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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443023/inhibition-of-vegf-and-angiopoietin-2-to-reduce-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer-burden
#1
Kaci A Bohn, Chris E Adkins, Mohamed I Nounou, Paul R Lockman
For metastases in the central nervous system, angiogenesis enhances metastatic potential and promotes progression. Primary factors which drive vessel growth are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2. Preclinical models show inhibition of either factor reduces metastases spread and inhibits growth. This work sets out to answer two questions in a preclinical mouse model. First, whether the combined inhibition of VEGF and angiopoietin-2, reduces passive permeability and limits drug uptake into brain metastases; and second, whether this inhibition reduces metastases burden in brain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439938/intramuscular-fat-infiltration-evaluated-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predicts-the-extensibility-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle
#2
Hugo Giambini, Taku Hatta, Gorny R Krzysztof, Per Widholm, Anette Karlsson, Olof D Leinhard, Mark C Adkins, Chunfeng Zhao, Kai-Nan An
INTRODUCTION: Rotator cuff (RC) tears result in muscle atrophy and fat infiltration within the RC muscles. An estimation of muscle quality and deformation, or extensibility, is useful in selecting the most appropriate surgical procedure. We determined if non-invasive quantitative assessment of intramuscular fat using MRI could be used to predict extensibility of the supraspinatus (SSP) muscle. METHODS: Seventeen cadaveric shoulders were imaged to assess intramuscular fat infiltration...
April 25, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#3
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396322/camp-elevating-capacity-of-the-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-hemolysin-is-sufficient-for-lung-infection-but-not-for-full-virulence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#4
Karolina Skopova, Barbora Tomalova, Ivan Kanchev, Pavel Rossmann, Martina Svedova, Irena Adkins, Ilona Bibova, Jakub Tomala, Jiri Masin, Nicole Guiso, Radim Osicka, Radislav Sedlacek, Marek Kovar, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of Bordetella pertussis targets phagocytic cells expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, Mac-1, αMβ2 integrin or CD11b/CD18). CyaA delivers into cells an N-terminal adenylyl cyclase (AC) enzyme domain that is activated by cytosolic calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cellular ATP into cAMP, a key second messenger subverting bactericidal activities of phagocytes. In parallel, the hemolysin (Hly) moiety of CyaA forms cation-selective hemolytic pores that permeabilize target cell membranes...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373299/integrated-genomic-analyses-reveal-frequent-tert-aberrations-in-acral-melanoma
#5
Winnie S Liang, William Hendricks, Jeffrey Kiefer, Jessica Schmidt, Shobana Sekar, John Carpten, David W Craig, Jonathan Adkins, Lori Cuyugan, Zarko Manojlovic, Rebecca F Halperin, Adrienne Helland, Sara Nasser, Christophe Legendre, Laurence H Hurley, Karthigayini Sivaprakasam, Douglas B Johnson, Holly Crandall, Klaus J Busam, Victoria Zismann, Valerie Deluca, Jeeyun Lee, Aleksandar Sekulic, Charlotte E Ariyan, Jeffrey Sosman, Jeffrey Trent
Genomic analyses of cutaneous melanoma (CM) have yielded biological and therapeutic insights, but understanding of non-ultraviolet (UV)-derived CMs remains limited. Deeper analysis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), a rare sun-shielded melanoma subtype associated with worse survival than CM, is needed to delineate non-UV oncogenic mechanisms. We thus performed comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 34 ALM patients. Unlike CM, somatic alterations were dominated by structural variation and absence of UV-derived mutation signatures...
April 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360924/molecular-genetic-influences-on-normative-and-problematic-alcohol-use-in-a-population-based-sample-of-college-students
#6
Bradley T Webb, Alexis C Edwards, Aaron R Wolen, Jessica E Salvatore, Fazil Aliev, Brien P Riley, Cuie Sun, Vernell S Williamson, James N Kitchens, Kimberly Pedersen, Amy Adkins, Megan E Cooke, Jeanne E Savage, Zoe Neale, Seung B Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h(2)SNP) was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334972/enrichment-methods-provide-a-feasible-approach-to-comprehensive-and-adequately-powered-investigations-of-the-brain-methylome
#8
Robin F Chan, Andrey A Shabalin, Lin Y Xie, Daniel E Adkins, Min Zhao, Gustavo Turecki, Shaunna L Clark, Karolina A Aberg, Edwin J C G van den Oord
Methylome-wide association studies are typically performed using microarray technologies that only assay a very small fraction of the CG methylome and entirely miss two forms of methylation that are common in brain and likely of particular relevance for neuroscience and psychiatric disorders. The alternative is to use whole genome bisulfite (WGB) sequencing but this approach is not yet practically feasible with sample sizes required for adequate statistical power. We argue for revisiting methylation enrichment methods that, provided optimal protocols are used, enable comprehensive, adequately powered and cost-effective genome-wide investigations of the brain methylome...
February 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330895/speciation-and-strain-typing-of-staphylococcus-agnetis-and-staphylococcus-hyicus-isolated-from-bovine-milk-using-a-novel-multiplex-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#9
P R F Adkins, J R Middleton, M J Calcutt, G C Stewart, L K Fox
Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298529/deep-sea-coral-evidence-for-lower-southern-ocean-surface-nitrate-concentrations-during-the-last-ice-age
#10
Xingchen Tony Wang, Daniel M Sigman, Maria G Prokopenko, Jess F Adkins, Laura F Robinson, Sophia K Hines, Junyi Chai, Anja S Studer, Alfredo Martínez-García, Tianyu Chen, Gerald H Haug
The Southern Ocean regulates the ocean's biological sequestration of CO2 and is widely suspected to underpin much of the ice age decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration, but the specific changes in the region are debated. Although more complete drawdown of surface nutrients by phytoplankton during the ice ages is supported by some sediment core-based measurements, the use of different proxies in different regions has precluded a unified view of Southern Ocean biogeochemical change. Here, we report measurements of the (15)N/(14)N of fossil-bound organic matter in the stony deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, a tool for reconstructing surface ocean nutrient conditions...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298497/anorexia-nervosa-and-bone-densitometry
#11
Havilah Adkins
Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder with extensive physical complications that require care and monitoring from a diverse team of health care professionals. Although it can affect people of various ages and both sexes, anorexia most frequently occurs in adolescent girls during a crucial period of skeletal development. This article presents an overview of anorexia nervosa, followed by focused discussions of its effects on bone development, treatment of bone loss, and the radiologic technologist's role in caring for anorexic patients...
March 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285904/mex3a-marks-a-slowly-dividing-subpopulation-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#12
Francisco M Barriga, Elisa Montagni, Miyeko Mana, Maria Mendez-Lago, Xavier Hernando-Momblona, Marta Sevillano, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Gustavo Rodriguez-Esteban, Simon J A Buczacki, Marta Gut, Holger Heyn, Douglas J Winton, Omer H Yilmaz, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Ivo Gut, Eduard Batlle
Highly proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells maintain the intestinal epithelium and are thought to be largely homogeneous. Although quiescent intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations have been described, the identity and features of such a population remain controversial. Here we report unanticipated heterogeneity within the Lgr5+ ISC pool. We found that expression of the RNA-binding protein Mex3a labels a slowly cycling subpopulation of Lgr5+ ISCs that contribute to all intestinal lineages with distinct kinetics. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed that Lgr5+ cells adopt two discrete states, one of which is defined by a Mex3a expression program and relatively low levels of proliferation genes...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285541/ethics-roundtable
#13
Steven J Baumrucker, Patrick J Macmillan, Matthew Stolick, Russell W Adkins, Gregory T Carter, Patricia York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283983/parthenium-weed-parthenium-hysterophorus-l-and-climate-change-the-effect-of-co2-concentration-temperature-and-water-deficit-on-growth-and-reproduction-of-two-biotypes
#14
Thi Nguyen, Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sheldon Navie, Chris O'Donnell, Steve Adkins
Climate change will have a considerable impact upon the processes that moderate weed invasion, in particular to that of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). This study evaluated the performance of two Australian biotypes of parthenium weed under a range of environmental conditions including soil moisture (100 and 50% of field capacity), atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (390 and 550 ppm), and temperature (35/20 and 30/15 °C/day/night). Measurements were taken upon growth, reproductive output, seed biology (fill, viability and dormancy) and soil seed longevity...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272771/sensitivity-of-diffusion-mri-to-perilesional-reactive-astrogliosis-in-focal-ischemia
#15
Rachel A Weber, Clifford H Chan, Xingju Nie, Emily Maggioncalda, Grace Valiulis, Abigail Lauer, Edward S Hui, Jens H Jensen, DeAnna L Adkins
Reactive astrogliosis is a response to injury in the central nervous system that plays an essential role in inflammation and tissue repair. It is characterized by hypertrophy of astrocytes, alterations in astrocyte gene expression and astrocyte proliferation. Reactive astrogliosis occurs in multiple neuropathologies, including stroke, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's disease, and it has been proposed as a possible source of the changes in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics observed with these diseases...
March 8, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249587/single-cell-transcriptome-conservation-in-cryopreserved-cells-and-tissues
#16
Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Gustavo Rodríguez-Esteban, Elisabetta Mereu, Maria Mendez-Lago, Diego A Jaitin, Alberto Villanueva, August Vidal, Alex Martinez-Marti, Enriqueta Felip, Ana Vivancos, Hadas Keren-Shaul, Simon Heath, Marta Gut, Ido Amit, Ivo Gut, Holger Heyn
A variety of single-cell RNA preparation procedures have been described. So far, protocols require fresh material, which hinders complex study designs. We describe a sample preservation method that maintains transcripts in viable single cells, allowing one to disconnect time and place of sampling from subsequent processing steps. We sequence single-cell transcriptomes from >1000 fresh and cryopreserved cells using 3'-end and full-length RNA preparation methods. Our results confirm that the conservation process did not alter transcriptional profiles...
March 1, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237235/assessing-the-time-taken-for-a-surveillance-system-to-detect-a-re-emergence-of-bovine-spongiform-encephalopathy-in-cattle
#17
Robin R L Simons, Mark E Arnold, Amie Adkin
During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in July 2001 the European Commission established a surveillance scheme for the comprehensive sampling of all BSE clinical suspects, healthy slaughter (HS) animals >30months, and all emergency slaughter and fallen stock animals tested when >24months. With the exponential decline in classical BSE cases, this comprehensive surveillance system has been successively modified to become risk-based, targeting those exit streams and ages where cases from the original epidemic are most likely to be detected...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226201/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-identifies-risk-loci-altering-ethanol-response-behaviors-in-model-organisms
#18
Amy E Adkins, Laura M Hack, Tim B Bigdeli, Vernell S Williamson, G Omari McMichael, Mohammed Mamdani, Alexis C Edwards, Fazil Aliev, Robin F Chan, Poonam Bhandari, Richard C Raabe, Joseph T Alaimo, GinaMari G Blackwell, Arden Moscati, Ryan S Poland, Benjamin Rood, Diana G Patterson, Dermot Walsh, John B Whitfield, Gu Zhu, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Josef Frank, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz, Michael Soyka, Peter Zill, Marcus Ising, Markus M Nöthen, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Joel Gelernter, Richard Sherva, Ryan Koesterer, Laura Almasy, Hongyu Zhao, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Brion S Maher, Carol A Prescott, Danielle M Dick, Silviu A Bacanu, Laura D Mathies, Andrew G Davies, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Mike Grotewiel, M Scott Bowers, Jill C Bettinger, Bradley T Webb, Michael F Miles, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1,748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms (MOs) to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol (EtOH)-response behaviors. We tested 1 primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control postmortem brain tissue...
May 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225595/colorimetric-and-electrochemical-bacteria-detection-using-printed-paper-and-transparency-based-analytic-devices
#19
Jaclyn A Adkins, Katherine Boehle, Colin Friend, Briana Chamberlain, Bledar Bisha, Charles S Henry
The development of transparency-based electrochemical and paper-based colorimetric analytic detection platforms is presented as complementary methods for food and waterborne bacteria detection from a single assay. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, both indicators of fecal contamination, were detected using substrates specific to enzymes produced by each species. β-galactosidase (β-gal) and β-glucuronidase (β-glucur) are both produced by E. coli, while β-glucosidase (β-gluco) is produced by Enterococcus spp...
March 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212749/comparative-analysis-of-single-cell-rna-sequencing-methods
#20
Christoph Ziegenhain, Beate Vieth, Swati Parekh, Björn Reinius, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Martha Smets, Heinrich Leonhardt, Holger Heyn, Ines Hellmann, Wolfgang Enard
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers new possibilities to address biological and medical questions. However, systematic comparisons of the performance of diverse scRNA-seq protocols are lacking. We generated data from 583 mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate six prominent scRNA-seq methods: CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, Smart-seq, and Smart-seq2. While Smart-seq2 detected the most genes per cell and across cells, CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, and SCRB-seq quantified mRNA levels with less amplification noise due to the use of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs)...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
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