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False memories

Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has shown that false memories arise from higher-level conscious processing regions rather than lower-level sensory processing regions. In the present study, we assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC)-a lower-level conscious shape processing region-was associated with false memories for shape. During encoding, participants viewed intact or scrambled colored abstract shapes. During retrieval, colored disks were presented and participants indicated whether the corresponding item was previously "intact" or "scrambled...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
Dennis Norris, Sally Butterfield, Jane Hall, Michael P A Page
We report data from an experiment in which participants performed immediate serial recall of visually presented words with or without articulatory suppression, while also performing homophone or rhyme detection. The separation between homophonous or rhyming pairs in the list was varied. According to the working memory model (Baddeley, 1986; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), suppression should prevent articulatory recoding. Nevertheless, rhyme and homophone detection was well above chance. However, with suppression, participants showed a greater tendency to false-alarm to orthographically related foils (e...
September 11, 2017: Memory & Cognition
Pia Erdmann, Martin Langanke
Based on an analysis of the potential consequences of disclosing AD suspicions from respective research and using the research ethical principle of non-maleficence, the authors of this paper argue for the thesis that the benefits of early AD detection in research outweigh the risk of potential adverse effects only in cases where studies are conducted with symptomatic people actively seeking for support, e. g. as they utilize the services of memory clinics. In the case of non-symptomatic volunteers, the result of the risk-benefit-assessment seems to be less distinctive...
September 7, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
David M Nminibapiel, Dmitry Veksler, J-H Kim, Pragya R Shrestha, Jason P Campbell, Jason T Ryan, Helmut Baumgart, Kin P Cheung
The stochastic nature of the conductive filaments in oxide-based resistive memory (RRAM) represents a sizeable impediment to commercialization. As such, program-verify methodologies are highly alluring. However, it was recently shown that program-verify methods are unworkable due to strong resistance state relaxation after SET/RESET programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that resistance state relaxation is not the main culprit. Instead, it is fluctuation-induced false-reading (triggering) that defeats the program-verify method, producing a large distribution tail immediately after programming...
June 2017: IEEE Electron Device Lett
Ludmila D Nunes, Leonel Garcia-Marques, Mário B Ferreira, Tânia Ramos
An extension of the DRM paradigm was used to study the impact of central traits (Asch, 1946) in impression formation. Traits corresponding to the four clusters of the implicit theory of personality-intellectual, positive and negative; and social, positive and negative (Rosenberg et al., 1968)-were used to develop lists containing several traits of one cluster and one central trait prototypical of the opposite cluster. Participants engaging in impression formation relative to participants engaging in memorization not only produced higher levels of false memories corresponding to the same cluster of the list traits but, under response time pressure at retrieval, also produced more false memories of the cluster corresponding to the central trait...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Michelle E Stepan, Taylor M Dehnke, Kimberly M Fenn
Inaccurate eyewitness identifications are the leading cause of known false convictions in the United States. Moreover, improving eyewitness memory is difficult and often unsuccessful. Sleep consistently strengthens and protects memory from interference, particularly when a recall test is used. However, the effect of sleep on recognition memory is more equivocal. Eyewitness identification tests are often recognition based, thus leaving open the question of how sleep affects recognition performance in an eyewitness context...
2017: PloS One
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Solaphat Hemrungrojn, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Evidence indicates that schizophrenia and in particular negative symptoms and deficit schizophrenia are accompanied by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. This cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the associations between cognitive functions (as measured with Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)) and TRYCAT pathway patterning in patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit schizophrenia and normal controls (n = 40)...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Brent M Wilson, Travis M Seale-Carlisle, Laura Mickes
Verbally describing a face has been found to impair subsequent recognition of that face from a photo lineup, a phenomenon known as the verbal overshadowing effect (Schooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990). Recently, a large direct replication study successfully reproduced that original finding (Alogna et al., 2014). However, in both the original study and the replication studies, memory was tested using only target-present lineups (i.e., lineups containing the previously seen target face), making it possible to compute the correct identification rate (correct ID rate; i...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Marieke van der Linden, Ruud M W J Berkers, Richard G M Morris, Guillén Fernández
After consolidation, information belonging to a mental schema is better remembered, but such memory can be less specific when it comes to details. A neuronal mechanism in line with this behavioral pattern could result from a dynamic interaction that entails mediation by a specific cortical network with associated hippocampal disengagement. We now report that in male and female adult human subjects, encoding and later consolidation of a series of objects embedded in a semantic schema was associated with a build-up of activity in the angular gyrus (AG) that predicted memory 24h later...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lasse Melvaer Giil, Øivind Midttun, Helga Refsum, Arve Ulvik, Rajiv Advani, A David Smith, Per Magne Ueland
BACKGROUND: Metabolites of tryptophan, produced via the kynurenine pathway (kynurenines), have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in small cohorts with conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To compare differences in plasma kynurenine levels between AD and controls and identify potential associations with cognition. METHODS: The study included 65 histopathologically-confirmed AD patients and 65 cognitively-screened controls from the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA) cohort...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lisa V Graves, Emily J Van Etten, Heather M Holden, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi, Jody Corey-Bloom, Dean C Delis, Paul E Gilbert
The present study examined age-related differences on the four false-positive (FP) error subtypes found on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition yes/no recognition memory trial and the influence of these subtypes on source and novel recognition discriminability (SoRD and NRD, respectively) index calculations. Healthy older (n = 55) adults generally made more FP errors than healthy young adults (n = 57). Accordingly, older adults performed worse than young adults on all SoRD and NRD indices. However, the manner in which FP error subtypes were incorporated into SoRD and NRD index calculations impacted the magnitudes of observed differences between and within the two age groups on SoRD and NRD indices...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Amy M Smith, David A Gallo, Sarah J Barber, Keith B Maddox, Ayanna K Thomas
Background and Objectives: Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. Research Design and Methods: We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm...
August 1, 2017: Gerontologist
Quentin Frederik Gronau, Monique Duizer, Marjan Bakker, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
Publication bias and questionable research practices have long been known to corrupt the published record. One method to assess the extent of this corruption is to examine the meta-analytic collection of significant p values, the so-called p-curve (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014a). Inspired by statistical research on false-discovery rates, we propose a Bayesian mixture model analysis of the p-curve. Our mixture model assumes that significant p values arise either from the null-hypothesis H₀ (when their distribution is uniform) or from the alternative hypothesis H1 (when their distribution is accounted for by a simple parametric model)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Nicole Carrigan, Emma Barkus, Adriel Ong, Maryann Wei
BACKGROUND: Individuals high on schizotypy complain of increased cognitive failures in everyday life. However, the neuropsychological performance of this group does not consistently indicate underlying ability deficits. It is possible that current neuropsychological tests lack ecological validity. Given the increased affective reactivity of high schizotypes, they may be more sensitive to emotional content interfering with cognitive ability. This study sought to explore whether an affective n-back working memory task would elicit impaired performance in schizotypy, echoing complaints concerning real world cognition...
July 5, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Colin Davidson, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Angel Arevalo-Martin, Daniel Garcia-Ovejero, Eduardo Molina-Holgado, Francisco Molina-Holgado
Recreational use of synthetic cannabinoids (SCB), a class of novel psychoactive substances is an increasing public health problem specifically in Western societies, with teenagers, young adults, and the prison population being the most affected. Some of these SCB are analogs of tetrahydrocannabinol, aminoalkylindoles, and other phytocannabinoid analogs have been detected in herbal preparations generically called "Spice." Spice, "K2" or "fake cannabis" is a general term used for variable herbal mixtures of unknown ingredients or chemical composition...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Sarah A Morrow, Sherrilene Classen, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Robert Taylor, Sarah Krasniuk, Heather Rosehart, Wenqing He
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). In other populations, cognitive impairment is known to affect fitness-to-drive. Few studies have focused on fitness-to-drive in MS and no studies have solely focused on the influence of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To assess fitness-to-drive in persons with MS with cognitive impairment and low physical disability. METHODS: Persons with MS, aged 18-59 years with EDSS ⩽ 4...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Sven Bernecker
This paper attempts to answer the question of what defines mnemonic confabulation vis-à-vis genuine memory. The two extant accounts of mnemonic confabulation as "false memory" and as ill-grounded memory are shown to be problematic, for they cannot account for the possibility of veridical confabulation, ill-grounded memory, and well-grounded confabulation. This paper argues that the defining characteristic of mnemonic confabulation is that it lacks the appropriate causal history. In the confabulation case, there is no proper counterfactual dependence of the state of seeming to remember on the corresponding past representation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma Delhaye, Roni Tibon, Nurit Gronau, Daniel A Levy, Christine Bastin
Memory for episodic associations declines in aging, ostensibly due to decreased recollection abilities. Accordingly, associative unitization - the encoding of associated items as one integrated entity - may potentially attenuate age-related associative deficits by enabling familiarity-based retrieval, which is relatively preserved in aging. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up unitization by manipulating semantic relatedness between memoranda. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults studied pairs of object pictures that were either semantically related or unrelated...
July 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Kristy A Nielson, Anthony N Correro
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm examines false memory by introducing words associated with a non-presented 'critical lure' as memoranda, which typically causes the lures to be remembered as frequently as studied words. Our prior work has shown enhanced veridical memory and reduced misinformation effects when arousal is induced after learning (i.e., during memory consolidation). These effects have not been examined in the DRM task, or with signal detection analysis, which can elucidate the mechanisms underlying memory alterations...
July 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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