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False memories

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800429/bimanual-coordination-positively-predicts-episodic-memory-a-combined-behavioral-and-mri-investigation
#1
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782411/on-road-assessment-of-fitness-to-drive-in-persons-with-ms-with-cognitive-impairment-a-prospective-study
#2
Sarah A Morrow, Sherrilene Classen, Miriam Monahan, Tim Danter, Robert Taylor, Sarah Krasniuk, Heather Rosehart, Wenqing He
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS). In other populations, cognitive impairment is known to affect fitness-to-drive. Few studies have focused on fitness-to-drive in MS and no studies have solely focused on the influence of cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To assess fitness-to-drive in persons with MS with cognitive impairment and low physical disability. METHODS: Persons with MS, aged 18-59 years with EDSS ⩽ 4...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769847/a-causal-theory-of-mnemonic-confabulation
#3
Sven Bernecker
This paper attempts to answer the question of what defines mnemonic confabulation vis-à-vis genuine memory. The two extant accounts of mnemonic confabulation as "false memory" and as ill-grounded memory are shown to be problematic, for they cannot account for the possibility of veridical confabulation, ill-grounded memory, and well-grounded confabulation. This paper argues that the defining characteristic of mnemonic confabulation is that it lacks the appropriate causal history. In the confabulation case, there is no proper counterfactual dependence of the state of seeming to remember on the corresponding past representation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756745/misrecollection-prevents-older-adults-from-benefitting-from-semantic-relatedness-of-the-memoranda-in-associative-memory
#4
Emma Delhaye, Roni Tibon, Nurit Gronau, Daniel A Levy, Christine Bastin
Memory for episodic associations declines in aging, ostensibly due to decreased recollection abilities. Accordingly, associative unitization - the encoding of associated items as one integrated entity - may potentially attenuate age-related associative deficits by enabling familiarity-based retrieval, which is relatively preserved in aging. To test this hypothesis, we induced bottom-up unitization by manipulating semantic relatedness between memoranda. Twenty-four young and 24 older adults studied pairs of object pictures that were either semantically related or unrelated...
July 31, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756031/post-learning-arousal-enhances-veridical-memory-and-reduces-false-memory-in-the-deese-roediger-mcdermott-paradigm
#5
Kristy A Nielson, Anthony N Correro
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm examines false memory by introducing words associated with a non-presented 'critical lure' as memoranda, which typically causes the lures to be remembered as frequently as studied words. Our prior work has shown enhanced veridical memory and reduced misinformation effects when arousal is induced after learning (i.e., during memory consolidation). These effects have not been examined in the DRM task, or with signal detection analysis, which can elucidate the mechanisms underlying memory alterations...
July 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746902/remembering-verbally-presented-items-as-pictures-brain-activity-underlying-visual-mental-images-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-visual-hallucinations
#6
Christian Stephan-Otto, Sara Siddi, Carl Senior, Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Rosa Cambra-Martí, Susana Ochoa, Gildas Brébion
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual hallucinations in schizophrenia consist of mental images mistaken for percepts due to failure of the reality-monitoring processes. However, the neural substrates that underpin such dysfunction are currently unknown. We conducted a brain imaging study to investigate the role of visual mental imagery in visual hallucinations. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy participants were administered a reality-monitoring task whilst undergoing an fMRI protocol...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734134/the-role-of-maternal-elaborative-structure-and-control-in-children-s-memory-and-suggestibility-for-a-past-event
#7
Gabrielle F Principe, Jacqueline Trumbull, Grace Gardner, Elizabeth Van Horn, Abigail M Dean
In this investigation, preschool-aged children experienced a staged event about which their mothers received misinformation suggesting that their children witnessed an activity that did not occur. Later, mothers were asked to talk about this event with their children. Consistent with previous research, mothers' provision of structure (defined as elaborative questions and statements) and degree of control (defined in terms of functional control of conversational turns) emerged as separate dimensions of maternal memory sharing style...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729943/relationship-between-cerebellar-structure-and-emotional-memory-in-depression
#8
Li-Yan Xu, Fang-Cheng Xu, Can Liu, Yi-Fu Ji, Jin-Min Wu, Ying Wang, Hai-Bao Wang, Yong-Qiang Yu
BACKGROUND: A few studies have been conducted on the relationship between cerebellar volume and emotional memory or clinical severity in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we aimed to compare the volume and density of the cerebellar gray matter (GM) in patients with MDD and in healthy controls (HCs) and explore the association between these cerebellar parameters and measurements of emotional memory and clinical severity. METHOD: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Individual Brain Atlases using Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) were used to assess GM density and volume in the cerebellum, respectively, in patients with MDD and the HCs...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725187/lack-of-associations-between-female-hormone-levels-and-visuospatial-working-memory-divided-attention-and-cognitive-bias-across-two-consecutive-menstrual-cycles
#9
Brigitte Leeners, Tillmann H C Kruger, Kirsten Geraedts, Enrico Tronci, Toni Mancini, Fabian Ille, Marcel Egli, Susanna Röblitz, Lanja Saleh, Katharina Spanaus, Cordula Schippert, Yuangyuang Zhang, Michael P Hengartner
Background: Interpretation of observational studies on associations between prefrontal cognitive functioning and hormone levels across the female menstrual cycle is complicated due to small sample sizes and poor replicability. Methods: This observational multisite study comprised data of n = 88 menstruating women from Hannover, Germany, and Zurich, Switzerland, assessed during a first cycle and n = 68 re-assessed during a second cycle to rule out practice effects and false-positive chance findings. We assessed visuospatial working memory, attention, cognitive bias and hormone levels at four consecutive time-points across both cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722546/the-role-of-recollection-and-familiarity-in-nondemented-parkinson-s-patients
#10
Alfonso Pitarque, Juan C Melendez, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Joaquin Escudero, Salvador Algarabel
The aim of the current study was to examine if recollection and familiarity decline in nondemented Parkinson's patients. To do so we compared a sample of older people with Parkinson's disease (n = 32) to a control sample of healthy older people (n = 32) on an associative recognition task in which we manipulated the repetition of the pairs during the study phase (half of the pairs were presented once and half twice) to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity, and false recognition based on the logic of the process-dissociation procedure...
July 2017: Journal of General Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718338/the-role-of-attention-at-retrieval-on-the-false-recognition-of-negative-emotional-drm-lists
#11
Datin Shah, Lauren M Knott
This study examined the role of attention at retrieval on the false recognition of emotional items using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown that divided attention at test increases false remember judgements for neutral critical lures. However, no research has yet directly assessed emotional false memories when attention is manipulated at retrieval. To examine this, participants studied negative (low in valence and high in arousal) and neutral DRM lists and completed recognition tests under conditions of full and divided attention...
July 18, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717405/my-command-my-act-observation-inflation-in-face-to-face-interactions
#12
Roland Pfister, Katharina A Schwarz, Robert Wirth, Isabel Lindner
When observing another agent performing simple actions, these actions are systematically remembered as one's own after a brief period of time. Such observation inflation has been documented as a robust phenomenon in studies in which participants passively observed videotaped actions. Whether observation inflation also holds for direct, face-to-face interactions is an open question that we addressed in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants commanded the experimenter to carry out certain actions, and they indeed reported false memories of self-performance in a later memory test...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708564/improved-statistical-fault-detection-technique-and-application-to-biological-phenomena-modeled-by-s-systems
#13
Majdi Mansouri, Mohamed Nounou, Hazem Nounou
In our previous work [1], we have demonstrated the effectiveness of the linear multiscale PCA-based moving window (MW)- generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) technique over the classical PCA and MSPCA-based GLRT methods. The developed fault detection algorithm provided optimal properties by maximizing the detection probability for a particular false alarm rate with different values of windows, however, most real systems are nonlinear, which make the linear PCA method not able to tackle the issue of nonlinearity to a great extent...
July 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707123/visual-properties-and-memorising-scenes-effects-of-image-space-sparseness-and-uniformity
#14
Jiří Lukavský, Filip Děchtěrenko
Previous studies have demonstrated that humans have a remarkable capacity to memorise a large number of scenes. The research on memorability has shown that memory performance can be predicted by the content of an image. We explored how remembering an image is affected by the image properties within the context of the reference set, including the extent to which it is different from its neighbours (image-space sparseness) and if it belongs to the same category as its neighbours (uniformity). We used a reference set of 2,048 scenes (64 categories), evaluated pairwise scene similarity using deep features from a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN), and calculated the image-space sparseness and uniformity for each image...
July 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697904/the-adra2b-gene-in-the-production-of-false-memories-for-affective-information-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#15
Beth Fairfield, Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Marco D'Aurora, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697479/false-memories-but-not-false-beliefs-affect-implicit-attitudes-for-food-preferences
#16
David Howe, Rachel J Anderson, Stephen A Dewhurst
Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test)...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693707/the-role-of-backward-associative-strength-in-false-recognition-of-drm-lists-with-multiple-critical-words
#17
María S Beato, Jason Arndt
BACKGROUND: Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. METHOD: In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693704/the-role-of-self-referencing-in-true-and-false-recognition-in-young-people-and-healthy-older-people
#18
Alfonso Pitarque, Alicia Sales, Encar Satorres, Rita Redondo, Juan C Meléndez
BACKGROUND: Given the uneven results about the role self-referencing plays in false recognition, we planned an experiment that would allow us to analyze whether self-referencing affects false recognition, and its relationship with healthy aging. METHOD: A sample of healthy older people (n = 30) and another sample of young people (n = 38) rated whether 40 personality-trait adjectives (20 with a positive valence and 20 with a negative valence) described them or not (self-referencing condition)...
August 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689462/measuring-working-memory-load-effects-on-electrophysiological-markers-of-attention-orienting-during-a-simulated-drive
#19
Veerle Ross, Alexandra Y Vossen, Fren T Y Smulders, Robert A C Ruiter, Tom Brijs, Kris Brijs, Geert Wets, Ellen M M Jongen
Intersection accidents result in a significant proportion of road fatalities, and attention allocation likely plays a role. Attention allocation may depend on (limited) working memory (WM) capacity. Driving is often combined with tasks increasing WM load, consequently impairing attention orienting. This study (n = 22) investigated WM load effects on event-related potentials (ERPs) related to attention orienting. A simulated driving environment allowed continuous lane-keeping measurement. Participants were asked to orient attention covertly towards the side indicated by an arrow, and to respond only to moving cars appearing on the attended side by pressing a button...
July 10, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683338/encoding-focus-alters-diagnostic-recollection-and-event-related-potentials-erps
#20
P Andrew Leynes, Brittany A Mok
The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, led to greater old/new recognition, and elicited a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate of recollection) during the source test...
July 3, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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