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False memories

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626439/attentive-observation-is-essential-for-the-misattribution-of-agency-to-self-performance
#1
Shiho Kashihara, Noriaki Kanayama, Makoto Miyatani, Takashi Nakao
Recent studies have repeatedly demonstrated a false memory phenomenon in which people falsely remember having performed an action by oneself when in fact they have only observed the action by another person. We investigated the attentional effect to the action itself on the observation inflation. Fifty-four participants first performed and read actions (Phase 1); then, they observed the action video that showed another's actions (Phase 2), some of which they had not performed in Phase 1. In the Phase 2, they were required to focus on either the actor's performance (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625103/the-robustness-of-false-memory-for-emotional-pictures
#2
Brandy A Bessette-Symons
Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets...
June 17, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624522/decision-related-factors-in-pupil-old-new-effects-attention-response-execution-and-false-memory
#3
Andreas Brocher, Tim Graf
In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604040/emotion-words-adding-face-value
#4
Jennifer M B Fugate, Maria Gendron, Satoshi F Nakashima, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598405/design-and-validation-of-a-breathing-detection-system-for-scuba-divers
#5
Corentin Altepe, S Murat Egi, Tamer Ozyigit, D Ruzgar Sinoplu, Alessandro Marroni, Paola Pierleoni
Drowning is the major cause of death in self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving. This study proposes an embedded system with a live and light-weight algorithm which detects the breathing of divers through the analysis of the intermediate pressure (IP) signal of the SCUBA regulator. A system composed mainly of two pressure sensors and a low-power microcontroller was designed and programmed to record the pressure sensors signals and provide alarms in absence of breathing. An algorithm was developed to analyze the signals and identify inhalation events of the diver...
June 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596484/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594190/mnemonic-transmission-social-contagion-and-emergence-of-collective-memory-influence-of-emotional-valence-group-structure-and-information-distribution
#7
Hae-Yoon Choi, Elizabeth A Kensinger, Suparna Rajaram
Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578726/statistically-derived-subtypes-and-associations-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-genetic-biomarkers-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-latent-profile-analysis
#8
Joel S Eppig, Emily C Edmonds, Laura Campbell, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: Research demonstrates heterogeneous neuropsychological profiles among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have included visuoconstructional ability or used latent mixture modeling to statistically identify MCI subtypes. Therefore, we examined whether unique neuropsychological MCI profiles could be ascertained using latent profile analysis (LPA), and subsequently investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, genotype, and longitudinal clinical outcomes between the empirically derived classes...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570691/memory-for-faces-and-voices-varies-as-a-function-of-sex-and-expressed-emotion
#9
Diana S Cortes, Petri Laukka, Christina Lindahl, Håkan Fischer
We investigated how memory for faces and voices (presented separately and in combination) varies as a function of sex and emotional expression (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and neutral). At encoding, participants judged the expressed emotion of items in forced-choice tasks, followed by incidental Remember/Know recognition tasks. Results from 600 participants showed that accuracy (hits minus false alarms) was consistently higher for neutral compared to emotional items, whereas accuracy for specific emotions varied across the presentation modalities (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553746/can-false-memories-prime-alternative-solutions-to-ambiguous-problems
#10
Mark L Howe, Sarah R Garner
Research has demonstrated that false memories are capable of priming and facilitating insight-based problem-solving tasks by increasing solution rates and decreasing solution times. The present research extended this finding by investigating whether false memories could be used to bias ambiguous insight-based problem-solving tasks in a similar manner. Compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems with two possible correct answers, a dominant and a non-dominant solution, were created and normed (Experiment 1)...
May 29, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544942/behavioural-and-neural-evidence-for-the-impact-of-fluency-context-on-conscious-memory
#11
Carlos Alexandre Gomes, Axel Mecklinger, Hubert Zimmer
It has been recently suggested that fluency may impact recognition memory performance when the fluency context varies from trial-to-trial. Surprisingly, such an effect has proved difficult to detect in the masked priming paradigm, one of the most popular means to increase fluency-based memory judgements. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment in which participants encoded words at study and, at test, performed a recognition memory task within a masked priming procedure. In order to optimise the chances of finding priming effects on recognition memory performance, we used low-frequency words, which have been shown to increase hits relative to false alarms and enhance masked priming effects...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538108/moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity-executive-functions-and-prefrontal-brain-oxygenation-in-children-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#12
Manuel Mücke, Christian Andrä, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Sebastian Ludyga
Despite accumulating evidence that regular exercise improves executive functioning, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have rarely been investigated. The present study aimed to compare cognitive performance as well as task-specific concentration changes in oxygenated haemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex between children with higher and lower moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity was measured over 7 consecutive days using actigraphy. Afterwards, participants (N = 50) completed verbal fluency tests (VFTs) and mental arithmetic (MA) for the assessment of cognitive flexibility and working memory capacity...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530412/declines-in-representational-quality-and-strategic-retrieval-processes-contribute-to-age-related-increases-in-false-recognition
#13
Alexandra N Trelle, Richard N Henson, Deborah A E Green, Jon S Simons
In a Yes/No object recognition memory test with similar lures, older adults typically exhibit elevated rates of false recognition. However, the contributions of impaired retrieval, relative to reduced availability of target details, are difficult to disentangle using such a test. The present investigation sought to decouple these factors by comparing performance on a Yes/No (YN) test to that on a Forced Choice (FC) test, which minimizes demands on strategic retrieval processes, enabling a more direct measure of the availability of object details...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526295/large-scale-exploratory-genetic-analysis-of-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Ignacio F Mata, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Beate Ritz, Rebecca Rausch, Stewart A Factor, Cathy Wood-Siverio, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Alberto J Espay, Fredy J Revilla, Johnna Devoto, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of genetic variants that influence the presence or severity of cognitive deficits in PD might provide a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this important nonmotor feature. We genotyped 1105 PD patients from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium for 249,336 variants using the NeuroX array. Participants underwent assessments of learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [HVLT-R]), working memory/executive function (Letter-Number Sequencing and Trail Making Test [TMT] A and B), language processing (semantic and phonemic verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation [JoLO]), and global cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
August 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512011/modulation-of-alpha-oscillations-is-required-for-the-suppression-of-semantic-interference
#15
Natalia Melnik, Igor Mapelli, Tolga Esat Özkurt
Recent findings on alpha band oscillations suggest their important role in memory consolidation and suppression of external distractors such as environmental noise. However, less attention was given to the phenomenon of internal distracting information being solely inherent to the stimuli content. Human memory may be prone to internal distractions caused by semantic relatedness between the meaning of words (e.g., atom, neutron, nucleus, etc.) to be encoded, i.e., semantic interference. Our study investigates the brain oscillatory dynamics behind the semantic interference phenomenon, whose possible outcome is known as false memories...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500675/counterfactual-plausibility-and-comparative-similarity
#16
Matthew L Stanley, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Counterfactual thinking involves imagining hypothetical alternatives to reality. Philosopher David Lewis (1973, 1979) argued that people estimate the subjective plausibility that a counterfactual event might have occurred by comparing an imagined possible world in which the counterfactual statement is true against the current, actual world in which the counterfactual statement is false. Accordingly, counterfactuals considered to be true in possible worlds comparatively more similar to ours are judged as more plausible than counterfactuals deemed true in possible worlds comparatively less similar...
May 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498821/clinical-significance-of-mskcc-nomogram-on-guiding-the-application-of-touch-imprint-cytology-and-frozen-section-in-intraoperative-assessment-of-breast-sentinel-lymph-nodes
#17
Lisha Sun, Guanglei Chen, Yizhen Zhou, Lei Zhang, Zining Jin, Weiguang Liu, Guangping Wu, Feng Jin, Kai Li, Bo Chen
The widely practiced intra-operative methods for rapid evaluation and detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) status include frozen section (FS) and touch imprint cytology (TIC). This study optimized the use of TIC and FS in the intra-operative detection of breast SLNs based on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram. Three hundred forty-two SLNs were removed from 79 patients. SLN metastatic probability was assessed by the MSKCC nomogram. The SLNs underwent intra-operative TIC and FS, as well as routine post-operative paraffin sections (RPSs)...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494468/genes-involved-in-neurodevelopment-neuroplasticity-and-bipolar-disorder-cacna1c-chrna1-and-mapk1
#18
Marco Calabrò, Laura Mandelli, Concetta Crisafulli, Antonella Sidoti, Tae-Youn Jun, Soo-Jung Lee, Changsu Han, Ashwin A Patkar, Prakash S Masand, Chi-Un Pae, Alessandro Serretti
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common and severe mental disorder. The involvement of genetic factors in the pathophysiology of BPD is well known. In the present study, we tested the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 3 strong candidate genes (CACNA1C, CHRNA7, and MAPK1) with BPD. These genes are involved in monoamine-related pathways, as well as in dendrite development, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and memory/learning. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects diagnosed with BPD and 326 healthy controls of Korean ancestry were genotyped for 40 SNPs within CACNA1C, CHRNA17, and MAPK1...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492924/handheld-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-recurrent-extramammary-paget-disease
#19
Oriol Yélamos, Brian P Hibler, Miguel Cordova, Travis J Hollmann, Kivanc Kose, Michael A Marchetti, Patricia L Myskowski, Melissa P Pulitzer, Milind Rajadhyaksha, Anthony M Rossi, Manu Jain
Importance: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is commonly refractory to surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Identifying recurrent or persistent EMPD is challenging because the disease is multifocal, and multiple blind scouting biopsies are usually performed in this setting. Handheld reflectance confocal microscopy (HRCM) has been used to diagnose and map primary EMPD and therefore may be used to identify EMPD recurrences. Objective: To evaluate HRCM's diagnostic accuracy in the setting of recurrent or persistent EMPD as well as its potential diagnostic pitfalls...
May 10, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487004/longitudinal-trajectories-of-informant-reported-daily-functioning-in-empirically-defined-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Kelsey R Thomas, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi
OBJECTIVES: Within the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI)'s mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cohort, we previously identified MCI subtypes as well as participants initially diagnosed with MCI but found to have normal neuropsychological, biomarker, and neuroimaging profiles. We investigated the functional change over time in these empirically derived MCI subgroups. METHODS: ADNI MCI participants (n=654) were classified using cluster analysis as Amnestic MCI (single-domain memory impairment), Dysnomic MCI (memory+language impairments), Dysexecutive/Mixed MCI (memory+language+attention/executive impairments), or Cluster-Derived Normal (CDN)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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