and distributive justice; minimise the influence of financial incentives and competing interests; ensure quality of care in service delivery and access to non-dialytic supportive care when needed; minimise the financial burden on patients and health-care system; and protect the interests of vulnerable groups during crisis situations...
February 23, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219386/advancing-system-and-policy-changes-for-social-and-racial-justice-comparing-a-rural-and-urban-community-based-participatory-research-partnership-in-the-u-s
#8
Carlos Devia, Elizabeth A Baker, Shannon Sanchez-Youngman, Ellen Barnidge, Maxine Golub, Freda Motton, Michael Muhammad, Charmaine Ruddock, Belinda Vicuña, Nina Wallerstein
BACKGROUND: The paper examines the role of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within the context of social justice literature and practice. METHODS: Two CBPR case studies addressing health inequities related to Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular disease were selected from a national cross-site study assessing effective academic-community research partnerships. One CBPR partnership works with African Americans in rural Pemiscot County, Missouri and the other CBPR partnership works with African American and Latinos in urban South Bronx, New York City...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152666/provision-of-critical-care-services-to-hiv-infected-children-in-an-era-of-advanced-intensive-care-and-availability-of-combined-antiretroviral-therapy
#9
Prakash M Jeena, Miriam Adhikari
Intensive care facilities are always in demand in the public sector and there is constant competition for beds. Appropriate allocation of children to these resources is based on the ethical principles of distributive justice and beneficence that is determined on the presumed short-term outcome of the acute illness, long-term outcome of the underlying chronic disease and the overall demand for these facilities. At the onset of the HIV epidemic in South Africa, HIV-infected children were refused admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) on the basis of poor ICU outcomes and the lack of provision of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for survivors...
February 3, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134008/prioritising-patient-care
#10
Helge Skirbekk, Marit Helene Hem, Per Nortvedt
BACKGROUND: There is little research comparing clinicians' and managers' views on priority settings in the healthcare services. During research on two different qualitative research projects on healthcare prioritisations, we found a striking difference on how hospital executive managers and clinical healthcare professionals talked about and understood prioritisations. AIM: The purpose of this study is to explore how healthcare professionals in mental healthcare and somatic medicine prioritise their care, to compare different ways of setting priorities among managers and clinicians and to explore how moral dilemmas are balanced and reconciled...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068047/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-six-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-amb-5f-apinaca-adb-fubinaca-mdmb-chmica-and-mdmb-fubinaca-into-schedule-i-notice-of-intent
#11
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this notice of intent to temporarily schedule six synthetic cannabinoids: methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [5F-ADB; 5F-MDMB-PINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate [5F-AMB]; N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [5F-APINACA, 5F-AKB48]; N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [ADB-FUBINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-CHMICA, MMB-CHMINACA] and methyl 2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-FUBINACA], into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)...
December 21, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028666/is-male-androphilia-a-context-dependent-cross-cultural-universal
#12
Raymond Hames, Zachary Garfield, Melissa Garfield
The cross-cultural ethnographic literature has traditionally used the label male "homosexuality" to describe sexual relationships between biological males without considering whether or not the concept encompasses primary sexual attraction to adult males. Although male androphilia seems to be found in all national populations, its universal existence in tribal populations has been questioned. Our goal is to review previous cross-cultural classifications and surveys of male same sex behavior to present a system that does justice to its varied expressions, especially as it is informed by contemporary sexuality research...
January 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982418/a-developmental-neuroscience-study-of-moral-decision-making-regarding-resource-allocation
#13
Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell, Melanie Killen, Jean Decety
Distinguishing between equity and equality is essential when making social and moral decisions, yet the related neurodevelopmental processes are unknown. Evaluations of contextually based third-party distributions incorporating recipient need and resource importance were examined in children and adolescents (N = 82; 8-16 years). Spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses show distinct developmental profiles to viewing such distributions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) differentially predicted real-life behaviors based on age, where older children's (8-10 years) evaluations were related to a fairly rapid, automatic ERP component (early posterior negativity), whereas adolescent and preadolescent (11-16 years) evaluations, first-person allocations, and prosocial behaviors were predicted by later, cognitively controlled ERP components (P3 and late positive potential)...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928196/toward-a-demographic-understanding-of-incarceration-disparities-race-ethnicity-and-age-structure
#14
Matt Vogel, Lauren C Porter
OBJECTIVES: Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present study examines the extent to which differences in age structure account for incarceration disparities across racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We apply two techniques commonly employed in the field of demography, age-standardization and decomposition, to data provided by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the 2010 decennial census to assess the contribution of age structure to racial and ethnic disparities in incarceration...
2016: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920306/underrepresented-minority-dentists-quantifying-their-numbers-and-characterizing-the-communities-they-serve
#15
Elizabeth A Mertz, Cynthia D Wides, Aubri M Kottek, Jean Marie Calvo, Paul E Gates
The underrepresentation of Blacks, Hispanics or Latinos, and American Indians or Alaska Natives among dentists raises concerns about the diversity of the dental workforce, disparities in access to dental care and in oral health status, and social justice. We quantified the shortage of underrepresented minority dentists and examined these dentists' practice patterns in relation to the characteristics of the communities they serve. The underrepresented minority dentist workforce is disproportionately smaller than, and unevenly distributed in relation to, minority populations in the United States...
December 1, 2016: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907853/sewall-wright-shifting-balance-theory-and-the-hardening-of-the-modern-synthesis
#16
Yoichi Ishida
The period between the 1940s and 1960s saw the hardening of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. Gould and Provine argue that Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution hardened during this period. But their account does not do justice to Wright, who always regarded selection as acting together with drift. This paper presents a more adequate account of the development of Wright's shifting balance theory, paying particular attention to his application of the theory to the geographical distribution of flower color dimorphism in Linanthus parryae...
February 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906535/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-furanyl-fentanyl-into-schedule-i-final-order
#17
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to temporarily schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylfuran-2-carboxamide (furanyl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of furanyl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
November 29, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905978/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-u-47700-into-schedule-i-final-order
#18
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to temporarily schedule the synthetic opioid, 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (also known as U-47700), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of U-47700 into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety...
November 14, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884185/the-inescapable-question-of-fairness-in-pay-for-performance-bonus-distribution-a-qualitative-study-of-health-workers-experiences-in-tanzania
#19
Victor Chimhutu, Nils Gunnar Songstad, Marit Tjomsland, Mwifadhi Mrisho, Karen Marie Moland
BACKGROUND: During the last decade there has been a growing concern about the lack of results in the health sectors of many low income countries. Progress has been particularly slow in maternal- and child health. Prompted by the need to accelerate progress towards these health outcomes, pay-for- performance (P4P) schemes have been initiated in a number of countries. This paper explores the perceptions and experiences of health workers with P4P bonus distribution in the health system context of rural Tanzania...
November 25, 2016: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875799/genetic-modification-technology-for-nutrition-and-improving-diets-an-ethical-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Sara Glass, Jessica Fanzo
Genetically modified (GM) techniques to improve the nutrition and health content of foods is a highly debated area riddled with ethical dilemmas. Assessing GM technology with a public health ethical framework, this paper identifies public health goals, the potential burdens of the technology, and areas to consider for minimizing burdens and ensuring beneficence, autonomy, and little infringements on justice. Both policymakers and food producers should acknowledge local food environments and the agricultural context of each community in order to effectively prepare communication strategies and equitably distribute any proposed GM food intervention...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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