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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161350/embedded-performance-validity-tests-in-the-hopkins-verbal-learning-test-revised-and-the-brief-visuospatial-memory-test-revised-a-replication-study
#1
K Chase Bailey, Jason R Soble, Kathleen M Bain, Chrystal Fullen
Objective: Embedded performance validity tests (PVTs) within the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were recently identified. This study aimed to further validate/replicate these embedded PVTs. Method: Eighty clinically referred veterans who underwent neuropsychological evaluation were included. Validity groups were established by passing/failing 2-3 well-validated PVTs, with 75% (n = 60) classified as valid and 25% (n = 20) noncredible...
November 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159407/association-of-salivary-microrna-changes-with-prolonged-concussion-symptoms
#2
Jeremiah J Johnson, Andrea C Loeffert, Jennifer Stokes, Robert P Olympia, Harry Bramley, Steven D Hicks
Importance: Approximately one-third of children who experience a concussion develop prolonged concussion symptoms. To our knowledge, there are currently no objective or easily administered tests for predicting prolonged concussion symptoms. Several studies have identified alterations in epigenetic molecules known as microRNAs (miRNAs) following traumatic brain injury. No studies have examined whether miRNA expression can detect prolonged concussion symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of salivary miRNAs for identifying children with concussion who are at risk for prolonged symptoms...
November 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154619/complementarity-in-false-memory-illusions
#3
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna
For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#4
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134543/bayesian-inference-for-psychology-part-iii-parameter-estimation-in-nonstandard-models
#5
Dora Matzke, Udo Boehm, Joachim Vandekerckhove
We demonstrate the use of three popular Bayesian software packages that enable researchers to estimate parameters in a broad class of models that are commonly used in psychological research. We focus on WinBUGS, JAGS, and Stan, and show how they can be interfaced from R and MATLAB. We illustrate the use of the packages through two fully worked examples; the examples involve a simple univariate linear regression and fitting a multinomial processing tree model to data from a classic false-memory experiment. We conclude with a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the packages...
November 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134480/false-memory-for-orthographically-versus-semantically-similar-words-in-adolescents-with-dyslexia-a-fuzzy-trace-theory-perspective
#6
Michał Obidziński, Marek Nieznański
The presented research was conducted in order to investigate the connections between developmental dyslexia and the functioning of verbatim and gist memory traces-assumed in the fuzzy-trace theory. The participants were 71 high school students (33 with dyslexia and 38 without learning difficulties). The modified procedure and multinomial model of Stahl and Klauer (simplified conjoint recognition model) was used to collect and analyze data. Results showed statistically significant differences in four of the model parameters: (a) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of orthographically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (b) the probability of verbatim trace recollection upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the control than dyslexia group, (c) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon presentation of semantically similar stimulus was higher in the dyslexia than control group, and (d) the probability of gist trace retrieval upon target stimulus presentation (in the semantic condition) was higher in the control than dyslexia group...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130385/developing-awareness-of-confabulation-through-psychological-formulation-a-case-report-and-first-person-perspective
#7
Jessica Fish, Joseph Forrester
Confabulation, or the unintentional production of false, distorted or displaced memories, is commonly seen in people who have brain injury. However, it is most common in the acute phase, with persistent confabulation being comparatively rare. In this paper, we describe the case of Joe, a 24-year-old man who showed confabulation in the chronic phase of his rehabilitation, three years after traumatic brain injury. We describe our approach to therapy for this confabulation, and in particular how collaborative formulation enabled Joe to understand his confabulation, and then to manage it effectively, using a diary and "detective" procedure to identify whether or not evidence existed to support potentially confabulated memories...
November 12, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#8
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113386/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#9
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111783/would-you-say-yes-in-the-evening-time-of-day-effect-on-response-bias-in-four-types-of-working-memory-recognition-tasks
#10
Koryna Lewandowska, Barbara Wachowicz, Tadeusz Marek, Halszka Oginska, Magdalena Fafrowicz
Across a wide range of tasks, cognitive functioning is affected by circadian fluctuations. In this study, we investigated diurnal variations of working memory performance, taking into account not only hits and errors rates, but also sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) indexes (established by signal detection theory). Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed four experimental tasks twice - in the morning and in the evening (approximately 1 and 10 h after awakening). All tasks were based on Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm version dedicated to study working/short-term memory distortions...
November 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109037/lateralised-sleep-spindles-relate-to-false-memory-generation
#11
John J Shaw, Padraic Monaghan
Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH...
November 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107832/impaired-action-self-monitoring-and-cognitive-confidence-among-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#12
Ł Gawęda, E Li, S Lavoie, T J Whitford, S Moritz, B Nelson
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients...
September 22, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100452/clinical-significance-of-mskcc-nomogram-on-guiding-the-application-of-touch-imprint-cytology-and-frozen-section-in-intraoperative-assessment-of-breast-sentinel-lymph-nodes
#13
Lisha Sun, Guanglei Chen, Yizhen Zhou, Lei Zhang, Zining Jin, Weiguang Liu, Guangping Wu, Feng Jin, Kai Li, Bo Chen
The widely practiced intra-operative methods for rapid evaluation and detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status include frozen section (FS) and touch imprint cytology (TIC). This study optimized the use of TIC and FS in the intra-operative detection of breast SLNs based on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Three hundred forty-two SLNs were removed from 79 patients. SLN metastatic probability was assessed by the MSKCC nomogram. The SLNs underwent intra-operative TIC and FS, as well as routine post-operative paraffin sections (RPSs)...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098674/development-of-new-diagnostic-techniques-machine-learning
#14
Delin Sun
Traditional diagnoses on addiction reply on the patients' self-reports, which are easy to be dampened by false memory or malingering. Machine learning (ML) is a data-driven procedure that learns algorithms from training data and makes predictions. It is quickly developed and is more and more utilized into clinical applications including diagnoses of addiction. This chapter reviewed the basic concepts and processes of ML. Some studies utilizing ML to classify addicts and non-addicts, separate different types of addiction, and evaluate the effects of treatment are also reviewed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072142/megagta-a-sensitive-and-accurate-metagenomic-gene-targeted-assembler-using-iterative-de-bruijn-graphs
#15
Dinghua Li, Yukun Huang, Chi-Ming Leung, Ruibang Luo, Hing-Fung Ting, Tak-Wah Lam
BACKGROUND: The recent release of the gene-targeted metagenomics assembler Xander has demonstrated that using the trained Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to guide the traversal of de Bruijn graph gives obvious advantage over other assembly methods. Xander, as a pilot study, indeed has a lot of room for improvement. Apart from its slow speed, Xander uses only 1 k-mer size for graph construction and whatever choice of k will compromise either sensitivity or accuracy. Xander uses a Bloom-filter representation of de Bruijn graph to achieve a lower memory footprint...
October 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065777/how-do-associative-and-phonemic-overlap-interact-to-boost-illusory-recollection
#16
Keith A Hutchison, Michelle L Meade, Nikolas S Williams, Krista D Manley, Jaimie C McNabb
This project investigated the underlying mechanisms that boost false remember responses when participants receive study words that are both semantically and phonologically similar to a critical lure. Participants completed a memory task in which they were presented with a list of words all associated with a critical lure. Included within the list of semantic associates was a target that was either semantically associated (e.g., yawn) to the critical lure (e.g., sleep) or shared the initial (e.g., slam) or final (e...
October 24, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060940/everyday-memory-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-fragmentary-and%C3%A2-distorted
#17
Karolina Sejunaite, Claudia Lanza, Matthias W Riepe
BACKGROUND: Errors of omission are an established hallmark of memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much less is known about other memory errors in AD such as false memories. OBJECTIVE: We investigated false memories in healthy elderly controls (HC; n = 23) and patients with AD (n = 20) using real-life tasks of watching news and commercials. METHODS: Participants received a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and were shown original news and commercials with a subsequent recognition task to assess veridical and false memories...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060376/a-wearable-sensor-based-multi-criteria-decision-system-for-real-time-seizure-detection
#18
Abdullah Ahmed, Waqas Ahmad, Muhammad Jazib Khan, Shoaib Ahmed Siddiqui, Hammad M Cheema
This paper presents a wireless, low power and low cost two part wearable for real-time epileptic seizure detection. Using parameters of Electro-cardiograph (ECG), Electro-dermal Activity (EDA), body motion and breathing rate (BR), a novel multi-criteria-decision-system (MCDS) is proposed that reduces false alarms and true negatives. The combination of a chest and hand worn wearable continuously senses these parameters transmitting the data to a smart phone application via BLE 4.0 where long-short-term-memory (LSTM) based anomaly detection algorithms and logistic classifiers decide on the occurrence of the seizure in real time...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042986/sevoflurane-exposure-in-postnatal-rats-induced-long-term-cognitive-impairment-through-upregulating-caspase-3-cleaved-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-pathway
#19
Yunzhi Ling, Xiaohong Li, Li Yu, Qisheng Liang, Xuewu Lin, Xiaodi Yang, Hongtao Wang, Ye Zhang
The association of anesthetic exposure in infants or young children with the long-term impairment of neurologic functions has been reported previously; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In order to identify dysregulated gene expression underlying long-term cognitive impairment caused by sevoflurane exposure at the postnatal stage, the present study initially performed behavioral tests on adult Wistar rats, which received 3% sevoflurane at postnatal day 7 (P7) for different time course...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039240/repeated-study-of-items-with-and-without-repeated-context-aging-effects-on-memory-discriminability
#20
John M McCormick-Huhn, Caitlin R Bowman, Nancy A Dennis
Presenting items multiple times during encoding is a common way to enhance recognition accuracy. Under such conditions, older adults often show an increase in false recognition that counteracts benefits of repeated study. Using a false-memory paradigm with related study items and related lures, we tested whether repetition within the same encoding task or repetition across two different encoding tasks would be more beneficial to older adults' memory discriminability. Results showed that, compared to items not repeated at study, items repeated in the same context and items repeated across different contexts showed improvements in memory discriminability in both young and older adults...
October 17, 2017: Memory
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