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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449399/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bombyx-mori-fat-body-tissue-following-dietary-restriction
#1
Ye Pan, Peng Lü, Qinyun Wang, Feifei Zhu, Chengjun Li, Yuanqing He, Keping Chen
Dietary restriction (DR) refers to a reduction in food intake to induce undernutrition but not malnutrition, which extends the lifespan of multiple species. Although there are invertebrate aging models, such as the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, aging studies in Lepidoptera are few in number and the underlying life-extending molecular mechanisms are not clear. Research on a broader range of animals is necessary to support generalizations on mechanisms of aging and rates of aging. The aim of this study was to further investigate genes and pathways associated with DR in Bombyx mori...
May 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449359/transcriptomic-responses-of-solanum-dulcamara-to-natural-and-simulated-herbivory
#2
Tobias Lortzing, Vivien Firtzlaff, Duy Nguyen, Ivo Rieu, Sandra Stelzer, Martina Schad, Jim Kallarackal, Anke Steppuhn
Plants are attacked by diverse herbivores and respond with manifold defense responses. To study transcriptional and other early regulation events of these plant responses, herbivory is often simulated to standardize the temporal and spatial dynamics that vary tremendously for natural herbivory. Yet to what extent such simulations of herbivory are able to elicit the same plant response as real herbivory remains largely undetermined. We examined the transcriptional response of a wild model plant to herbivory by lepidopteran larvae and to a commonly used herbivory simulation by applying the larvae's oral secretions to standardized wounds...
April 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449241/autophagy-compensates-impaired-energy-metabolism-in-clpxp-deficient-podospora-anserina-strains-and-extends-healthspan
#3
Laura Knuppertz, Heinz D Osiewacz
The degradation of nonfunctional mitochondrial proteins is of fundamental relevance for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. The heteromeric CLPXP protein complex in the mitochondrial matrix is part of this process. In the fungal aging model Podospora anserina, ablation of CLPXP leads to an increase in healthy lifespan. Here, we report that this counterintuitive increase depends on a functional autophagy machinery. In PaClpXP mutants, autophagy is involved in energy conservation and the compensation of impairments in respiration...
April 27, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449226/an-integrated-network-analysis-identifies-how-arcab-enables-metabolic-oscillations-in-the-nitric-oxide-detoxification-network-of-escherichia-coli
#4
Sarah A Sacco, Kristin J Adolfsen, Mark P Brynildsen
The virulences of many pathogens depend on their abilities to detoxify the immune antimicrobial nitric oxide (NO•). The functions of bacterial NO• detoxification machinery depend on oxygen (O2 ), with O2 inhibiting some enzymes, whereas others use it as a substrate. Previously, Escherichia coli NO• detoxification was found to be highly attenuated under microaerobic conditions and metabolic oscillations were observed. The oscillations in [NO•] and [O2 ] were found to result from the inhibitory action of NO• on aerobic respiration, the catalytic inactivation of NO• by Hmp (an NO• dioxygenase), and an imbalanced competition for O2 between Hmp and cytochrome terminal oxidase activity...
April 27, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449065/a-homozygous-missense-mutation-in-eral1-encoding-a-mitochondrial-rrna-chaperone-causes-perrault-syndrome
#5
Iliana A Chatzispyrou, Marielle Alders, Sergio Guerrero-Castillo, Ruben Zapata Perez, Martin A Haagmans, Laurent Mouchiroud, Janet Koster, Rob Ofman, Frank Baas, Hans R Waterham, Johannes N Spelbrink, Johan Auwerx, Marcel M Mannens, Riekelt H Houtkooper, Astrid S Plomp
Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural deafness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, and previously mutations have been described in different genes, mostly related to mitochondrial proteostasis. We diagnosed three unrelated females with PS and set out to identify the underlying genetic cause using exome sequencing. We excluded mutations in the known PS genes, but identified a single homozygous mutation in the ERAL1 gene (c.707A>T; p...
April 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448889/studies-on-the-metabolites-difference-of-psoralen-isopsoralen-in-human-and-six-mammalian-liver-microsomes-in-vitro-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#6
Aihong Yang, Junxiu Chen, Yetao Ma, Lili Wang, Yaowen Fan, Xin He
Psoralen and isopsoralen are found in many fruits, vegetables and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), such as Ficus carica L., Celery, Fructus Psoraleae etc. Modern pharmacological studies found that psoralen and isopsoralen can show estrogen-like activity, antitumor, and antibacterial activities etc. However, some research results also show some liver damage associated with the use of psoralen/isopsoralen or related medicines in human. Many studies focus on the pharmacological activities of psoralen/isopsoralen, while it is important to choose the suitable pharmacological models which are relevant to human in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic process...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448706/-prognostic-factors-for-post-surgical-complications-in-bone-infection-and-pseudarthrosis
#7
A Cicero-Álvarez, S R León-Hernández, K Gutiérrez-Enríquez, S Zapata-Rivera
Bone infection and nonunion are the main orthopedic and traumatic complications whose treatment remains a challenge because multiple factors are involved in the rate of failures when you try to correct them. Knowing these factors were the problem that caused the research through a prospective longitudinal study of 83 patients of 43.3 ± 16.1 years old. They were treated for aseptic and septic nonunion, osteomyelitis, osteitis, malunion or infected joint replacement. The cases were classified with or without postoperative complications and outcome related to systemic and local factors taken prognostic model Cierny-Mader as factors affecting immune surveillance, metabolism and local vascularization...
September 2016: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448601/determinants-of-coronary-flow-reserve-in-non-diabetic-patients-with-chest-pain-without-myocardial-perfusion-defects
#8
Helena U Westergren, Erik Michaëlsson, Juuso I Blomster, Tasso Miliotis, Sara Svedlund, Li-Ming Gan
BACKGROUND: Microvascular dysfunction could be responsible for chest pain in patients without myocardial perfusion defects. We evaluated microvascular function using ultrasound-assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with chest pain and normal myocardial perfusion scintigram. Secondly, we investigated association between cardiovascular parameters and decreased CFR in a sex specific manner. METHODS: A total of 202 (128 women) non-diabetic patients with chest pain and suspected myocardial ischemia, but without myocardial perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion scintigram, were enrolled and underwent CFR examination and blood sampling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448553/a-computational-toxicogenomics-approach-identifies-a-list-of-highly-hepatotoxic-compounds-from-a-large-microarray-database
#9
Héctor A Rueda-Zárate, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Roberto A Cárdenas-Ovando, Juan E Castillo-Fernández, Julieta Noguez-Monroy, Claudia Rangel-Escareño
The liver and the kidney are the most common targets of chemical toxicity, due to their major metabolic and excretory functions. However, since the liver is directly involved in biotransformation, compounds in many currently and normally used drugs could affect it adversely. Most chemical compounds are already labeled according to FDA-approved labels using DILI-concern scale. Drug Induced Liver Injury (DILI) scale refers to an adverse drug reaction. Many compounds do not exhibit hepatotoxicity at early stages of development, so it is important to detect anomalies at gene expression level that could predict adverse reactions in later stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448552/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-hepatic-response-to-stress-in-the-red-cusk-eel-genypterus-chilensis-insights-into-lipid-metabolism-oxidative-stress-and-liver-steatosis
#10
Sebastian Naour, Brisa M Espinoza, Jorge E Aedo, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Jonathan Maldonado, Macarena Bastias-Molina, Herman Silva, Claudio Meneses, Cristian Gallardo-Escarate, Alfredo Molina, Juan Antonio Valdés
Teleosts exhibit a broad divergence in their adaptive response to stress, depending on the magnitude, duration, and frequency of stressors and the species receiving the stimulus. We have previously reported that the red cusk-eel (Genypterus chilensis), an important marine farmed fish, shows a physiological response to stress that results in increased skeletal muscle atrophy mediated by over-expression of components of the ubiquitin proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. To better understand the systemic effects of stress on the red cusk-eel metabolism, the present study assessed the transcriptomic hepatic response to repetitive handling-stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448538/combined-lipidomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-isolated-human-islets-exposed-to-palmitate-reveals-time-dependent-changes-in-insulin-secretion-and-lipid-metabolism
#11
Kirsten Roomp, Hjalti Kristinsson, Domitille Schvartz, Kumari Ubhayasekera, Ernest Sargsyan, Levon Manukyan, Azazul Chowdhury, Hannes Manell, Venkata Satagopam, Karlfried Groebe, Reinhard Schneider, Jonas Bergquist, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Peter Bergsten
Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/ or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448172/the-macrophage-stimulating-anti-cancer-agent-rrx-001-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#12
Pedro Cabrales, Scott Caroen, Arnold Oronsky, Corey Carter, Jane Trepel, Thomas Summers, Tony Reid, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Bryan Oronsky
Introduction RRx-001, a clinical macrophage-stimulating anti-cancer agent that also produces nitric oxide (NO) was studied in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The production of NO is dependent on the oxygen tension because nitric oxide synthases convert l-arginine to NO and l-citrulline in the presence of O2. Since the P450 enzymes, which metabolize nitrate esters such as nitroglycerin are dependent on oxygen, the generation of 'exogenous' NO is also sensitive to alterations in tissue PO2. I/R injury was studied in a hamster chamber window, with compression of the periphery of the window for 1 hour to induce ischemia...
April 27, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448089/bone-degeneration-and-its-recovery-in-smp30-gnl-knockout-mice
#13
K Nishijima, T Ohno, A Amano, Y Kishimoto, Y Kondo, A Ishigami, S Tanaka
Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases androgen-independently with aging and is a lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase (GNL) that is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis. In the present study, bone properties of SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice with deficiency in vitamin C synthesis were investigated to reveal the effects of SMP30/GNL and exogenous vitamin C supplementation on bone formation. Mineral content (BMC) and mineral density (BMD) of the mandible and femur of SMP30/GNL KO and wild-type mice at 2 and 3 months of age with or without vitamin C supplementation were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447863/lysophosphatidic-acid-and-amitriptyline-signal-through-lpa1r-to-reduce-p-glycoprotein-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#14
David B Banks, Gary Ny Chan, Rebecca A Evans, David S Miller, Ronald E Cannon
The blood-brain barrier is a microvascular network that (1) provides neuroprotection from metabolic and environmental toxins and (2) limits the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The ATP-binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein contributes to the latter by actively pumping clinical substrates back into circulation before they can reach the brain parenchyma. Targeting P-glycoprotein has proven effective in increasing the delivery of therapeutics to their cerebral targets. We provide a novel mechanism to achieve this end in functioning, intact rat brain capillaries, whereby the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline reduce basal P-glycoprotein transport activity through a distinct lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor-mediated signaling cascade that requires G-protein coupling, Src kinase, and ERK 1/2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447783/real-time-detection-reveals-responsive-co-transcriptional-formation-of-persistent-intramolecular-dna-and-intermolecular-dna-rna-hybrid-g-quadruplexes-stabilized-by-r-loop
#15
Yang Zhao, Jia-Yu Zhang, Zong-Yu Zhang, Tan-Jun Tong, Yu-Hua Hao, Zheng Tan
G-quadruplex (GQ) structures are implicated in important physiological and pathological processes. Millions of GQ-forming motifs are enriched near transcription start sites (TSSs) of animal genes. Transcription can induce formation of GQs which in turn regulates transcription. The kinetics of the formation and persistence of GQs in transcription is crucial for the role they play, but has not yet been explored. We established a method based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique to monitor in real-time the co-transcriptional formation and post-transcriptional persistence of GQs in DNA...
April 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447343/impact-of-perinatal-exposure-to-sucrose-or-high-fructose-corn-syrup-hfcs-55-on-adiposity-and-hepatic-lipid-composition-in-rat-offspring
#16
Carla R Toop, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Kerin O'Dea, Sheridan Gentili
Perinatal exposure to excess maternal intake of added sugars, including fructose and sucrose, is associated with an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adult life. However, it is unknown to what extent the type of sugar and the timing of exposure affect these outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of exposure to maternal consumption of a 10% w/v beverage containing sucrose or high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) during the prenatal and/or suckling periods on offspring at 3 and 12 weeks, utilising a cross-fostering approach in a rodent model...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447138/-endocrine-disruptors-evidence-from-epidemiological-studies-necessitates-a-critical-review-of-model-systems
#17
REVIEW
M Hoffmann, S Gebauer, M Nüchter, R Baber, J Ried, M von Bergen, W Kiess
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446878/computational-model-predicts-the-effects-of-targeting-cellular-metabolism-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Mahua Roy, Stacey D Finley
Reprogramming of energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer that enables the cancer cells to meet the increased energetic requirements due to uncontrolled proliferation. One prominent example is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, an aggressive form of cancer with an overall 5-year survival rate of 5%. The reprogramming mechanism in pancreatic cancer involves deregulated uptake of glucose and glutamine and other opportunistic modes of satisfying energetic demands in a hypoxic and nutrient-poor environment. In the current study, we apply systems biology approaches to enable a better understanding of the dynamics of the distinct metabolic alterations in KRAS-mediated pancreatic cancer, with the goal of impeding early cell proliferation by identifying the optimal metabolic enzymes to target...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446738/work-activity-and-phenylalanine-levels-in-a-population-of-young-adults-with-classic-pku
#19
Michele Augusto Riva, Fabiana Madotto, Massimo Turato, Elisabetta Salvatici, Silvia Indovina, Marcello Giovannini, Enrica Riva, Giancarlo Cesana
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by increased blood concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the metabolic compliance of adult patients affected by classic PKU and the characteristics of their present and past occupations. METHODS: The study population consisted of working adults, affected by classic PKU, and following a dietary treatment...
April 21, 2017: La Medicina del Lavoro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446679/central-nervous-system-infection-with-borna-disease-virus-causes-kynurenine-pathway-dysregulation-and-neurotoxic-quinolinic-acid-production
#20
Simone Formisano, Mady Hornig, Kavitha Yaddanapudi, Mansi Vasishtha, Loren H Parsons, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
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