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Dolley Tshering, Mongal Singh Gurung, Neyzang Wangmo, Dorji Pelzom, Phudit Tejativaddhana, Laigden Dzed
The World Health Organization estimated that about 800 000 infant deaths could be prevented annually by exclusively breastfeeding infants for the first 6 months of life. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and its associated factors. A total of 192 mothers participated. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in Trongsa district was 97% at 1 month, declining to 58% at 6 months. Mothers who returned to formal work were less likely to exclusively breastfeed than those who were farmers or housewives...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Emmanuelle Souzeau, Adam K Rudkin, Andrew Dubowsky, Robert J Casson, James S Muecke, Erica Mancel, Mark Whiting, Richard A D Mills, Kathryn P Burdon, Jamie E Craig
Purpose: Aniridia is a congenital disorder caused by variants in the PAX6 gene. In this study, we assessed the involvement of PAX6 in patients with aniridia from Australasia and Southeast Asia. Methods: Twenty-nine individuals with aniridia from 18 families originating from Australia, New Caledonia, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan were included. The PAX6 gene was investigated for sequence variants and analyzed for deletions with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification...
2018: Molecular Vision
Kavita Singh, Ambalam M Chandrasekaran, Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Kaushik Chattopadhyay, Anuji Upekshika Gamage, Padmal De Silva, Ambuj Roy, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon
OBJECTIVES: More than 80% of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) burden now lies in low and middle-income countries. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify and implement the most cost-effective interventions, particularly in the resource-constraint South Asian settings. Thus, we aimed to systematically review the cost-effectiveness of individual-level, group-level and population-level interventions to control CVD and DM in South Asia. METHODS: We searched 14 electronic databases up to August 2016...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Mongal Singh Gurung, Dorji Pelzom, Sonam Wangdi, Tashi Tshomo, Pema Lethro, Tashi Dema
Background: Despite Bhutan's remarkable progress in the area of maternal and child health during the era of the Millennium Development Goals, a large proportion of pregnant women are still delivering at home with no skilled attendant. Limited empirical studies have been carried out to understand the factors associated with delivery at home in Bhutan. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study used secondary data collected in the nationally representative National Health Survey 2012...
April 2018: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
Yanjing Wang, Jinming Lu, G Andrew C Beattie, Md Rashidul Islam, Namgay Om, Hang Thi Dao, Liem Van Nguyen, Syed Muhammad Zaka, Jun Guo, Mingyi Tian, Xiaoling Deng, Shunyun Tan, Paul Holford, Yurong He, Yijing Cen
BACKGROUND: In insects, little is known about the coevolution between their primary endosymbionts and hosts at the intraspecific level, and this study has examined codiversification between the notorious agricultural pest Diaphorina citri and its P-endosymbiont, 'Candidatus Carsonella ruddii' at the population level. RESULTS: Maximum likelihood, haplotype network, principal components and Bayesian clustering identified three lineages for D. citri and its P-endosymbiont: a Western clade containing individuals from Pakistan, Bhutan (Phuentsholing), Vietnam (Son La), USA, Myanmar and China (Ruili, Yunnan); a Central clade, with accessions originating from Southwest China, Bhutan (Tsirang) and Bangladesh; and an Eastern clade containing individuals from Southeast Asian countries, and East and South China...
March 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
Taraprasad Das
PURPOSE: The International Agency for Prevention of Blindness (IAPB) South East Asia region (SEAR) that consists of 11 countries contains 26% of the world's population (1,761,000,000). In this region 12 million are blind and 78.5 million are visually impaired. This amounts to 30% of global blindness and 32% of global visual impairment. DESIGN: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) survey analysis. METHODS: RAAB, either a repeat or a first time survey, was completed in 8 countries in this decade (2010 onwards)...
March 13, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Phyllida Travis, Achmad Soebagjo Tancarino, Krisada Sawaengdee, Yanchen Chhoedon, Safeenaz Hassan, Nareerut Pudpong
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing trend of international migration of health professionals from low- and middle- income countries to high-income countries as well as across middle-income countries. The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel was created to better address health workforce development and the ethical conduct of international recruitment. This study assessed policies and practices in 4 countries in South East Asia on managing the in- and out-migration of doctors and nurses to see whether the management has been in line with the WHO Global Code and has fostered health workforce development in the region; and draws lessons from these countries...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Kinley Dorji, Sonam Phuntsho, Pempa, Suthasinee Kumluang, Sarayuth Khuntha, Wantanee Kulpeng, Sneha Rajbhandari, Yot Teerawattananon
BACKGROUND: Due to competing health priorities and limited resources, many low-income countries, even those with a high disease burden, are not able to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-utility of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) compared to no vaccination in Bhutan. METHODS: A model-based cost-utility analysis was performed in the Bhutanese context using a government perspective...
February 22, 2018: Vaccine
Mariève Pouliot, Dipesh Pyakurel, Carsten Smith-Hall
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years. Heightened demand in China over the past 15 years, coupled with limited production, has led to a price hike and increased economic importance of harvests to rural households throughout the species' range...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ian F Walker, Fredrike Garbe, Judy Wright, Ian Newell, Naveen Athiraman, Nida Khan, Helen Elsey
BACKGROUND: More than 80% of global deaths caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) occur in developing countries. The burden of noncommunicable disease in South Asia is increasing rapidly. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs of CVD and the costs of DM to individuals and society in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. METHODS: We systematically searched six health and economic databases for studies identifying costs related to CVD or DM and their respective complications...
July 3, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Gyambo Sithey, Mu Li, Li Ming Wen, Patrick J Kelly, Kelly Clarke
OBJECTIVE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are a major cause of the global burden of disease. Bhutan was the first country in the world to focus on happiness as a state policy; however, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors of CMDs in this setting. We aim to identify socioeconomic, religious, spiritual and health factors associated with symptoms of CMDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used data from Bhutan's 2015 Gross National Happiness (GNH) Survey, a multistage, cross-sectional nationwide household survey...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Deki Pem, Tshewang Nidup, Ugyen Wangdi, Dorji Pelzom, Ali Mirzazadeh, Willi McFarland
Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) were recently made available over the counter in Bhutan. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning ECP in 2 populations at risk for HIV and STI (sexually transmitted infections): entertainment women (drayang) and male truck drivers and helpers (truckers). Of 179 drayang and 437 truckers intercepted at venues, 73.7 and 21.1%, respectively, had heard of ECP; 47.0% of drayang had used them. Their concerns about ECP use included harm to the body, impact on future pregnancy, side effects, and HIV/STI risk...
February 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Leah Wibecan, Günther Fink, Lhab Tshering, Veronica Bruno, Bryan Patenaude, Damber K Nirola, Chencho Dorji, Ugyen Dema, Dillram Pokhrel, Farrah J Mateen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of epilepsy in Bhutan, a lower-middle-income country with a universal health care system, but with limited access to neurological care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of patients with epilepsy at the Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital from January to August 2016. Data were collected on clinical features, cost of care, impact of epilepsy on school or work and household economic status of participants and matched comparisons (a sibling or neighbour from a household without epilepsy)...
April 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Maria Ilyas, Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Elina Väisänen, Mengxiao Luo, Paul Chipman, J Kennon Smith, Justin Kurian, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
Bufavirus strain 1 (BuV1), a member of the Protoparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae , was first isolated from fecal samples of children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso. Since this initial discovery, BuVs have been isolated in several countries, including Finland, the Netherlands, and Bhutan, in pediatric patients exhibiting similar symptoms. Towards their characterization, the structures of virus-like particles of BuV1, BuV2, and BuV3, the current known genotypes, have been determined by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction to 2...
January 4, 2018: Viruses
Phurpa Wangchuk, Karma Yeshi, Kinga Jamphel
Background: The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. Methods: We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region...
December 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
Gui-Qiang Huang, Zhi-Sheng Zhang, Ying-Hong Liu
Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan, China are famous for the biodiversity and are part of Indo-Burmese hotspot. We present a review on the comb-tailed spider genus Hahnia C.L. Koch 1841 based on newly collected specimens. Four new species of Hahnia are described: H. biapophysis sp. nov. (male), H. dongi sp. nov. (male), H. subsaccata sp. nov. (male, female) and H. wangi sp. nov. (male, female). Two additional known species are redescribed: H. himalayaensis Hu & Zhang, 1990 and H. musica Brignoli, 1978. Hahnia musica previously known from Bhutan is recorded from China for the first time...
November 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Paweł Jałoszyński
The tribe Cephenniini is for the first time reported to occur in the Himalaya Mountains, and 58 species are described: Cephennomicrus arunensis sp. n., Cm. acupunctatus sp. n., Cm. taplejungensis sp. n., Hlavaciellus primitivus sp. n., Cephennodes (s. str.) cavifrons sp. n., C. (s. str.) pampinosus sp. n., C. (s. str.) bagmatianus sp. n., C. (s. str.) popeye sp. n., C. (s. str.) clavodentatus sp. n., C. (s. str.) meredaranus sp. n., C. (s. str.) yangrianus sp. n., C. (s. str.) suturalis sp. n., C. (s. str.) karnaliensis sp...
November 15, 2017: Zootaxa
Péter Gyulai
Xestia Hübner, 1818 is a diverse and widespread Noctuinae genus, most of the known species occur in the Holarctic and the rest in Africa. Due to the expeditions to the hardly explored area of Asia, new species of Xestia have been recognized and described during the last years (Gyulai et al. 2011, 2013; Gyulai & Ronkay 2016). A German expedition (Ratzel, Hauenstein, M. Falkenberg & Trusch) led to the high altitude region of western Bhutan, collected a series of a rather small Perissandria Warren, 1909-like species, of which the genitalia show, surprisingly, the typical features of Xestia, displaying conspicuous external and genitalia differences, comparing with the Tibetan Xestia lithoplana Hreblay, Ronkay & Plante, 1998...
November 28, 2017: Zootaxa
Alexey V Shavrin, Aleš Smetana
Three new species-groups are established for eastern Palaearctic species of the genus Anthobium Leach, 1819: Gracilipalpe-group containing A. gracilipalpe (Champion, 1920) (Uttaranchal, Nepal), A. daliense sp.n. (China: Yunnan, Diancang Shan) and A. nivale sp.n. (China: Yunnan, Gaoligong Shan). Morchella-group containing A. morchella sp.n. (China: Yunnan, Baima Shan), A. hydraenoides sp.n. (China: Yunnan, Meili Xue Shan) and A. puetzi sp.n. (China: Sichuan, Daxue Shan, Qionglai Shan). Nigrum-Group containing A...
December 15, 2017: Zootaxa
Kalev Adamson, Martin S Mullett, Halvor Solheim, Irene Barnes, Michael M Müller, Jarkko Hantula, Martti Vuorinen, Audrius Kačergius, Svetlana Markovskaja, Dmitry L Musolin, Kateryna Davydenko, Nenad Keča, Karli Ligi, Rasa D Priedite, Hanna Millberg, Rein Drenkhan
Dothistroma septosporum, a notorious pine needle pathogen with an unknown historical geographic origin and poorly known distribution pathways, is nowadays found almost in all areas inhabited by pines (Pinus spp.). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between North European and East Asian populations. In total, 238 Eurasian D. septosporum isolates from 11 countries, including 211 isolates from northern Europe, 16 isolates from Russian Far East and 11 isolates from Bhutan were analysed using 11 species-specific microsatellite and mating type markers...
January 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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