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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523557/single-cell-genomics-unravels-brain-cell-type-complexity
#1
Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Holger Heyn
The brain is the most complex tissue in terms of cell types that it comprises, to the extent that it is still poorly understood. Single cell genome and transcriptome profiling allow to disentangle the neuronal heterogeneity, enabling the categorization of individual neurons into groups with similar molecular signatures. Herein, we unravel the current state of knowledge in single cell neurogenomics. We describe the molecular understanding of the cellular architecture of the mammalian nervous system in health and in disease; from the discovery of unrecognized cell types to the validation of known ones, applying these state-of-the-art technologies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520867/activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-surveillance-and-problem-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-non-fermenters-from-the-british-isles
#2
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Daniele Meunier, Katie L Hopkins, Robert Hill, Rachael Adkin, Aiysha Chaudhry, Rachel Pike, Peter Staves, Neil Woodford
Background: We assessed the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against consecutive isolates collected in the BSAC Bacteraemia Surveillance from 2011 to 2015 and against 'problem' isolates sent to the UK national reference laboratory from July 2015, when routine testing began. Methods: Susceptibility testing was by BSAC agar dilution with resistance mechanisms identified by PCR and interpretive reading. Results: Data were reviewed for 6080 BSAC surveillance isolates and 5473 referred organisms...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495513/high-hydrostatic-pressure-affects-antigenic-pool-in-tumor-cells-implication-for-dendritic-cell-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Linda Urbanova, Nada Hradilova, Irena Moserova, Sarka Vosahlikova, Lenka Sadilkova, Michal Hensler, Radek Spisek, Irena Adkins
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be used to generate dendritic cell (DC)-based active immunotherapy for prostate, lung and ovarian cancer. We showed here that HHP treatment of selected human cancer cell lines leads to a degradation of tumor antigens which depends on the magnitude of HHP applied and on the cancer cell line origin. Whereas prostate or ovarian cell lines displayed little protein antigen degradation with HHP treatment up to 300MPa after 2h, tumor antigens are hardly detected in lung cancer cell line after treatment with HHP 250MPa at the same time...
May 8, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493153/a-bird-s-eye-view
#4
Elizabeth Adkins-Regan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481610/exploring-the-potential-of-technology-based-mental-health-services-for-homeless-youth-a-qualitative-study
#5
Elizabeth C Adkins, Alyson K Zalta, Randy A Boley, Angela Glover, Niranjan S Karnik, Stephen M Schueller
Homelessness has serious consequences for youth that heighten the need for mental health services; however, these individuals face significant barriers to access. New models of intervention delivery are required to improve the dissemination of mental health interventions that tailor these services to the unique challenges faced by homeless youth. The purpose of this study was to better understand homeless youths' use of technology, mental health experiences and needs, and willingness to engage with technology-supported mental health interventions to help guide the development of future youth-facing technology-supported interventions...
May 2017: Psychological Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474847/utilizing-paper-based-devices-for-antimicrobial-resistant-bacteria-detection
#6
Katherine E Boehle, Jake Gilliand, Christopher R Wheeldon, Amethyst Holder, Jaclyn A Adkins, Brian J Geiss, Elizabeth P Ryan, Charles S Henry
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the ability of a bacterial species to resist the action of an antimicrobial drug, has been on the rise due to the widespread use of antimicrobial agents. Per the World Health Organization, AMR has an estimated annual cost of USD 34 billion in the US and is predicted to be the number one cause of death worldwide by 2050. One way AMR bacteria can spread, and by which individuals can contract AMR infections, is through contaminated water. Monitoring AMR bacteria in the environment currently requires that samples be transported to a central laboratory for slow and labor intensive tests...
May 5, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449639/clovr-comparative-automated-cloud-enabled-comparative-microbial-genome-sequence-analysis-pipeline
#7
Sonia Agrawal, Cesar Arze, Ricky S Adkins, Jonathan Crabtree, David Riley, Mahesh Vangala, Kevin Galens, Claire M Fraser, Hervé Tettelin, Owen White, Samuel V Angiuoli, Anup Mahurkar, W Florian Fricke
BACKGROUND: The benefit of increasing genomic sequence data to the scientific community depends on easy-to-use, scalable bioinformatics support. CloVR-Comparative combines commonly used bioinformatics tools into an intuitive, automated, and cloud-enabled analysis pipeline for comparative microbial genomics. RESULTS: CloVR-Comparative runs on annotated complete or draft genome sequences that are uploaded by the user or selected via a taxonomic tree-based user interface and downloaded from NCBI...
April 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443023/inhibition-of-vegf-and-angiopoietin-2-to-reduce-brain-metastases-of-breast-cancer-burden
#8
Kaci A Bohn, Chris E Adkins, Mohamed I Nounou, Paul R Lockman
For metastases in the central nervous system, angiogenesis enhances metastatic potential and promotes progression. Primary factors which drive vessel growth are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2. Preclinical models show inhibition of either factor reduces metastases spread and inhibits growth. This work sets out to answer two questions in a preclinical mouse model. First, whether the combined inhibition of VEGF and angiopoietin-2, reduces passive permeability and limits drug uptake into brain metastases; and second, whether this inhibition reduces metastases burden in brain...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439938/intramuscular-fat-infiltration-evaluated-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-predicts-the-extensibility-of-the-supraspinatus-muscle
#9
Hugo Giambini, Taku Hatta, Gorny R Krzysztof, Per Widholm, Anette Karlsson, Olof D Leinhard, Mark C Adkins, Chunfeng Zhao, Kai-Nan An
INTRODUCTION: Rotator cuff (RC) tears result in muscle atrophy and fat infiltration within the RC muscles. An estimation of muscle quality and deformation, or extensibility, is useful in selecting the most appropriate surgical procedure. We determined if non-invasive quantitative assessment of intramuscular fat using MRI could be used to predict extensibility of the supraspinatus (SSP) muscle. METHODS: Seventeen cadaveric shoulders were imaged to assess intramuscular fat infiltration...
April 25, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#10
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396322/camp-elevating-capacity-of-the-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-hemolysin-is-sufficient-for-lung-infection-but-not-for-full-virulence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#11
Karolina Skopova, Barbora Tomalova, Ivan Kanchev, Pavel Rossmann, Martina Svedova, Irena Adkins, Ilona Bibova, Jakub Tomala, Jiri Masin, Nicole Guiso, Radim Osicka, Radislav Sedlacek, Marek Kovar, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of Bordetella pertussis targets phagocytic cells expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, Mac-1, αMβ2 integrin or CD11b/CD18). CyaA delivers into cells an N-terminal adenylyl cyclase (AC) enzyme domain that is activated by cytosolic calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cellular ATP into cAMP, a key second messenger subverting bactericidal activities of phagocytes. In parallel, the hemolysin (Hly) moiety of CyaA forms cation-selective hemolytic pores that permeabilize target cell membranes...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373299/integrated-genomic-analyses-reveal-frequent-tert-aberrations-in-acral-melanoma
#12
Winnie S Liang, William Hendricks, Jeffrey Kiefer, Jessica Schmidt, Shobana Sekar, John Carpten, David W Craig, Jonathan Adkins, Lori Cuyugan, Zarko Manojlovic, Rebecca F Halperin, Adrienne Helland, Sara Nasser, Christophe Legendre, Laurence H Hurley, Karthigayini Sivaprakasam, Douglas B Johnson, Holly Crandall, Klaus J Busam, Victoria Zismann, Valerie Deluca, Jeeyun Lee, Aleksandar Sekulic, Charlotte E Ariyan, Jeffrey Sosman, Jeffrey Trent
Genomic analyses of cutaneous melanoma (CM) have yielded biological and therapeutic insights, but understanding of non-ultraviolet (UV)-derived CMs remains limited. Deeper analysis of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), a rare sun-shielded melanoma subtype associated with worse survival than CM, is needed to delineate non-UV oncogenic mechanisms. We thus performed comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis of 34 ALM patients. Unlike CM, somatic alterations were dominated by structural variation and absence of UV-derived mutation signatures...
April 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360924/molecular-genetic-influences-on-normative-and-problematic-alcohol-use-in-a-population-based-sample-of-college-students
#13
Bradley T Webb, Alexis C Edwards, Aaron R Wolen, Jessica E Salvatore, Fazil Aliev, Brien P Riley, Cuie Sun, Vernell S Williamson, James N Kitchens, Kimberly Pedersen, Amy Adkins, Megan E Cooke, Jeanne E Savage, Zoe Neale, Seung B Cho, Danielle M Dick, Kenneth S Kendler
Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h(2)SNP) was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343281/using-patterns-of-genetic-association-to-elucidate-shared-genetic-etiologies-across-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Seung Bin Cho, Fazil Aliev, Shaunna L Clark, Amy E Adkins, Howard J Edenberg, Kathleen K Bucholz, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick
Twin studies indicate that latent genetic factors overlap across comorbid psychiatric disorders. In this study, we used a novel approach to elucidate shared genetic factors across psychiatric outcomes by clustering single nucleotide polymorphisms based on their genome-wide association patterns. We applied latent profile analysis (LPA) to p-values resulting from genome-wide association studies across three phenotypes: symptom counts of alcohol dependence (AD), antisocial personality disorder (ASP), and major depression (MD), using the European-American case-control genome-wide association study subsample of the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (N = 1399)...
March 25, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334972/enrichment-methods-provide-a-feasible-approach-to-comprehensive-and-adequately-powered-investigations-of-the-brain-methylome
#15
Robin F Chan, Andrey A Shabalin, Lin Y Xie, Daniel E Adkins, Min Zhao, Gustavo Turecki, Shaunna L Clark, Karolina A Aberg, Edwin J C G van den Oord
Methylome-wide association studies are typically performed using microarray technologies that only assay a very small fraction of the CG methylome and entirely miss two forms of methylation that are common in brain and likely of particular relevance for neuroscience and psychiatric disorders. The alternative is to use whole genome bisulfite (WGB) sequencing but this approach is not yet practically feasible with sample sizes required for adequate statistical power. We argue for revisiting methylation enrichment methods that, provided optimal protocols are used, enable comprehensive, adequately powered and cost-effective genome-wide investigations of the brain methylome...
February 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330895/speciation-and-strain-typing-of-staphylococcus-agnetis-and-staphylococcus-hyicus-isolated-from-bovine-milk-using-a-novel-multiplex-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis
#16
P R F Adkins, J R Middleton, M J Calcutt, G C Stewart, L K Fox
Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus agnetis are two coagulase variable staphylococcal species that can be isolated from bovine milk and are difficult to differentiate. The objectives of this study were to characterize isolates of bovine milk origin from a collection that had previously been characterized as coagulase positive S. hyicus based on phenotypic speciation methods and to develop a PCR-based method for differentiating S. hyicus, S. agnetis, and S. aureus. Isolates (n = 62) were selected from a previous study in which milk samples were collected from cows on 15 dairy herds...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298529/deep-sea-coral-evidence-for-lower-southern-ocean-surface-nitrate-concentrations-during-the-last-ice-age
#17
Xingchen Tony Wang, Daniel M Sigman, Maria G Prokopenko, Jess F Adkins, Laura F Robinson, Sophia K Hines, Junyi Chai, Anja S Studer, Alfredo Martínez-García, Tianyu Chen, Gerald H Haug
The Southern Ocean regulates the ocean's biological sequestration of CO2 and is widely suspected to underpin much of the ice age decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration, but the specific changes in the region are debated. Although more complete drawdown of surface nutrients by phytoplankton during the ice ages is supported by some sediment core-based measurements, the use of different proxies in different regions has precluded a unified view of Southern Ocean biogeochemical change. Here, we report measurements of the (15)N/(14)N of fossil-bound organic matter in the stony deep-sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus, a tool for reconstructing surface ocean nutrient conditions...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298497/anorexia-nervosa-and-bone-densitometry
#18
Havilah Adkins
Anorexia nervosa is a psychological disorder with extensive physical complications that require care and monitoring from a diverse team of health care professionals. Although it can affect people of various ages and both sexes, anorexia most frequently occurs in adolescent girls during a crucial period of skeletal development. This article presents an overview of anorexia nervosa, followed by focused discussions of its effects on bone development, treatment of bone loss, and the radiologic technologist's role in caring for anorexic patients...
March 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285904/mex3a-marks-a-slowly-dividing-subpopulation-of-lgr5-intestinal-stem-cells
#19
Francisco M Barriga, Elisa Montagni, Miyeko Mana, Maria Mendez-Lago, Xavier Hernando-Momblona, Marta Sevillano, Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Gustavo Rodriguez-Esteban, Simon J A Buczacki, Marta Gut, Holger Heyn, Douglas J Winton, Omer H Yilmaz, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Ivo Gut, Eduard Batlle
Highly proliferative Lgr5+ stem cells maintain the intestinal epithelium and are thought to be largely homogeneous. Although quiescent intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations have been described, the identity and features of such a population remain controversial. Here we report unanticipated heterogeneity within the Lgr5+ ISC pool. We found that expression of the RNA-binding protein Mex3a labels a slowly cycling subpopulation of Lgr5+ ISCs that contribute to all intestinal lineages with distinct kinetics. Single-cell transcriptome profiling revealed that Lgr5+ cells adopt two discrete states, one of which is defined by a Mex3a expression program and relatively low levels of proliferation genes...
March 8, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285541/ethics-roundtable
#20
Steven J Baumrucker, Patrick J Macmillan, Matthew Stolick, Russell W Adkins, Gregory T Carter, Patricia York
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
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