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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324891/multicenter-prospective-evaluation-of-the-reliability-of-the-combined-use-of-two-models-to-predict-non-sentinel-lymph-node-status-in-breast-cancer-patients-with-metastatic-sentinel-lymph-nodes-the-mskcc-nomogram-and-the-tenon-score-results-of-the-notegs-study
#1
Roman Rouzier, Catherine Uzan, Alexandra Rousseau, Eugénie Guillot, Sonia Zilberman, Charles Meyer, Pablo Estevez, Pierre-Francois Dupre, David Kere, Virginie Doridot, Gauthier D'halluin, Xavier Fritel, Nicolas Pouget, Clémentine Jankowski, Chafika Mazouni, Tabassome Simon, Charles Coutant
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the combined use of The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram and Tenon score to select, in patients with metastatic sentinel lymph node (SN), those at low risk of metastatic non-SN for whom additional axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) could be avoided. METHODS: From January 2011 to July 2012, a prospective non-interventional nationwide study was conducted (NCT01509963). We sought to identify the false reassurance rate (FRR, a negative test result is false) in patients with both a ⩽10% probability of metastatic non-SN with the MSKCC nomogram and a Tenon score ⩽3...
March 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318498/false-memory-for-context-and-true-memory-for-context-similarly-activate-the-parahippocampal-cortex
#2
Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306349/utility-of-critical-items-within-the-recognition-memory-test-and-word-choice-test
#3
Laszlo A Erdodi, Bradley T Tyson, Christopher A Abeare, Brandon G Zuccato, Jaspreet K Rai, Kristian R Seke, Sanya Sagar, Robert M Roth
This study was designed to examine the clinical utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test (RMT) and the Word Choice Test (WCT). Archival data were collected from a mixed clinical sample of 202 patients clinically referred for neuropsychological testing (54.5% male; mean age = 45.3 years; mean level of education = 13.9 years). The credibility of a given response set was psychometrically defined using three separate composite measures, each of which was based on multiple independent performance validity indicators...
March 17, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303355/false-memory-susceptibility-in-coma-survivors-with-and-without-a-near-death-experience
#4
Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Hedwige Dehon, Steven Laureys
It has been postulated that memories of near-death experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers' (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual's attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited...
March 16, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302164/cost-effectiveness-of-cerebrospinal-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Spencer A W Lee, Luciano A Sposato, Vladimir Hachinski, Lauren E Cipriano
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for prompt initiation of treatment in patients with AD and to avoid inappropriate treatment of patients with false-positive diagnoses. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we estimated the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis in a cohort of patients referred to a neurologist or memory clinic with suspected AD who remained without a definitive diagnosis of AD or another condition after neuroimaging...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300627/serum-uric-acid-is-associated-with-better-executive-function-in-men-but-not-in-women-baseline-assessment-of-the-elsa-brasil-study
#6
Cristina Pellegrino Baena, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Sandhi Barreto, Paulo Lotufo, Isabela Benseñor
BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. PURPOSE: We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. METHODS: We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293981/examining-theories-of-cognitive-ageing-using-the-false-memory-paradigm
#7
Charlotte Askey, David Playfoot
Changes in memory performance with advancing age have been well-documented, even in the absence of brain injury or dementia. The mechanisms underlying cognitive ageing are still a matter of debate. The current paper describes a comparison between young (18-25 year old) and older (60+ years) adults using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm and manipulating the number of words included in the memory lists. Two key theories of cognitive ageing (the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis) predict opposing patterns on this task...
March 15, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293111/influence-of-cfh-gene-on-symptom-severity-of-schizophrenia
#8
Chen Zhang, Qinyu Lv, Weixing Fan, Wei Tang, Zhenghui Yi
OBJECTIVE: Recent advances have provided compelling evidence for the role of excessive complement activity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to detect the association of the gene encoding complement factor H (CFH), a regulator in complement activation, with schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 1783 individuals with or without schizophrenia was recruited for genetic analysis. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood cells using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and the SNaPshot assay...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285034/social-influence-and-mental-routes-to-the-production-of-authentic-false-memories-and-inauthentic-false-memories
#9
Michael F Wagner, John J Skowronski
Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered...
March 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275705/distraction-in-diagnostic-radiology-how-is-search-through-volumetric-medical-images-affected-by-interruptions
#10
Lauren H Williams, Trafton Drew
Observational studies have shown that interruptions are a frequent occurrence in diagnostic radiology. The present study used an experimental design in order to quantify the cost of these interruptions during search through volumetric medical images. Participants searched through chest CT scans for nodules that are indicative of lung cancer. In half of the cases, search was interrupted by a series of true or false math equations. The primary cost of these interruptions was an increase in search time with no corresponding increase in accuracy or lung coverage...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261827/fast-shading-correction-for-cone-beam-ct-in-radiation-therapy-via-sparse-sampling-on-planning-ct
#11
Linxi Shi, Tiffany Tsui, Jikun Wei, Lei Zhu
PURPOSE: The image quality of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is limited by severe shading artifacts, hindering its quantitative applications in radiation therapy. In this work, we propose an image-domain shading correction method using planning CT (pCT) as prior information which is highly adaptive to clinical environment. METHOD: We propose to perform shading correction via sparse sampling on pCT. The method starts with a coarse mapping between the first-pass CBCT images obtained from the Varian TrueBeam system and the pCT...
March 6, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257420/effectiveness-of-a-neuropsychological-treatment-for-confabulations-after-brain-injury-a-clinical-trial-with-theoretical-implications
#12
Mónica Triviño, Estrella Ródenas, Juan Lupiáñez, Marisa Arnedo
Confabulators consistently generate false memories without intention to deceive and with great feelings of rightness. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no known effective treatment for them. In order to fill this gap, our aim was to design a neuropsychological treatment based on current theoretical models and test it experimentally in 20 confabulators sequentially allocated to two groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental group received nine sessions of treatment for three weeks (three sessions per week)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252976/trial-1-versus-trial-2-of-the-test-of-memory-malingering-evaluating-accuracy-without-a-gold-standard
#13
Douglas Mossman, Dustin B Wygant, Roger O Gervais, Kathleen J Hart
This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM) implemented in a Bayesian framework to evaluate archival Trial 1 and Trial 2 data collected from 1,198 adults who had undergone outpatient forensic evaluations...
March 2, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245935/the-use-of-metacognitive-strategies-to-decrease-false-memories-in-source-monitoring-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Rebecca G Deason, Neil A Nadkarni, Michelle J Tat, Sean Flannery, Bruno Frustace, Brandon A Ally, Andrew E Budson
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) often demonstrate high rates of false memories, leading to stressful and frustrating situations for both patients and caregivers in everyday life. Sometimes these false memories are due to failures in monitoring the source of the information. In the current study, we examined interventions aimed to enhance the use of the metacognitive "recall-to-reject" memory strategy. Such interventions could improve source memory and decrease false memory in patients with MCI...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242796/episodic-memory-retrieval-benefits-from-a-less-modular-brain-network-organization
#15
Andrew J Westphal, Siliang Wang, Jesse Rissman
Most complex cognitive tasks require the coordinated interplay of multiple brain networks, but the act of retrieving an episodic memory may place especially heavy demands for communication between two networks that do not strongly interact with one another in many task contexts: the fronto-parietal control network (FPCN) and default mode network (DMN). We applied graph theoretical analysis to task-related fMRI functional connectivity data from twenty human participants and found that global brain modularity-a measure of network segregation-is markedly reduced during episodic memory retrieval relative to closely matched analogical reasoning and visuospatial perception tasks...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236751/perirhinal-cortex-tracks-degree-of-recent-as-well-as-cumulative-lifetime-experience-with-object-concepts
#16
Devin Duke, Chris B Martin, Ben Bowles, Ken McRae, Stefan Köhler
Evidence from numerous sources indicates that recognition of the prior occurrence of objects requires computations of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in the medial temporal lobe. Extant research has primarily probed recognition memory based on item exposure in a recent experimental study episode. Outside the laboratory, however, familiarity for objects typically accrues gradually with learning across many different episodic contexts, which can be distributed over a lifetime of experience. It is currently unknown whether PrC also tracks this cumulative lifetime experience with object concepts...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230393/going-off-script-effects-of-awe-on-memory-for-script-typical-and-irrelevant-narrative-detail
#17
Alexander F Danvers, Michelle N Shiota
People often filter their experience of new events through knowledge they already have; for example, encoding new events by relying on prototypical event "scripts" at the expense of actual details. Previous research suggests that positive affect often increases this tendency. Three studies assessed whether awe-an emotion elicited by perceived vastness, and thought to promote cognitive accommodation-has the opposite effect, reducing rather than increasing reliance on event scripts. True/false questions on details of a short story about a romantic dinner were used to determine whether awe (a) reduces the tendency to impute script-consistent but false details into memory, and/or (b) promotes memory of unexpected details...
February 23, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#18
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203633/individual-differences-predict-low-prevalence-visual-search-performance
#19
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Critical real-world visual search tasks such as radiology and baggage screening rely on the detection of rare targets. When targets are rare, observers search for a relatively short amount of time and have a high miss rate, a pattern of results known as the low prevalence effect. Attempts to improve the search for rare targets have been unsuccessful or resulted in an increase in detections at the price of more false alarms. As an alternative to improving visual search performance through experimental manipulations, an individual differences approach found that those with higher working memory capacity were better at finding rare targets...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179226/substituting-whole-grains-for-refined-grains-in-a-6-wk-randomized-trial-has-a-modest-effect-on-gut-microbiota-and-immune-and-inflammatory-markers-of-healthy-adults
#20
Sally M Vanegas, Mohsen Meydani, Junaidah B Barnett, Barry Goldin, Anne Kane, Helen Rasmussen, Carrie Brown, Pajau Vangay, Dan Knights, Satya Jonnalagadda, Katie Koecher, J Philip Karl, Michael Thomas, Gregory Dolnikowski, Lijun Li, Edward Saltzman, Dayong Wu, Simin Nikbin Meydani
Background: Observational studies suggest an inverse association between whole-grain (WG) consumption and inflammation. However, evidence from interventional studies is limited, and few studies have included measurements of cell-mediated immunity.Objective: We assessed the effects of diets rich in WGs compared with refined grains (RGs) on immune and inflammatory responses, gut microbiota, and microbial products in healthy adults while maintaining subject body weights.Design: After a 2-wk provided-food run-in period of consuming a Western-style diet, 49 men and 32 postmenopausal women [age range: 40-65 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) <35] were assigned to consume 1 of 2 provided-food weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk...
March 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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