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Traumatic stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353159/trauma-attentional-dysregulation-and-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-an-investigation-of-risk-pathways
#1
Judith Schäfer, Ariel Zvielli, Michael Höfler, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Amit Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Fundamental questions regarding the nature and function of attentional bias (AB) to threat in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remain unanswered. We tested the temporal interplay between trauma exposure, dysregulated attentional processing of threatening information pre- and post-trauma, and the development of posttraumatic intrusions. METHODS: Response time to trauma-related threat, trauma-unrelated threat, as well as to trauma-related but typically emotionally-neutral stimuli was assessed using the dot probe task before and one week after watching a violent movie scene that served as a trauma analogue...
January 11, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353055/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-signaling-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-cued-fear-learning-but-not-spatial-working-memory-in-female-rats
#2
Adam J Kirry, Matthew R Herbst, Sarah E Poirier, Michelle M Maskeri, Amy C Rothwell, Robert C Twining, Marieke R Gilmartin
A genetic polymorphism within the gene encoding the pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor type I (PAC1R) has recently been associated with hyper-reactivity to threat-related cues in women, but not men, with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PACAP is a highly conserved peptide, whose role in mediating adaptive physiological stress responses is well established. Far less is understood about the contribution of PACAP signaling in emotional learning and memory, particularly the encoding of fear to discrete cues...
January 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352822/lower-respiratory-symptoms-associated-with-environmental-and-reconstruction-exposures-after-hurricane-sandy
#3
Lisa M Gargano, Sean Locke, Hannah T Jordan, Robert M Brackbill
OBJECTIVE: In a population with prior exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, this study sought to determine the relationship between Hurricane Sandy-related inhalation exposures and post-Sandy lower respiratory symptoms (LRS). METHODS: Participants included 3835 WTC Health Registry enrollees who completed Wave 3 (2011-2012) and Hurricane Sandy (2013) surveys. The Sandy-related inhalational exposures examined were: (1) reconstruction exposure; (2) mold or damp environment exposure; and (3) other respiratory irritants exposure...
January 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352277/influence-of-early-stress-on-memory-reconsolidation-implications-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-treatment
#4
Hélène Villain, Aïcha Benkahoul, Philippe Birmes, Barbara Ferry, Pascal Roullet
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common consequence of exposure to a life-threatening event. Currently, pharmacological treatments are limited by high rates of relapse, and novel treatment approaches are needed. We have recently demonstrated that propranolol, a β-adrenergic antagonist, inhibited aversive memory reconsolidation in animals. Following this, in an open-label study 70% of patients with PTSD treated with propranolol during reactivation of traumatic memory exhibited full remission. However, the reason why 30% of these patients did not respond positively to propranolol treatment is still unclear...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351709/-validation-of-the-screening-for-complex-ptsd-skptbs-revision
#5
Florence Dorr, Martin Sack, Jürgen Bengel
BACKGROUND: The aim was to develop further a screening instrument for complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD). The screening for cPTSD (SkPTBS) tests a) potential traumatic experiences, b) influential features and risk factors, and c) symptoms of cPTSD. The SkPTBS by Dorr et al. (2016) was revised according to the current ICD-11 criteria set proposal for cPTSD and is explored in its revised edition. METHOD: Impacts of long-lasting interpersonal trauma were tested in inpatients of psychosomatic rehabilitation and in patients consulting a university outpatient center for trauma therapy...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350366/health-results-of-a-coup-attempt-evaluation-of-all-patients-admitted-to-hospitals-in-istanbul-due-to-injuries-sustained-during-the-july-15-2016-coup-attempt
#6
İsmail Tayfur, Mustafa Ahmet Afacan, Mehmet Özgür Erdoğan, Şahin Çolak, Özgür Söğüt, Burcu Genç Yavuz, Korkut Bozan
BACKGROUND: A coup attempt against the government took place in Turkey on July 15, 2016. This attempt caused serious injuries and deaths in the country. In this study, the data of patients referred to all hospitals in Istanbul during the attempt were evaluated, and differences between natural disasters, other terrorist actions, and coup attempts were analyzed. METHODS: In total, 1104 patients were injured in the abovementioned coup attempt. In this study, the demographic and health information of 882 coup victims who were admitted to all hospitals (state and private) in Istanbul on July 15 and 16, 2016 and registered at the Crisis Center of Istanbul Provincial Health Directorate was analyzed...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349946/validation-study-of-a-korean-version-of-the-abbreviated-university-of-california-los-angeles-ptsd-reaction-index-abb-ucla-ptsd-ri-for-adolescents
#7
Tae Ho Kim, Doug Hyun Han, Seo Koo Yoo, Jung Jae Lee, Ji Eun Kim, Un Sun Chung
BACKGROUND: We aimed to verify a Korean version of the Abbreviated University of California, Los Angeles, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (Abb-UCLA-PTSD RI-Korean version) among Korean adolescents to assess post-traumatic stress in this population. METHODS: We recruited 1,254 adolescents who completed the Abb-UCLA-PTSD RI-Korean version scale, the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events (LITE), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI)...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349369/potentially-stress-induced-acute-splanchnic-segmental-arterial%C3%A2-mediolysis-with-a-favorable-spontaneous-outcome
#8
Aude Belbezier, Françoise Sarrot-Reynauld, Frédéric Thony, Florence Tahon, Olivier Heck, Laurence Bouillet
A 62-year-old woman presented with hemithoracic anesthesia and acute abdominal pain following a violent psychological stress. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a thoracic hematoma with arachnoiditis of the spinal cord. Tomography revealed a typical aspect of segmental arterial mediolysis with multiple aneurysms and stenoses of the splanchnic arteries, confirmed by abdominal arteriography. There was no argument for hereditary, traumatic, atherosclerotic, infectious, or inflammatory arterial disease. Segmental arterial mediolysis was diagnosed on the basis of the radiologic data and probably involved both medullary and splanchnic arteries...
March 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346627/severe-and-protracted-sleep-disruptions-in-mouse-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Rishi Sharma, Pradeep Sahota, Mahesh M Thakkar
Increasing evidences suggest that the predator threat model is a valid animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, sleep has never been examined in this model. Since sleep disturbances, including insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, are severe and protracted symptoms of PTSD, we hypothesized that mice exposed to predator odor trauma (POT) will display contextual fear conditioning along with severe and protracted sleep disruptions.Adult male C57BL/6J mice, instrumented with wire electrodes [to record hippocampal field potentials (LFP) and nuchal muscle (EMG) activity], were exposed to contextual conditioning using soiled cat litter as unconditional stimulus (US)...
January 13, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346235/posttraumatic-stress-in-children-after-injury-the-role-of-acute-pain-and-opioid-medication-use
#10
Aimee K Hildenbrand, Nancy Kassam-Adams, Lamia P Barakat, Kristen L Kohser, Jeffrey A Ciesla, Douglas L Delahanty, Joel A Fein, Lindsay B Ragsdale, Meghan L Marsac
OBJECTIVES: After injury, many children experience posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that negatively impact recovery. Acute pain and PTSS share neurobiological pathways, and acute dosage of morphine has been linked to reduced PTSS in naturalistic studies. However, the complex interactions between pain, morphine and other opioid use, and PTSS have yet to be investigated in robust pediatric samples.This prospective, longitudinal study examined relationships between acute pain, opioid medications, and PTSS after pediatric injury...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343229/the-colombo-twin-and-singleton-follow-up-study-a-population-based-twin-study-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-sri-lanka
#11
Kaushalya Jayaweera, Lisa Aschan, Gayani Pannala, Anushka Adikari, Nicholas Glozier, Khalida Ismail, Carmine M Pariante, Fruhling Rijsdijk, Sisira Siribaddana, Helena M S Zavos, Patricia A Zunszain, Athula Sumathipala, Matthew Hotopf
BACKGROUND: The disease burden related to mental disorders and metabolic syndrome is growing in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Colombo Twin and Singleton Study (COTASS) is a population-based sample of twins and singletons in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Here we present prevalence estimates for metabolic syndrome (metS) and mental disorders from a follow-up (COTASS-2) of the original study (COTASS-1), which was a mental health survey. METHODS: In COTASS-2, participants completed structured interviews, anthropometric measures and provided fasting blood and urine samples...
January 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#12
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340154/the-impact-of-sepsis-delirium-and-psychological-distress-on-self-rated-cognitive-function-in-icu-survivors-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Emily Brück, Anna Schandl, Matteo Bottai, Peter Sackey
Background: Many intensive care unit (ICU) survivors develop psychological problems and cognitive impairment. The relation between sepsis, delirium, and later cognitive problems is not fully elucidated, and the impact of psychological symptoms on cognitive function is poorly studied in ICU survivors. The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sepsis, ICU delirium, and later self-rated cognitive function. A second aim was to investigate the association between psychological problems and self-rated cognitive function 3 months after the ICU stay...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337007/postnatal-post-traumatic-stress-an-integrative-review
#14
Madeleine Simpson, Virginia Schmied, Cathy Dickson, Hannah Grace Dahlen
PROBLEM: Post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic stress symptoms following birth occur amongst a small proportion of women but can lead to poor maternal mental health, impairment in mother-infant bonding and relationship stress. This integrative review aims to examine the associated risk factors and women's own experiences of postnatal post-traumatic stress in order to better understand this phenomenon. METHOD: Fifty three articles were included and critically reviewed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklists or Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology assessment tool...
January 11, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336486/preventing-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-following-childbirth-and-traumatic-birth-experiences-a-systematic-review
#15
Lisanne F de Graaff, Adriaan Honig, Mariëlle G van Pampus, Claire A I Stramrood
INTRODUCTION: Between 9 and 44% of women experience giving birth as traumatic, and 3% of women develop a posttraumatic stress disorder following childbirth. Knowledge on risk factors is abundant, but studies on treatment are limited. This study aimed to present an overview of means to prevent traumatic birth experiences and childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Major databases (Cochrane; Embase; PsycINFO; PubMed (Medline)) were searched using combinations of the key words and their synonyms...
January 16, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335846/cotinine-a-therapy-for-memory-extinction-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Cristhian Mendoza, George E Barreto, Alexandre Iarkov, Vadim V Tarasov, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that may develop after exposure to exceptionally threatening or unescapable horrifying events. Actual therapies fail to alleviate the emotional suffering and cognitive impairment associated with this disorder, mostly because they are ineffective in treating the failure to extinguish trauma memories in a great percentage of those affected. In this review, current behavioral, cellular, and molecular evidence supporting the use of cotinine for treating PTSD are reviewed...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334643/longitudinal-determinants-of-depression-among-world-trade-center-health-registry-enrollees-14-15-years-after-the-9-11-attacks
#17
Melanie H Jacobson, Christina Norman, Angela Nguyen, Robert M Brackbill
BACKGROUND: Exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks has been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and comorbid PTSD and depression up to 10-11 years post-disaster. However, little is known about the longitudinal predictors of mental health conditions over time. METHODS: We examined longitudinal determinants of depression within strata of PTSD among 21,258 enrollees of the World Trade Center Health Registry who completed four questionnaires over 14 years of follow-up (Wave 1 in 2003-04; Wave 2 in 2005-06; Wave 3 in 2011-12; and Wave 4 in 2015-16)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334496/oxygen-in-the-critically-ill-friend-or-foe
#18
Elisa Damiani, Abele Donati, Massimo Girardis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334231/social-capital-and-ptsd-among-plwha-in-china-the-mediating-role-of-resilience-and-internalized-stigma
#19
Mengting Gao, Chenchang Xiao, Xuan Zhang, Shiyue Li, Hong Yan
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Few studies have investigated social-psychological predictors of PTSD in China. This study aimed to examine relationships between social capital, stigma, resilience and PTSD among PLWHA in China, and to provide effective suggestions for PTSD intervention. A cross-sectional study of 520 PLWHA was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. Multivariable analyses were used to examine related factors of PTSD, and causal mediation analyses were conducted to assess whether stigma and resilience were mediators...
January 15, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332015/post-traumatic-stress-and-growth-among-cpr-survivors-in-the-southeast-of-iran
#20
Seyed Hamid Seyed Bagheri, Sedigheh Iranmanesh, Masoud Rayyani, Mahlagha Dehghan, Batool Tirgari, Seyed Habibollah Hosseini
Background Almost 7.2%-10.6% of patients survive CPR in Iran. Most of them experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic growth (PTG). There are limited studies to assessing the correlation between these two psychological outcomes among CPR survivors. Objective This study aimed to examine the correlation between PTSD and PTG among CPR survivors in South-East Iran. Subjects Using Quota sampling, 163 CPR survivors in two provinces in the South-East of Iran were selected to participate in this study...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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