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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538108/moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-executive-functions-and-prefrontal-brain-oxygenation-in-children-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Manuel Mücke, Christian Andrä, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Sebastian Ludyga
Despite accumulating evidence that regular exercise improves executive functioning, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to compare cognitive performance as well as task-specific concentration changes in oxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex between children with higher and lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity was measured over 7 consecutive days using actigraphy. Afterwards, participants (N = 50) completed verbal fluency tests (VFTs) and mental arithmetic (MA) for the assessment of cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530412/declines-in-representational-quality-and-strategic-retrieval-processes-contribute-to-age-related-increases-in-false-recognition
#2
Alexandra N Trelle, Richard N Henson, Deborah A E Green, Jon S Simons
In a Yes/No object recognition memory test with similar lures, older adults typically exhibit elevated rates of false recognition. However, the contributions of impaired retrieval, relative to reduced availability of target details, are difficult to disentangle using such a test. The present investigation sought to decouple these factors by comparing performance on a Yes/No (YN) test to that on a Forced Choice (FC) test, which minimizes demands on strategic retrieval processes, enabling a more direct measure of the availability of object details...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526295/large-scale-exploratory-genetic-analysis-of-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Ignacio F Mata, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Beate Ritz, Rebecca Rausch, Stewart A Factor, Cathy Wood-Siverio, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Alberto J Espay, Fredy J Revilla, Johnna Devoto, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of genetic variants that influence the presence or severity of cognitive deficits in PD might provide a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this important nonmotor feature. We genotyped 1105 PD patients from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium for 249,336 variants using the NeuroX array. Participants underwent assessments of learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [HVLT-R]), working memory/executive function (Letter-Number Sequencing and Trail Making Test [TMT] A and B), language processing (semantic and phonemic verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation [JoLO]), and global cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference-to-avoid-false-memories-in-short-term
#4
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information. Human memory may be prone to internal distortions being caused by semantic relatedness between the memory items to be encoded. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon and its possible outcome known as false memories. In this direction, Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists were appropriated for a modified Sternberg paradigm in auditory modality...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#5
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498821/clinical-significance-of-mskcc-nomogram-on-guiding-the-application-of-touch-imprint-cytology-and-frozen-section-in-intraoperative-assessment-of-breast-sentinel-lymph-nodes
#6
Lisha Sun, Guanglei Chen, Yizhen Zhou, Lei Zhang, Zining Jin, Weiguang Liu, Guangping Wu, Feng Jin, Kai Li, Bo Chen
The widely practiced intra-operative methods for rapid evaluation and detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status include frozen section (FS) and touch imprint cytology (TIC). This study optimized the use of TIC and FS in the intra-operative detection of breast SLNs based on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Three hundred forty-two SLNs were removed from 79 patients. SLN metastatic probability was assessed by the MSKCC nomogram. The SLNs underwent intra-operative TIC and FS, as well as routine post-operative paraffin sections (RPSs)...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494468/genes-involved-in-neurodevelopment-neuroplasticity-and-bipolar-disorder-cacna1c-chrna1-and-mapk1
#7
Marco Calabrò, Laura Mandelli, Concetta Crisafulli, Antonella Sidoti, Tae-Youn Jun, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mental disorder. The involvement of genetic factors in the pathophysiology of BPD is well known. In the present study, we tested the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 3 strong candidate genes (CACNA1C, CHRNA7, and MAPK1) with BPD. These genes are involved in monoamine-related pathways, as well as in dendrite development, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and memory/learning. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects diagnosed with BPD and 326 healthy controls of Korean ancestry were genotyped for 40 SNPs within CACNA1C, CHRNA17, and MAPK1...
May 12, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492924/handheld-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-recurrent-extramammary-paget-disease
#8
Oriol Yélamos, Brian P Hibler, Miguel Cordova, Travis J Hollmann, Kivanc Kose, Michael A Marchetti, Patricia L Myskowski, Melissa P Pulitzer, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Anthony M Rossi, Manu Jain
Importance: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is commonly refractory to surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Identifying recurrent or persistent EMPD is challenging because the disease is multifocal, and multiple blind scouting biopsies are usually performed in this setting. Handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (HRCM) has been used to diagnose and map primary EMPD and therefore may be used to identify EMPD recurrences. Objective: To evaluate HRCM's diagnostic accuracy in the setting of recurrent or persistent EMPD as well as its potential diagnostic pitfalls...
May 10, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487004/longitudinal-trajectories-of-informant-reported-daily-functioning-in-empirically-defined-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Kelsey R Thomas, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)'s mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort, we previously identified MCI subtypes as well as participants initially diagnosed with MCI but found to have normal neuropsychological, biomarker, and neuroimaging profiles. We investigated the functional change over time in these empirically derived MCI subgroups. METHODS: ADNI MCI participants (n=654) were classified using cluster analysis as Amnestic MCI (single-domain memory impairment), Dysnomic MCI (memory+language impairments), Dysexecutive/Mixed MCI (memory+language+attention/executive impairments), or Cluster-Derived Normal (CDN)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484940/erp-evidence-for-the-control-of-emotional-memories-during-strategic-retrieval
#10
Jane E Herron
Neural evidence for the strategic retrieval of task-relevant 'target' memories at the expense of less relevant 'nontarget' memories has been demonstrated across a wide variety of studies. In ERP studies, this evidence consists of the ERP correlate of recollection (i.e. the 'left parietal old/new effect') being evident for targets and attenuated for nontargets. It is not yet known, however, whether this degree of strategic control can be extended to emotionally valenced words, or whether these items instead reactivate associated memories...
May 8, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462620/cross-modality-translations-improve-recognition-by-reducing-false-alarms
#11
Noah D Forrin, Colin M MacLeod
Conway and Gathercole [(1990). Writing and long-term memory: Evidence for a "translation" hypothesis. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 513-527] proposed a translation account to explain why certain types of encoding produce benefits in memory: Switching modalities from what is presented to what is encoded enhances item distinctiveness. We investigated this hypothesis in a recognition experiment in which the presentation modality of a study list (visual vs. auditory) and the encoding activity (speaking vs...
May 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460273/eye-movements-provide-insights-into-the-conscious-use-of-context-in-prospective-memory
#12
Vanessa K Bowden, Rebekah E Smith, Shayne Loft
Prior research examining the impact of context on prospective memory (PM) has produced mixed results. Our study aimed to determine whether providing progressive context information could increase PM accuracy and reduce costs to ongoing tasks. Seventy-two participants made ongoing true/false judgements for simple sentences while maintaining a PM intention to respond differently to four memorised words. The context condition were informed of the trial numbers where PM targets could appear, and eye-tracking recorded trial number fixation frequency...
April 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458092/sleep-does-not-cause-false-memories-on-a-story-based-test-of-suggestibility
#13
Elaine van Rijn, Neil Carter, Hazel McMurtrie, Paul Willner, Mark T Blagrove
Sleep contributes to the consolidation of memories. This process may involve extracting the gist of learned material at the expense of details. It has thus been proposed that sleep might lead to false memory formation. Previous research examined the effect of sleep on false memory using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Mixed results were found, including increases and decreases in false memory after sleep relative to wake. It has been questioned whether DRM false memories occur by the same processes as real-world false memories...
April 27, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456521/visual-integration-enhances-associative-memory-equally-for-young-and-older-adults-without-reducing-hippocampal-encoding-activation
#14
Molly Memel, Lee Ryan
The ability to remember associations between previously unrelated pieces of information is often impaired in older adults (Naveh-Benjamin, 2000). Unitization, the process of creating a perceptually or semantically integrated representation that includes both items in an associative pair, attenuates age-related associative deficits (Bastin et al., 2013; Ahmad et al., 2015; Zheng et al., 2015). Compared to non-unitized pairs, unitized pairs may rely less on hippocampally-mediated binding associated with recollection, and more on familiarity-based processes mediated by perirhinal cortex (PRC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC)...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448549/there-was-not-they-did-not-may-negation-cause-the-negated-ideas-to-be-remembered-as-existing
#15
Józef Maciuszek, Romuald Polczyk
In this article we demonstrate that negation of ideas can have paradoxical effects, possibly leading the listener to believe that the negated ideas actually existed. In Experiment 1, participants listened to a description of a house, in which some objects were mentioned, some were negated, and some were not mentioned at all. When questioned about the existence of these objects a week later, the participants gave more false positives for items that were negated in the original material than for items that were not mentioned at all, an effect we call negation related false memories (NRFM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442391/an-exploratory-high-density-eeg-investigation-of-the-misinformation-effect-attentional-and-recollective-differences-between-true-and-false-perceptual-memories
#16
John E Kiat, Robert F Belli
The misinformation effect, a phenomenon in which eyewitness memories are altered via exposure to post-event misinformation, is one of the most important paradigms used to investigate the reconstructive nature of human memory. The aim of this study was to use the misinformation effect paradigm to investigate differences in attentional and recollective processing between true and false event memories. Nineteen participants completed a variant of the misinformation paradigm in which recognition responses to true and misinformation based event details embedded within a narrative context, were investigated using high-density (256-channel) EEG with a 1-day delay between event exposure and test...
April 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441426/identification-of-genes-associated-with-dissociation-of-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathological-burden-multistep-analysis-of-genetic-epigenetic-and-transcriptional-data
#17
Charles C White, Hyun-Sik Yang, Lei Yu, Lori B Chibnik, Robert J Dawe, Jingyun Yang, Hans-Ulrich Klein, Daniel Felsky, Alfredo Ramos-Miguel, Konstantinos Arfanakis, William G Honer, Reisa A Sperling, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager
INTRODUCTION: The molecular underpinnings of the dissociation of cognitive performance and neuropathological burden are poorly understood, and there are currently no known genetic or epigenetic determinants of the dissociation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: "Residual cognition" was quantified by regressing out the effects of cerebral pathologies and demographic characteristics on global cognitive performance proximate to death. To identify genes influencing residual cognition, we leveraged neuropathological, genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptional data available for deceased participants of the Religious Orders Study (n = 492) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (n = 487)...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419177/interpreting-patterns-of-low-scores-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery
#18
James A Holdnack, David S Tulsky, Brian L Brooks, Jerry Slotkin, Richard Gershon, Allen W Heinemann, Grant L Iverson
Introduction: The National Institutes of Health Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Cognition Battery is comprised of seven cognitive tests, including two tests measuring crystallized cognitive ability (i.e., vocabulary and reading) and five tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning (i.e., working memory, memory, speed of processing, and executive functioning). This study presents comprehensive base rate tables for the frequency of low scores in adults and older adults from the normative sample...
April 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414036/blunted-cortisol-response-to-acute-pre-learning-stress-prevents-misinformation-effect-in-a-forced-confabulation-paradigm
#19
Phillip R Zoladz, Chelsea E Cadle, Alison M Dailey, Miranda K Fiely, David M Peters, Hannah E Nagle, Brianne E Mosley, Amanda R Scharf, Callie M Brown, Tessa J Duffy, McKenna B Earley, Boyd R Rorabaugh, Kristie E Payment
Research examining the effects of stress on false memory formation has been equivocal, partly because of the complex nature of stress-memory interactions. A major factor influencing stress effects on learning is the timing of stress relative to encoding. Previous work has shown that brief stressors administered immediately before learning enhance long-term memory. Thus, we predicted that brief stress immediately before learning would decrease participants' susceptibility to subsequent misinformation and reduce false memory formation...
April 21, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410049/a-customized-attention-based-long-short-term-memory-network-for-distant-supervised-relation-extraction
#20
Dengchao He, Hongjun Zhang, Wenning Hao, Rui Zhang, Kai Cheng
Distant supervision, a widely applied approach in the field of relation extraction can automatically generate large amounts of labeled training corpus with minimal manual effort. However, the labeled training corpus may have many false-positive data, which would hurt the performance of relation extraction. Moreover, in traditional feature-based distant supervised approaches, extraction models adopt human design features with natural language processing. It may also cause poor performance. To address these two shortcomings, we propose a customized attention-based long short-term memory network...
April 14, 2017: Neural Computation
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