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Metabolic modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088810/leptin-influences-healing-in-the-sprague-dawley-rat-fracture-model
#1
Pengcheng Liu, Ming Cai
BACKGROUND Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376-398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups...
January 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088694/metabolic-network-modeling-with-model-organisms
#2
REVIEW
L Safak Yilmaz, Albertha Jm Walhout
Flux balance analysis (FBA) with genome-scale metabolic network models (GSMNM) allows systems level predictions of metabolism in a variety of organisms. Different types of predictions with different accuracy levels can be made depending on the applied experimental constraints ranging from measurement of exchange fluxes to the integration of gene expression data. Metabolic network modeling with model organisms has pioneered method development in this field. In addition, model organism GSMNMs are useful for basic understanding of metabolism, and in the case of animal models, for the study of metabolic human diseases...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088658/exposure-to-chronic-early-life-stress-lastingly-alters-the-adipose-tissue-the-leptin-system-and-changes-the-vulnerability-to-western-style-diet-later-in-life-in-mice
#3
K Y Yam, E F G Naninck, M R Abbink, S E la Fleur, L Schipper, J C van den Beukel, A Grefhorst, A Oosting, E M van der Beek, P J Lucassen, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline in adulthood. Interestingly, this is often comorbid with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, it is unclear whether ES leads to lasting metabolic changes and to what extent this is associated with the ES-induced cognitive impairments. Here, we used an established chronic ES mouse model (from postnatal day (P) 2 to P9) to investigate the short- and long-term effects of ES exposure on parameters of the adipose tissue and the leptin system (i...
December 23, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088583/environmental-carcinogenesis-and-ph-homeostasis-not-only-a-matter-of-dysregulated-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Kévin Hardonniere, Laurence Huc, Odile Sergent, Jørn A Holme, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann
According to the World Health Organization, around 20% of all cancers would be due to environmental factors. Among these factors, several chemicals are indeed well recognized carcinogens. The widespread contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an often used model carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' family, has been suggested to target most, if not all, cancer hallmarks described by Hanahan and Weinberg. It is classified as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer; however, the precise intracellular mechanisms underlying its carcinogenic properties remain yet to be thoroughly defined...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088388/activation-of-gr-but-not-pxr-by-dexamethasone-attenuated-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicities-via-fgf21-induction
#5
Saurabh G Vispute, Pengli Bu, Yuan Le, Xingguo Cheng
Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling is indispensable for cell growth and development, and plays important roles in drug metabolism. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21, an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism, plays a cytoprotective role by attenuating toxicities induced by chemicals such as dioxins, acetaminophen (APAP), and alcohols. The present study investigates the impact of dexamethasone (DEX)-activated GR on Fgf21 expression and how it affects the progression of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity...
January 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088338/relation-between-resting-amygdalar-activity-and-cardiovascular-events-a-longitudinal-and-cohort-study
#6
Ahmed Tawakol, Amorina Ishai, Richard Ap Takx, Amparo L Figueroa, Abdelrahman Ali, Yannick Kaiser, Quynh A Truong, Chloe Je Solomon, Claudia Calcagno, Venkatesh Mani, Cheuk Y Tang, Willem Jm Mulder, James W Murrough, Udo Hoffmann, Matthias Nahrendorf, Lisa M Shin, Zahi A Fayad, Roger K Pitman
BACKGROUND: Emotional stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We imaged the amygdala, a brain region involved in stress, to determine whether its resting metabolic activity predicts risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. METHODS: Individuals aged 30 years or older without known cardiovascular disease or active cancer disorders, who underwent (18)F-fluorodexoyglucose PET/CT at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA, USA) between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2008, were studied longitudinally...
January 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088292/human-fetal-intestinal-epithelial-cells-metabolize-and-incorporate-branched-chain-fatty-acids-in-a-structure-specific-manner
#7
Lei Liu, Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Chuang Xu, Peter Lawrence, Xueli Su, Vasuki Wijendran, W Allan Walker, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
BACKGROUND: Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are constituents of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in healthy newborn human infants, reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a neonatal rat model, and are incorporated into small intestine cellular lipids in vivo. We hypothesize that BCFA are taken up, metabolized and incorporated into human fetal cells in vitro. METHODS: Human H4 cells, a fetal non-transformed primary small intestine cell line, were incubated with albumin-bound non-esterified anteiso-17:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0 and/or iso-20:0, and FA profiles in lipid fractions were analyzed...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088094/organ-on-a-chip-for-assessing-environmental-toxicants
#8
REVIEW
Soohee Cho, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Man-made xenobiotics, whose potential toxicological effects are not fully understood, are oversaturating the already-contaminated environment. Due to the rate of toxicant accumulation, unmanaged disposal, and unknown adverse effects to the environment and the human population, there is a crucial need to screen for environmental toxicants. Animal models and in vitro models are ineffective models in predicting in vivo responses due to inter-species difference and/or lack of physiologically-relevant 3D tissue environment...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087905/-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-the-inhibition-of-osteoarthritis-by-curcumin
#9
Jun Liu, Xiaole He, Ping Zhen, Shenghu Zhou, Xusheng Li
Objective: To observe the influence of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CD47, L-selectin and advanced oxidation proteinproducts (AOPP) in osteoarthritis and the intervention of curcumin. Methods: A total of 20 male C57BL/6 mice (10.05-15.00 g) were randomly divided into control group, OA group, Cur25 group and Cur50 group (intraperitoneal injected 25 μmol/L or 50 μmol/L of curcumin everyday after modeling). After 4 weeks treatment, we observed the morphological changes of the gross specimen by immunohistochemical method, and observed the ultrastructure of cartilage tissue under electron microscope...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087888/simulated-microgravity-decreases-circulating-iron-in-rats-role-of-inflammation-induced-hepcidin-upregulation
#10
Thibault Cavey, Nicolas Pierre, Kévin Nay, Coralie Allain, Martine Ropert, Olivier Loréal, Frédéric Derbré
During spaceflight, humans exposed to microgravity exhibit an increase of iron storage and a reduction of circulating iron. Such perturbations could promote oxidative stress and anemia in astronauts. The mechanism by which microgravity modulates iron metabolism is still unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that microgravity up-regulates hepcidin, a hormone produced by the liver that is the main controller of iron homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU), the reference model to mimic the effects of microgravity in rodents...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087818/three-hours-of-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-circulating-glucose-levels-in-healthy-adults
#11
Lauren P Newhouse, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella, Jacqueline K Limberg
An independent association exists between sleep apnea and diabetes. Animal models suggest exposure to intermittent hypoxia, a consequence of sleep apnea, results in altered glucose metabolism and fasting hyperglycemia. However, it is unknown if acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia increases glucose concentrations in nondiabetic humans. We hypothesized plasma glucose would be increased from baseline following 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans independent of any effect on insulin sensitivity. Eight (7M/1F, 21-34 years) healthy subjects completed two study visits randomized to 3 h of intermittent hypoxia or continuous normoxia, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087675/dna-repair-and-mutations-during-quiescence-in-yeast
#12
Serge Gangloff, Benoit Arcangioli
Life is maintained through alternating phases of cell division and quiescence. The causes and consequences of spontaneous mutations have been extensively explored in proliferating cells, and the major sources include errors of DNA replication and DNA repair. The foremost consequences are genetic variations within a cell population that can lead to heritable diseases and drive evolution. While most of our knowledge on DNA damage response and repair has been gained through cells actively dividing, it remains essential to also understand how DNA damage is metabolized in cells which are not dividing...
January 12, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087607/type-2-diabetes-obesity-and-breast-cancer-risk-the-multiethnic-cohort
#13
Gertraud Maskarinec, Simone Jacobs, Song-Yi Park, Christopher A Haiman, Veronica Wendy Setiawan, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been more consistently associated with breast cancer than type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis examined the combination of the two factors in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). METHODS: Women aged 45-75 years entered the MEC in 1993-1996 by completing a questionnaire. T2D status was self-reported at baseline, two follow-up questionnaires, and confirmed by administrative data. Cancers were identified from tumor registries and deaths through vital records until 2010...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087529/resilience-dynamics-and-interactions-within-a-multi-species-exoelectrogenic-model-biofilm-community
#14
Anna Prokhorova, Katrin Sturm-Richter, Andreas Doetsch, Johannes Gescher
: Anode-associated multi-species exoelectrogenic biofilms are essential to the function of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The individual activities of anode associated organisms and physiological responses resulting from co-culturing are often hard to assess due to the high microbial diversity in these systems. Therefore, we developed a model multispecies biofilm of the three exoelectrogenic proteobacteria Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens with the aim to study in detail the biofilm formation dynamics, the interactions between the organisms and the overall activity of an exoelectrogenic biofilm as a consequence of the applied anode potential...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087518/cardiovascular-function-in-male-and-female-jcr-la-cp-rats-effect-of-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#15
Ian Hunter, Amanda Soler, Gregory Joseph, Brenda Hutcheson, Chastity Bradford, Frank Zhang, Barry J Potter, Spencer D Proctor, Petra Rocic
30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087471/il-6-promotes-m2-macrophage-polarization-by-modulating-purinergic-signaling-and-regulates-the-lethal-release-of-nitric-oxide-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#16
Liliana M Sanmarco, Nicolás E Ponce, Laura M Visconti, Natalia Eberhardt, Martin G Theumer, Ángel R Minguez, Maria P Aoki
The production of nitric oxide (NO) is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens but it must be tightly controlled in order to avoid excessive detrimental oxidative stress. In this study we described a novel mechanism through which interleukin (IL)-6 mediates the regulation of NO release induced in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Using a murine model of Chagas disease, we found that, in contrast to C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice, IL-6-deficient (IL6KO) mice exhibited a dramatic increase in plasma NO levels concomitant with a significantly higher amount of circulating IL-1β and inflammatory monocytes...
January 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087336/oleate-induces-katp-channel-dependent-hyperpolarisation-in-mouse-hypothalamic-glucose-excited-neurones-without-altering-cellular-energy-charge
#17
Selma Dadak, Craig Beall, Julia M Vlachaki Walker, Marc Pm Soutar, Rory J McCrimmon, Michael L J Ashford
The unsaturated fatty acid, oleate exhibits anorexigenic properties reducing food intake and hepatic glucose output. However, its mechanism of action in the hypothalamus has not been fully determined. This study investigated the effects of oleate and glucose on GT1-7 mouse hypothalamic cells (a model of glucose-excited (GE) neurones) and mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurones. Whole-cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings, immunoblotting and cell energy status measures were used to investigate oleate and glucose sensing properties of mouse hypothalamic neurones...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#18
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087125/hydroxy-carboxylic-acid-receptor-actions-in-metabolism
#19
REVIEW
Stefan Offermanns
Lactic acid, the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, also known as β-hydroxybutyrate, and the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid are hydroxy-carboxylic acids (HCAs) that serve as intermediates of energy metabolism. However, they also regulate cellular functions, in part by directly activating the G protein-coupled receptors HCA1/GPR81, HCA2/GPR109A, and HCA3/GPR109B. During the past decade, it has become clear that HCA receptors help to maintain homeostasis under changing metabolic and dietary conditions, by controlling metabolic, immune, and other body functions...
January 10, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086938/alpha-enolase-eno1-controls-alpha-v-beta-3-integrin-expression-and-regulates-pancreatic-cancer-adhesion-invasion-and-metastasis
#20
Moitza Principe, Simone Borgoni, Mariafrancesca Cascione, Michelle Samuel Chattaragada, Sammy Ferri-Borgogno, Michela Capello, Sara Bulfamante, Jennifer Chapelle, Francesca Di Modugno, Paola Defilippi, Paola Nisticò, Paola Cappello, Chiara Riganti, Stefano Leporatti, Francesco Novelli
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1) also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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