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Choki Dorji, Pramote Tragulpiankit, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Tashi Tobgay
INTRODUCTION: The Bhutan National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC) became an official member of the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring in December 2014; however, the number of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported is very low (50 reports per 773,722 inhabitants over 10 years). Surveys of healthcare professionals (HCPs) in similar countries have indicated that adequate knowledge of both ADRs and ADR reporting is likely to increase the number of ADR reports submitted. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge of both ADRs and ADR reporting among HCPs, including traditional medicine practitioners...
October 14, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Lakey, Kinley Dorji
BACKGROUND: Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks...
October 11, 2016: BMC Ecology
Gyambo Sithey, Li Ming Wen, Patrick Kelly, Mu Li
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Short and long sleep durations have been found to be associated with chronic conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, most studies were conducted in developed countries and the results were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sleep duration and self-reported health status in a developing country setting. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 Gross National Happiness study of Bhutan, which was a nationwide cross sectional study with representative samples from rural and urban areas...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
R J Thoni, D B Gurung, R L Mayden
Seven species of Garra are herein accounted for in Bhutan. Three new records of known species, G. arupi, G. birostris, and G. lissorhynchus, and two new species, G. bimaculacauda sp. nov. and G. parastenorhynchus sp. nov., are reported from central and southern Bhutan. Garra bimaculacauda sp. nov. is most notably different from its congeners by the presence of two dark spots on the lobes of the caudal fin, having one spot on each lobe. Meristic and morphometric differences from northeastern Indian congeners exist as well...
September 19, 2016: Zootaxa
Benjamin Wills Price, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Kiran Marathe, Vivek Sarkar, Chris Simon, Krushnamegh Kunte
BACKGROUND: The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. NEW INFORMATION: This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species)...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Cara Smith Gueye, Gretchen Newby, Jim Tulloch, Laurence Slutsker, Marcel Tanner, Roland D Gosling
BACKGROUND: A malaria eradication goal has been proposed, at the same time as a new global strategy and implementation framework. Countries are considering the strategies and tools that will enable progress towards malaria goals. The eliminating malaria case-study series reports were reviewed to identify successful programme management components using a cross-case study analytic approach. METHODS: Nine out of ten case-study reports were included in the analysis (Bhutan, Cape Verde, Malaysia, Mauritius, Namibia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Turkmenistan)...
2016: Malaria Journal
György Hetényi, Rodolphe Cattin, Théo Berthet, Nicolas Le Moigne, Jamyang Chophel, Sarah Lechmann, Paul Hammer, Dowchu Drukpa, Soma Nath Sapkota, Stéphanie Gautier, Kinzang Thinley
Lateral variations along the Himalayan arc are suggested by an increasing number of studies and carry important information about the orogen's segmentation. Here we compile the hitherto most complete land gravity dataset in the region which enables the currently highest resolution plausible analysis. To study lateral variations in collisional structure we compute arc-parallel gravity anomalies (APaGA) by subtracting the average arc-perpendicular profile from our dataset; we compute likewise for topography (APaTA)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Altaf Saadi, Bryan Patenaude, Damber Kumar Nirola, Sonam Deki, Lhab Tshering, Sarah Clark, Lance Shaull, Tali Sorets, Guenther Fink, Farrah Mateen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Nicole West, Sonam Gyeltshen, Singye Dukpa, Kaveh Khoshnood, Sonam Tashi, Amanda Durante, Sunil Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Bhutan is progressing toward malaria elimination. The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the ability of the surveillance system from 2006 to 2012 to meet the objectives of the Bhutan Vector-borne Disease Control Program (VDCP) and to highlight priorities requiring attention as the nation transitions to elimination. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted using the Center for Disease Control guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, John Franks, Sangay Tenzin, Narapati Dahal, Kinzang Dukpa, Jambay Dorjee, Mohammed M Feeroz, Jerold E Rehg, Subrata Barman, Scott Krauss, Pamela McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Robert G Webster
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), clade, with an H9-like polymerase basic protein 1 gene, isolated in Bhutan in 2012, replicated faster in vitro than its H5N1 parental genotype and was transmitted more efficiently in a chicken model than in a ferret model. These properties likely help limit/eradicate outbreaks, combined with strict control measures.
December 15, 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Maria Gendron
In their recently published article, "The Voice Conveys Emotion in Ten Globalized Cultures and One Remote Village in Bhutan," Cordaro, Keltner, Tshering, Wangchuk, and Flynn conclude that certain emotion categories are universally recognized by people around the world, barring illness and measurement error. The impact of Cordaro et al.'s article, like that of all empirical studies, is determined not only by its research findings but also by how the research findings are situated. Accuracy in characterizing the scientific context of new findings is as important as maintaining the highest standards for other aspects of the scientific method...
September 2016: Emotion
Víctor M Aguayo, Nina Badgaiyan, Laigden Dzed
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the epidemiology of wasting and identify the main predictors of wasting, severe wasting and poor weight-for-height in children. DESIGN: We analysed a nationally representative sample of 2028 children (Multiple Indicator Survey, 2010). SETTING: Royal Kingdom of Bhutan. SUBJECTS: Children aged 0-23 months. RESULTS: Wasting prevalence was significantly higher among infants aged 0-11 months than among children aged 12-23 months (12·0 v...
August 30, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Muthuvarmadam S Ram, Sagar M Kittur, Jihosuo Biswas, Sudipta Nag, Joydeep Shil, Govindhaswamy Umapathy
Gee's golden langur (Trachypithecus geei) is an endangered colobine primate, endemic to the semi-evergreen and mixed-deciduous forests of Indo-Bhutan border. During the last few decades, extensive fragmentation has caused severe population decline and local extinction of golden langur from several fragments. However, no studies are available on the impact of habitat fragmentation and the genetic diversity of golden langur in the fragmented habitats. The present study aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in the Indian population of golden langur...
2016: PloS One
Zohaib Khan, Sheraz Khan, Lara Christianson, Sara Rehman, Obinna Ekwunife, Florence Samkange-Zeeb
INTRODUCTION: Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) are chronic lesions or conditions characterized by a potential for malignant transformation. Apart from being possible pre-cursors to oral cancer, OPMDs themselves are usually painful and debilitating conditions having an influence on the quality of life, both in terms of pain and social disability. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is considered a major risk factor for OPMDs. SLT use is a culturally and socially acceptable habit in South Asia...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Jas Raj Subba, Chongdee Thammakhet, Panote Thavarungkul, Proespichaya Kanatharana
Two important air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were sampled and monitored in the spring season in the biggest industrial area of Bhutan. Field measurements of SO2 and NO2 were performed using standard colorimetric methods, and air samples were collected using an active sampling technique. Sampling sites were selected to cover all the potential catchment areas like settlements, staff quarters, shops and schools. The main objective of this sampling work was to see the distribution of these two pollutants from the source of emission (small scale industries) and to obtain and establish a baseline data...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Phurpa Wangchuk, ᅟ Tashi
BACKGROUND: The Bhutanese So-wa-rig-pa medicine (BSM) was integrated with the allopathic (modern) health care system in 1967. Ever since the health care integration policy was implemented, the BSM has gone through many phases of quality improvement and changes including the establishment of one university-based institute, 58 hospitals and Basic Health Units (BHU)-based health care services, and one traditional medicine factory. The BSM provides primary health care services to more than 20-30 % of patients who visit hospitals and BHU on a daily basis...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mongal Singh Gurung, Dorji Pelzom, Tandin Dorji, Wangchuk Drukpa, Chador Wangdi, Palanivel Chinnakali, Sonu Goel
BACKGROUND: Despite a comprehensive ban on cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sale of tobacco products since 2004, two nationwide surveys conducted in 2012 and 2013 reported high tobacco use in Bhutan. National Health Survey 2012 reported that 4 % of the population aged 15-75 years used smoked tobacco and about 48 % used smokeless tobacco. Similarly, Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of Bhutan reported tobacco use prevalence of 30.3 % in 2013. However, factors associated with this high tobacco use were not systematically studied...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Osman Ratib, Nicolas Roduit, Dechen Nidup, Gerard De Geer, Antoine Rosset, Antoine Geissbuhler
UNLABELLED: This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards...
October 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Arata Hidano, Kinzang Dukpa, Karma Rinzin, Basant Sharma, Narapati Dahal, Mark A Stevenson
We describe the population demographics, rudimentary measures of reproductive performance, the prevalence of major disease conditions and reason-specific proportional mortality for cattle owned by villagers in 16 dzongkhags (districts) in Bhutan based on the findings of a cross-sectional study carried out between March 2012 and May 2014. The animal health issues that were of concern for livestock owners are also identified. Study households were selected using a stratified, two-stage cluster design. Districts (dzongkhags) formed the strata...
August 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Naveed Zafar Janjua, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Bushra Mahmood, Arshad Altaf
AIM: To summarize the available information about injection use and its determinants in the South Asian region. METHODS: We searched published and unpublished literature on injection safety in South Asia published during 1995-2016 using the keywords "injection" "unsafe injection" and "immunization injection" and combined these with each of the countries and/or their respective states or provinces in South Asia. We used a standardized questionnaire to abstract the following data from the articles: the annual number of injections per capita, the proportion of injections administered with a reused syringe or needle, the distribution of injections with respect to prescribers and providers and determinants of injection use...
July 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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