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False memories

Laura Nauha, Niina S Keränen, Maarit Kangas, Timo Jämsä, Jarmo Reponen
The aim of this study was to assess in practice whether assistive technologies support and facilitate the work of a family caregiver or care staff, and whether these technologies support the independence of a person with a memory disorder. A comprehensive set of supportive devices and alarm systems were experimentally tested in the care of five test subjects in an assisted living facility by eight nurses, and in the care of four test subjects in a home environment by three family caregivers and one care team...
October 20, 2016: Dementia
Emily C Edmonds, Joel Eppig, Mark W Bondi, Kelly M Leyden, Bailey Goodwin, Lisa Delano-Wood, Carrie R McDonald
OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in regional cortical thickness between previously identified empirically derived mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subtypes (amnestic MCI, dysnomic MCI, dysexecutive/mixed MCI, and cluster-derived normal) in order to determine whether these cognitive subtypes would show different patterns of cortical atrophy. METHODS: Participants were 485 individuals diagnosed with MCI and 178 cognitively normal individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
October 19, 2016: Neurology
Steve D Charman, Andrea Reyes, Daniella K Villalba, Jacqueline R Evans
Some innocent suspects rely on the memory of strangers to corroborate their alibis. However, no research has examined whether such potential alibi corroborators can accurately recognize an innocent suspect with whom they previously interacted. We developed a novel alibi corroboration paradigm in which undergraduate students (representing innocent suspects who would later provide an alibi) interacted with naïve university employees (representing potential alibi corroborators). Each student briefly interacted with a different naïve university employee (n = 60), and were also each yoked to a different employee with whom they did not interact (n = 60)...
October 19, 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
S H Bookbinder, C J Brainerd
False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Bulletin
Kathleen B McDermott, Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Jason M Watson, Jeffrey G Ojemann
Neuroimaging investigations of human memory encoding and retrieval have revealed that multiple regions of parietal cortex contribute to memory. Recently, a sparse network of regions within parietal cortex has been identified using resting state functional connectivity (MRI techniques). The regions within this network exhibit consistent task-related responses during memory formation and retrieval, leading to its being called the parietal memory network (PMN). Among its signature patterns are: deactivation during initial experience with an item (e...
September 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Rebecca A Weiss, Barry Rosenfeld
As the populations of Western countries become more diverse, the risk of inaccurately generalizing knowledge from majority ethnic groups to minority groups is increasing. However, few of the measures used in forensic assessment are based on normative samples that represent the considerable diversity present in forensic settings. This study examined 4 commonly used measures of feigning: the Dot Counting Test (DCT; Boone, Lu, & Herzberg, 2002); the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms (M-FAST; Miller, 2001); the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996); and a validity scale (atypical responding; ATR) on the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (Briere, 2011)...
August 15, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Stephanie L Leal, Jessica A Noche, Elizabeth A Murray, Michael A Yassa
While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation...
August 25, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Sara Cadavid, Maria Soledad Beato
Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures...
2016: PloS One
Paula Carneiro, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Ana Lapa, Angel Fernandez
This study aimed to analyse the effect of retention intervals on associative and thematic false memories. Two experiments, using two types of critical items that were either associatively or thematically related to studied material, were conducted. In both experiments, one group of participants performed a recognition test immediately after the presentation of lists, and another group performed the task one week later. In Experiment 1, the recognition test consisted of pairs of items with four response alternatives (both items had been presented, only the left item had been presented, only the right item had been presented or none of the items had been presented)...
October 6, 2016: Memory
Lauren A Monds, Helen M Paterson, Richard I Kemp
Many eyewitness memory situations involve negative and distressing events; however, many studies investigating "false memory" phenomena use neutral stimuli only. The aim of the present study was to determine how both the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and the Misinformation Effect Paradigm tasks were related to each other using distressing and neutral stimuli. Participants completed the DRM (with negative and neutral word lists) and viewed a distressing or neutral film. Misinformation for the film was introduced and memory was assessed...
October 6, 2016: Memory
Anthony O'Connell, Ciara M Greene
People are more likely to recall both true and false information that is consistent with their pre-existing stereotypes, schemata and desires. In addition, experts in a particular field are more likely to experience false memory in relation to their area of expertise. Here, we investigate whether level of interest, as distinct from level of knowledge, and in the absence of self-professed expertise, is associated with increased false memory. 489 participants were asked to rank 7 topics from most to least interesting...
October 6, 2016: Memory
Christina E Webb, Indira C Turney, Nancy A Dennis
The current study used a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of encoding schemas on memory. Specifically, the study examined the influence of a strong encoding schema on retrieval of both schematic and non-schematic information, as well as false memories for information associated with the schema. Additionally, the separate roles of recollection and familiarity in both veridical and false memory retrieval were examined. The study identified several novel results. First, while many common neural regions mediated both schematic and non-schematic retrieval success, schematic recollection exhibited greater activation in visual cortex and hippocampus, regions commonly shown to mediate detailed retrieval...
September 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Daniel Moreira, Sandra Avila, Mauricio Perez, Daniel Moraes, Vanessa Testoni, Eduardo Valle, Siome Goldenstein, Anderson Rocha
As web technologies and social networks become part of the general public's life, the problem of automatically detecting pornography is into every parent's mind - nobody feels completely safe when their children go online. In this paper, we focus on video-pornography classification, a hard problem in which traditional methods often employ still-image techniques - labeling frames individually prior to a global decision. Frame-based approaches, however, ignore significant cogent information brought by motion...
September 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
Francis R R Justi, Antonio Jaeger
The number of orthographic neighbors of a word influences its probability of being retrieved in recognition and free recall memory tests. Even though this phenomenon is well demonstrated for English words, it has yet to be demonstrated for languages with more predictable grapheme-phoneme mappings than English. To address this issue, 4 experiments were conducted to investigate effects of number of orthographic neighbors (N) and effects of frequency of occurrence of orthographic neighbors (NF) on memory retrieval of Brazilian Portuguese words...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Gildas Brébion, Christian Stephan-Otto, Susana Ochoa, Mercedes Roca, Lourdes Nieto, Judith Usall
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. METHOD: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically organisable words)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Menahem Yeari, Adi Avramovich, Rachel Schiff
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle particularly with grasping the implicit, inferential level of narratives that is crucial for story comprehension. However, these studies used offline tasks (i.e., after story presentation), used indirect measurements (e.g., identifying main ideas), and/or yielded inconclusive results using think-aloud techniques. Moreover, most studies were conducted with preschool or elementary school children with ADHD, using listening or televised story comprehension...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Sara B Festini, Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz
Directed forgetting tasks instruct people to forget targeted memoranda. In the context of working memory, people attempt to forget representations that are currently held in mind. Here, we evaluated candidate mechanisms of directed forgetting within working memory, by (a) testing the influence of articulatory suppression, a rehearsal-reducing and attention-demanding secondary task, on directed forgetting efficacy, and by (b) assessing the ability of people to perform forgetting in the absence of to-be-remembered competitors to rehearse...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Clélie Phillipps, Jennifer Kemp, Christel Jacob, Alyssa Veronneau, Timothée Albasser, Nathalie Philippi, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Bernard, Frédéric Blanc
The production of false memories (FMs) is a normal phenomenon, which can be affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Only few studies investigated FMs in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The aim of our preliminary study was to assess FMs in patients with DLB and to identify the underlying cognitive deficits influencing the production of FMs in DLB and AD. Ten AD patients and nine DLB patients performed a memory task (free recall and recognition) coupling two paradigms, namely the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm, promoting the production of FMs and the "Remember/Know" (R/K) paradigm, allowing to investigate the phenomenological experience during the recollection of a memory...
September 1, 2016: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Michelle J Tat, Anothai Soonsawat, Corinne B Nagle, Rebecca G Deason, Maureen K O'Connor, Andrew E Budson
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibit high rates of memory distortions in addition to their impairments in episodic memory. Several investigations have demonstrated that when healthy individuals (young and old) engaged in an encoding strategy that emphasized the uniqueness of study items (an item-specific encoding strategy), they were able to improve their discrimination between old items and unstudied critical lure items in a false memory task. In the present study we examined if patients with AD could also improve their memory discrimination when engaging in an item-specific encoding strategy...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
Andrew Parker, Timothy Kember, Neil Dagnall
High levels of false recognition for non-presented items typically occur following exposure to lists of associated words. These false recognition effects can be reduced by making the studied items more distinctive by the presentation of pictures during encoding. One explanation of this is that during recognition, participants expect or attempt to retrieve distinctive pictorial information in order to evaluate the study status of the test item. If this involves the retrieval and use of visual imagery, then interfering with imagery processing should reduce the effectiveness of pictorial information in false memory reduction...
September 16, 2016: Memory
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