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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332047/sally-anne-test-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#1
Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315022/deconstructing-rich-false-memories-of-committing-crime-commentary-on-shaw-and-porter-2015
#2
Kimberley A Wade, Maryanne Garry, Kathy Pezdek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276494/no-sensory-compensation-for-olfactory-memory-differences-between-blind-and-sighted-people
#3
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Maciej Karwowski
Blindness can be a driving force behind a variety of changes in sensory systems. When vision is missing, other modalities and higher cognitive functions can become hyper-developed through a mechanism called sensory compensation. Overall, previous studies suggest that olfactory memory in blind people can be better than that of the sighted individuals. Better performance of blind individuals in other-sensory modalities was hypothesized to be a result of, among others, intense perceptual training. At the same time, if the superiority of blind people in olfactory abilities indeed results from training, their scores should not decrease with age to such an extent as among the sighted people...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241632/can-false-memory-for-critical-lures-occur-without-conscious-awareness-of-list-words
#4
Daniel D Sadler, Sharon M Sodmont, Lucas A Keefer
We examined whether the DRM false memory effect can occur when list words are presented below the perceptual identification threshold. In four experiments, subjects showed robust veridical memory for studied words and false memory for critical lures when masked list words were presented at exposure durations of 43 ms per word. Shortening the exposure duration to 29 ms virtually eliminated veridical recognition of studied words and completely eliminated false recognition of critical lures. Subjective visibility ratings in Experiments 3a and 3b support the assumption that words presented at 29 ms were subliminal for most participants, but were occasionally experienced with partial awareness by participants with higher perceptual awareness...
December 11, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236576/destination-memory-accuracy-and-confidence-in-younger-and-older-adults
#5
Tara L Johnson, Susan C Jefferson
Background/Study Context: Nascent research on destination memory-remembering to whom we tell particular information-suggested that older adults have deficits in destination memory and are more confident on inaccurate responses than younger adults. This study assessed the effects of age, attentional resources, and mental imagery on destination memory accuracy and confidence in younger and older adults. METHODS: Using computer format, participants told facts to pictures of famous people in one of four conditions (control, self-focus, refocus, imagery)...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198814/a-high-content-imaging-flow-cytometry-approach-to-study-mitochondria-in-t-cells-mitotracker-green-fm-dye-concentration-optimization
#6
Namrata Gautam, Shvetha Sankaran, John A Yason, Kevin S W Tan, Nicholas R J Gascoigne
Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, are known to remodel their membrane structures through the process of fusion or fission. Studies have indicated that T cells adopt different energy metabolic phenotypes, namely oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis depending on whether they are naïve, effector and memory T cells. It has recently been shown that changes in mitochondrial morphology dictate T cell fate via regulation of their metabolism. Our keen interest in T cell function and metabolism led us to explore and establish a method to study mitochondria in live T cells through a novel high content approach called Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC)...
November 30, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190526/the-influence-of-perceptual-similarity-and-individual-differences-on-false-memories-in-aging
#7
Nancy A Dennis, Indira C Turney
Previous false memory research has suggested that older adults' false memories are based on an overreliance on gist processing in the absence of item-specific details. Yet, false memory studies have rarely taken into consideration the precise role of item-item similarity on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying perceptual false memories in older adults. In addition, work in our laboratory has suggested that when investigating the neural basis of false memories in older adults, it is equally as critical to take into account interindividual variability in behavior...
November 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190189/changes-in-working-memory-performance-in-youth-following-concussion
#8
Stephanie L Green, Michelle L Keightley, Nancy J Lobaugh, Deirdre R Dawson, Alex Mihailidis
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the working memory (WM) performance pre- and post-concussion, and investigate the relationships between performance changes and characteristics such as self-reported symptom scores, number of days post-injury and age at injury in 10-14-year-old youth. METHODS: Twenty-one youth (17 males) aged 10-14 years recruited from the community completed verbal and non-verbal WM tasks pre- and post-concussion. Performance was measured using accuracy and performance errors (false alarms and misses)...
November 30, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173308/shared-reading-quality-and-brain-activation-during-story-listening-in-preschool-age-children
#9
John S Hutton, Kieran Phelan, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Jonathan Dudley, Mekibib Altaye, Tom DeWitt, Scott K Holland
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between maternal shared reading quality (verbal interactivity and engagement) and brain function during story listening in at-risk, preschool-age children, in the context of behavioral evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics, recommendations. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 22 healthy, 4-year-old girls from low socioeconomic status households completed functional magnetic resonance imaging using an established story listening task, followed by videotaped observation of uncoached mother-daughter reading of the same, age-appropriate picture book...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171169/no-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-on-short-term-memory
#10
Jing Wang, Jianbing Wen, Xiaoli Li
INTRODUCTION: Short-term memory refers to the capacity for holding information in mind for a short period of time with conscious memorization. It is an important ability for daily life and is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was reported to enhance the capability of short-term memory in healthy subjects. However, results were not consistent and what is the possible impact factor is not known...
November 23, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170722/what-drives-false-memories-in-psychopathology-a-case-for-associative-activation
#11
REVIEW
Henry Otgaar, Peter Muris, Mark L Howe, Harald Merckelbach
In clinical and court settings, it is imperative to know whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression may make people susceptible to false memories. We conducted a review of the literature on false memory effects in participants with PTSD, a history of trauma, or depression. When emotional associative material was presented to these groups, their levels of false memory were raised relative to those in relevant comparison groups. This difference did not consistently emerge when neutral or nonassociative material was presented...
November 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161350/embedded-performance-validity-tests-in-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised-a-replication-study
#12
K Chase Bailey, Jason R Soble, Kathleen M Bain, Chrystal Fullen
Objective: Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were recently identified. This study aimed to further validate/replicate these embedded PVTs. Method: Eighty clinically referred veterans who underwent neuropsychological evaluation were included. Validity groups were established by passing/failing 2-3 well-validated PVTs, with 75% (n = 60) classified as valid and 25% (n = 20) noncredible...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159407/association-of-salivary-microrna-changes-with-prolonged-concussion-symptoms
#13
Jeremiah J Johnson, Andrea C Loeffert, Jennifer Stokes, Robert P Olympia, Harry Bramley, Steven D Hicks
Importance: Approximately one-third of children who experience a concussion develop prolonged concussion symptoms. To our knowledge, there are currently no objective or easily administered tests for predicting prolonged concussion symptoms. Several studies have identified alterations in epigenetic molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) following traumatic brain injury. No studies have examined whether miRNA expression can detect prolonged concussion symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of salivary miRNAs for identifying children with concussion who are at risk for prolonged symptoms...
January 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154619/complementarity-in-false-memory-illusions
#14
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna
For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#15
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134543/bayesian-inference-for-psychology-part-iii-parameter-estimation-in-nonstandard-models
#16
Dora Matzke, Udo Boehm, Joachim Vandekerckhove
We demonstrate the use of three popular Bayesian software packages that enable researchers to estimate parameters in a broad class of models that are commonly used in psychological research. We focus on WinBUGS, JAGS, and Stan, and show how they can be interfaced from R and MATLAB. We illustrate the use of the packages through two fully worked examples; the examples involve a simple univariate linear regression and fitting a multinomial processing tree model to data from a classic false-memory experiment. We conclude with a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the packages...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#17
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130385/developing-awareness-of-confabulation-through-psychological-formulation-a-case-report-and-first-person-perspective
#18
Jessica Fish, Joseph Forrester
Confabulation, or the unintentional production of false, distorted or displaced memories, is commonly seen in people who have brain injury. However, it is most common in the acute phase, with persistent confabulation being comparatively rare. In this paper, we describe the case of Joe, a 24-year-old man who showed confabulation in the chronic phase of his rehabilitation, three years after traumatic brain injury. We describe our approach to therapy for this confabulation, and in particular how collaborative formulation enabled Joe to understand his confabulation, and then to manage it effectively, using a diary and "detective" procedure to identify whether or not evidence existed to support potentially confabulated memories...
November 12, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#19
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113386/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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