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Adverse childhood experiences

Colin A Ross, Elena Browning
A set of measures of trauma, dissociation, altered states of consciousness, and spiritual experiences was administered to a convenience sample of 100 inpatients in a hospital Trauma Program. The inpatients had an average Dissociative Experiences Scale score of 42.3 and an average Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale score of 6.6, both of which are very high. Both trauma and dissociation correlated significantly with measures of pathological altered states of consciousness (ASC) but not with adaptive, normal spiritual experiences as measured by the Spiritual Orientation Inventory and the ASC Scale...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Jonathan Davies, Sarah Sullivan, Stanley Zammit
PURPOSE: To investigate whether psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms at ages 12 and 18 years are associated with adverse life outcomes across a range of functional domains between 16 and 20 years of age. METHODS: Data were gathered from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort. Individuals were assessed with the semi-structured Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview and the Short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire at ages 12 and 18 years. Logistic regression was used to explore associations with outcomes in education, occupation, social functioning, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and other drugs), and illegal behaviour between the ages of 16 and 20 years...
March 19, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Shanta R Dube
Currently, in the U.S. and worldwide, childhood trauma is a public health crisis. Childhood adversities, such as abuse, neglect, and related household stressors, are common, interrelated and contribute to multiple adverse social, behavioral and health outcomes throughout the lifespan. The present article provides further discussion regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) screening in healthcare utilizing the etic and emic perspectives. Screening in the healthcare system leans toward the etic view: objective observations of symptoms, which may then lead to intervention delivery...
March 16, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
N Tehrani
Background: Working with victims and offenders of child abuse can impact on the health and well-being of police officers and staff. Aims: To identify the effects of tenure, work ability, gender and a personal experience of child abuse on symptoms of anxiety, depression and primary and secondary trauma in child abuse investigators (CAIs). Methods: Screening questionnaires were sent to police officers and staff. The officers and staff worked in child protection in seven police forces...
March 13, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Eva Purkey, Rupa Patel, Tracey Beckett, Françoise Mathieu
OBJECTIVE: To understand the primary care experiences of women who have a history of childhood trauma and chronic disease. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews with directed content analysis. SETTING: Family health team in Kingston, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six women. METHODS: Letters of invitation were sent to eligible participants followed by a telephone survey. Women with an adverse childhood experience (ACE) score of 4 or higher and with 2 or more chronic conditions were invited to participate in a one-on-one interview...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Jecca Rhea Steinberg, Janine S Bruce, Paloma Marin-Nevarez, Kimmy Phan, Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, Lisa J Chamberlain
OBJECTIVE: School readiness by kindergarten entry is associated with increased high school graduation, decreased juvenile arrest, and better long-term health. Inadequate early childhood learning (ECL) disproportionately affects low-income children. Pediatricians have near-universal access to children younger than 5 years but remain an underused ECL resource. This study examined caregivers' perceptions of ECL, the role of the pediatrician and pediatric office, and the use of community-based ECL resources among diverse, low-income caregivers whose children were not enrolled in preschool...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Sabrina Krause, Christina Boeck, Anja M Gumpp, Edit Rottler, Katharina Schury, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Anna Buchheim, Harald Gündel, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christiane Waller
Background: Child maltreatment (CM) and attachment experiences are closely linked to alterations in the human oxytocin (OXT) system. However, human data about oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels are lacking. Therefore, we investigated oxytocin receptor (OXTR) protein levels in circulating immune cells and related them to circulating levels of OXT in peripheral blood. We hypothesized reduced OXTR protein levels, associated with both, experiences of CM and an insecure attachment representation. Methods: OXTR protein expressions were analyzed by western blot analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma OXT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 49 mothers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Dong-Feng Zhang, Guo-Xiang Hao, Chun-Zhen Li, Yan-Jun Yang, Fu-Juan Liu, Ling Liu, Xiao-Ying Yuan, Rui-Hong Li, Lei Dong, Qian Dong, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus is used off-label in the treatment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) in children, with limited evidence-based data. Based on clinical empirical experience and mechanism of action, tacrolimus might be promoted as treatment for childhood HSPN. The objectives of this pilot study were to assess its effectiveness and safety, and to explore the potential impact of CYP3A5 genotype. METHODS: Children with HSPN receiving tacrolimus as empirical treatment were included in this prospective, observational study...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Nancy E Abarca, Aris C Garro, Deborah N Pearlman
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if duration of supplemental breastfeeding is associated with a lower asthma risk and whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) early in life influence this relationship in children ages 3 to 5 years. METHODS: Data were from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate incident risk ratios (IRR) for lifetime and current asthma in young children aged 3 to 5 years (n = 15,642)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Adam Bryant Miller, Margaret A Sheridan, Jamie L Hanson, Katie A McLaughlin, John E Bates, Jennifer E Lansford, Gregory S Pettit, Kenneth A Dodge
Prior research demonstrates a link between exposure to childhood adversity and psychopathology later in development. However, work on mechanisms linking adversity to psychopathology fails to account for specificity in these pathways across different types of adversity. Here, we test a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of childhood adversity with different pathways to psychopathology. Deprivation involves an absence of inputs from the environment, such as cognitive and social stimulation, that influence psychopathology by altering cognitive development, such as verbal abilities...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Suzanne Jolley, Elizabeth Kuipers, Catherine Stewart, Sophie Browning, Karen Bracegirdle, Nedah Basit, Kimberley Gin, Colette Hirsch, Richard Corrigall, Partha Banerjea, Grainne Turley, Daniel Stahl, Kristin R Laurens
OBJECTIVES: Health care guidelines recommend psychological interventions for childhood unusual experiences that are associated with distress or adverse functional impact (UEDs), based on adult, rather than child-specific, evidence. We report the first randomized controlled evaluation of the acceptability and potential clinical utility of cognitive behavioural therapy for childhood UEDs (CBT-UED). DESIGN: Pilot randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Participants aged 8-14 years were recruited from referrals to community services for children with emotional/behavioural problems and screened for self-reported UEDs...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Psychology
D L Rofey, N E El Nokali, L J Jackson Foster, E Seiler, H L McCauley, E Miller
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of childhood trauma and family history of psychiatric illness on weight loss trajectories of obese, adolescent females with PCOS. DESIGN: Prospective Study SETTING: PCOS and Adolescent Medicine Outpatient Clinics PATIENTS: Participants were, on average, 15.8 years, 80% Caucasian, and had a BMI of 36.8 ± 8.8 kg/m2 . INTERVENTIONS: Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds is an evidence-based one-on-one intervention consisting of four weekly sessions, four bi-weekly sessions, and three monthly booster sessions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
David Neubauer, Mirjana Perković Benedik, Damjan Osredkar
PURPOSE: Refractory epilepsies in children present a major burden for patients and their families. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been suggested as a potential treatment for refractory epilepsies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of add-on therapy with CBD for the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsies. METHOD: Patients with childhood-onset refractory epilepsy, treated at the tertiary epilepsy center of the University Children's Hospital Ljubljana, Slovenia, were included in the study...
March 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sumaya Mall, Philippe Mortier, Lian Taljaard, Janine Roos, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner
BACKGROUND: College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. METHODS: Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood...
March 9, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Anne T Park, Julia A Leonard, Patricia Saxler, Abigail B Cyr, John D E Gabrieli, Allyson P Mackey
Early life stress has been associated with disrupted functional connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but it is unknown how early in development stress-related differences in amygdala-mPFC connectivity emerge. In a resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) analysis with 79 four- to seven-year-old children, we found a significant correlation between more adverse experiences and weaker amygdala-mPFC rs-FC. We also found that weaker amygdala-mPFC rs-FC was associated with higher levels of aggressive behavior and attention problems...
March 6, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Veni Kandasamy, Ashley H Hirai, Reem M Ghandour, Michael D Kogan
OBJECTIVE: Flourishing reflects positive mental health and thriving and is important for children's development and well-being. Few national studies of flourishing among school-aged children exist. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage is negatively associated with social and health outcomes, including flourishing. This analysis describes independent associations of the child, family, school, and neighborhood factors with flourishing, which we hypothesized may contribute to sociodemographic disparities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Marnie F Hazlehurst, Paula S Nurius, Anjum Hajat
Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yair Ziv, Kristen L Capps Umphlet, Stephanie Olarte, Jimmy Venza
The links between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), caregiver insightfulness and emotional availability, and the child's social information processing (SIP) and social behavior were examined in a sample of 15 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to the TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Caregiver insightfulness was measured via an interview with the caregiver...
March 7, 2018: Attachment & Human Development
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Yuliang Zha, Hao Liu, Yang Sun, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Surviving an earthquake can greatly increase the risk of suicidality among children and adolescents, especially if they experience physical and emotional neglect or abuse within the family after the earthquake. How various types of childhood adversity affect the vulnerability of adolescents to suicidality after exposure to a natural disaster is not well understood. This study examined the relationships among different types of earthquake exposure, childhood trauma, psychopathology and suicidality...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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