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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230839/prevalence-estimation-when-disease-status-is-verified-only-among-test-positives-applications-in-hiv-screening-programs
#1
Emma G Thomas, Sarah B Peskoe, Donna Spiegelman
The first goal of the United Nations' 90-90-90 HIV/AIDS elimination strategy is to ensure that, by 2020, 90% of HIV-positive people know their HIV status. Estimating the prevalence of HIV among people eligible for screening allows assessment of the number of additional cases that might be diagnosed through continued screening efforts in this group. Here, we present methods for estimating prevalence when HIV status is verified by a gold standard only among those who test positive on an initial, imperfect screening test with known sensitivity and specificity...
December 11, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229124/mortality-after-emergency-hartmann-s-procedure-in-octogenarians-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#2
Ian C Bostock, Maureen V Hill, Timothy C Counihan, Srinivas Joga Ivatury
BACKGROUND: Complicated diverticulitis is associated with a postoperative mortality rate of 20%. We hypothesized that age ≥80 was an independent risk factor for mortality after Hartmann's procedure for diverticular disease when controlling for baseline comorbidities. METHODS: Patients who underwent an urgent or emergent Hartmann's procedure (Current Procedural Terminology codes 44143 and 44206) for diverticular disease (International Classification of Diseases-9:562...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228327/most-m6a-rna-modifications-in-protein-coding-regions-are-evolutionarily-unconserved-and-likely-nonfunctional
#3
Zhen Liu, Jianzhi Zhang
Methylation of the adenosine base at the nitrogen-6 position (m6A) is the most prevalent internal posttranscriptional modification of mRNAs in many eukaryotes. Despite the rapid progress in the transcriptome-wide mapping of m6As, identification of proteins responsible for writing, reading, and erasing m6As, and elucidation of m6A functions in splicing, RNA stability, translation, and other processes, it is unknown whether most observed m6A modifications are functional. To address this question, we respectively analyze the evolutionary conservation of yeast and human m6As in protein-coding regions...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224750/blood-transfusion-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-undergoing-tonsillectomy
#4
Carlyn M Atwood, Sharon H Gnagi, Ronald J Teufel, Shaun A Nguyen, David R White
INTRODUCTION: Tonsillectomy is the second most common surgery in children with sickle cell disease. These children are at an increased risk of perioperative complications due to vaso-occlusive events. Although controversial, preoperative blood transfusions are sometimes given in an effort to prevent such complications. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in the use of blood transfusion for management of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing tonsillectomy in a national database...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219759/does-the-obesity-paradox-predict-functional-outcome-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#5
Neha S Dangayach, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Gian Marco De Marchis, Roberta K Sefcik, Rachel Bruce, Aarti Chhatlani, E Sander Connolly, M Cristina Falo, Sachin Agarwal, Jan Claassen, J Michael Schmidt, Stephan A Mayer
OBJECTIVE Being overweight or mildly obese has been associated with a decreased risk of death or hospitalization in patients with cardiovascular disease. Similarly, overweight patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) have improved survival up to 1 year after admission. These counterintuitive observations are examples of the "obesity paradox." Does the obesity paradox exist in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)? In this study the authors examined whether there was an association between obesity and functional outcome in patients with ICH...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219248/-my-mother-told-me-that-i-should-not-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-restrictions-placed-on-adolescent-girls-living-with-hiv-in-zambia
#6
Constance Rs Mackworth-Young, Virginia Bond, Alison Wringe, Katongo Konayuma, Sue Clay, Chipo Chiiya, Mutale Chonta, Kirsty Sievwright, Anne L Stangl
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by HIV due to a range of social and structural factors. As they transition to adulthood, they are recipients of increasing blame for HIV infection and 'improper' sex, as well as increasing scrutiny, restrictions and surveillance. This study used a qualitative and participatory approach to explore the messaging and restrictions imposed on adolescent girls living with HIV in Zambia. METHODS: Thirty-four in-depth interviews and four participatory workshops were carried out with 24 adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years old living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218893/discriminative-bag-of-cells-for-imaging-genomics
#7
Benjamin Chidester, Minh N Do, Jian Ma
Connecting genotypes to image phenotypes is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of cancer. To learn such connections, new machine learning approaches must be developed for the better integration of imaging and genomic data. Here we propose a novel approach called Discriminative Bag-of-Cells (DBC) for predicting genomic markers using imaging features, which addresses the challenge of summarizing histopathological images by representing cells with learned discriminative types, or codewords. We also developed a reliable and efficient patch-based nuclear segmentation scheme using convolutional neural networks from which nuclear and cellular features are extracted...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217337/health-literacy-and-outcomes-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-prospective-community-study
#8
Matteo Fabbri, Kathleen Yost, Lila J Finney Rutten, Sheila M Manemann, Cynthia M Boyd, Daniel Jensen, Susan A Weston, Ruoxiang Jiang, Véronique L Roger
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of health literacy on hospitalizations and death in a population of patients with heart failure (HF). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Residents from the 11-county region in southeast Minnesota with a first-ever International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 428 or Tenth Revision code 150 (n=5121) from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015, were identified and prospectively surveyed to measure health literacy using established screening questions...
December 4, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214566/improved-diagnosis-and-care-for-rare-diseases-through-implementation-of-precision-public-health-framework
#9
Gareth Baynam, Faye Bowman, Karla Lister, Caroline E Walker, Nicholas Pachter, Jack Goldblatt, Kym M Boycott, William A Gahl, Kenjiro Kosaki, Takeya Adachi, Ken Ishii, Trinity Mahede, Fiona McKenzie, Sharron Townshend, Jennie Slee, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Anand Vasudevan, Anne Hawkins, Stephanie Broley, Lyn Schofield, Hedwig Verhoef, Tudor Groza, Andreas Zankl, Peter N Robinson, Melissa Haendel, Michael Brudno, John S Mattick, Marcel E Dinger, Tony Roscioli, Mark J Cowley, Annie Olry, Marc Hanauer, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Domenica Taruscio, Manuel Posada de la Paz, Hanns Lochmüller, Kate Bushby, Rachel Thompson, Victoria Hedley, Paul Lasko, Kym Mina, John Beilby, Cynthia Tifft, Mark Davis, Nigel G Laing, Daria Julkowska, Yann Le Cam, Sharon F Terry, Petra Kaufmann, Iiro Eerola, Irene Norstedt, Ana Rath, Makoto Suematsu, Stephen C Groft, Christopher P Austin, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli, Tarun S Weeramanthri, Caron Molster, Hugh J S Dawkins
Public health relies on technologies to produce and analyse data, as well as effectively develop and implement policies and practices. An example is the public health practice of epidemiology, which relies on computational technology to monitor the health status of populations, identify disadvantaged or at risk population groups and thereby inform health policy and priority setting. Critical to achieving health improvements for the underserved population of people living with rare diseases is early diagnosis and best care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214289/treated-incidence-of-psychotic-disorders-in-the-multinational-eu-gei-study
#10
Hannah E Jongsma, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Antonio Lasalvia, Diego Quattrone, Alice Mulè, Andrei Szöke, Jean-Paul Selten, Caitlin Turner, Celso Arango, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Andrea Tortelli, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Lieuwe de Haan, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuán, José Luis Santos, Manuel Arrojo, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Paulo Rossi Menezes, Robin M Murray, Bart P Rutten, Peter B Jones, Jim van Os, Craig Morgan, James B Kirkbride
Importance: Psychotic disorders contribute significantly to the global disease burden, yet the latest international incidence study of psychotic disorders was conducted in the 1980s. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of psychotic disorders using comparable methods across 17 catchment areas in 6 countries and to examine the variance between catchment areas by putative environmental risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: An international multisite incidence study (the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions) was conducted from May 1, 2010, to April 1, 2015, among 2774 individuals from England (2 catchment areas), France (3 catchment areas), Italy (3 catchment areas), the Netherlands (2 catchment areas), Spain (6 catchment areas), and Brazil (1 catchment area) with a first episode of nonorganic psychotic disorders (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212527/anemia-is-associated-with-incidence-of-dementia-a-national-health-screening-study-in-korea-involving-37-900-persons
#11
Su-Min Jeong, Dong Wook Shin, Ji Eun Lee, Jung Hyeon Hyeon, Jinkook Lee, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether anemia is associated with dementia incidence in the elderly. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) database, we identified 66-year-old subjects (n = 37,900) who were free of dementia and stroke. Anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl for women and < 13 g/dl for men) and the severity of anemia (mild, moderate, or severe) were defined using World Health Organization criteria...
December 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210596/mayo-registry-for-telemetry-efficacy-in-arrest-study-an-evaluation-of-the-feasibility-of-the-do-not-intubate-code-status
#12
David Snipelisky, Adrian Dumitrascu, Jordan Ray, Archana Roy, Gautam Matcha, Dana Harris, Tyler Vadeboncoeur, Fred Kusumoto, M Caroline Burton
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend discussing code status with patients on hospital admission. No study has evaluated the feasibility of a full code with do not intubate (DNI) status. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who experienced a cardiopulmonary arrest was performed between May 1, 2008 and June 20, 2014. A descriptive analysis was created based on whether patients required mechanical ventilatory support during the hospitalization and comparisons were made between both patient subsets...
December 6, 2017: Acute Cardiac Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203429/oxidative-stress-in-urea-cycle-disorders-findings-from-clinical-and-basic-research
#13
REVIEW
Belisa Parmeggiani, Carmen Regla Vargas
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) comprise a group of over 600 disorders, each with a specific metabolic impairment due to a genetic defect. Urea cycle disorders (UCD) are IEM that affect the nitrogen disposal system, leading to hyperammonemia and the accumulation of other toxic metabolites in tissues of affected patients. UCD arise from mutations in the genes coding any of the enzymes participating in the urea cycle, either directly or as regulators of this pathway, causing severe respiratory alkalosis. Considering that the exact mechanisms underlying the damage found in UCD, the purpose of this minireview is to obtain data and search for links between UCD and oxidative stress, a phenomenon common to several IEM...
December 1, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202985/surgical-resident-involvement-in-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#14
Christopher E Gross, David Chang, Samuel B Adams, Selene G Parekh, Jordan D Bohnen
BACKGROUND: Surgical resident participation in the operating room is necessary for education and progression toward safe and independent practice. However, the impact of resident involvement on patient outcomes in foot and ankle surgery is unknown. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database (2005-2012) was used to identify common foot and ankle procedures (by Current Procedural Taxonomy (CPT) code) performed by orthopedic surgeons...
December 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202818/the-development-of-a-nursing-subset-of-patient-problems-to-support-interoperability
#15
R A M M Kieft, E M Vreeke, E M de Groot, P A Volkert, A L Francke, D M J Delnoij
BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of electronic health records, nursing information is increasingly being recorded and stored digitally. Several studies have shown that a wide range of nursing information is not interoperable and cannot be re-used in different health contexts. Difficulties arise when nurses share information with others involved in the delivery of nursing care. The aim of this study is to develop a nursing subset of patient problems that are prevalent in nursing practice, based on the SNOMED CT terminology to assist in the exchange and comparability of nursing information...
December 4, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202080/a-practical-approach-for-scaling-up-the-alternative-strategy-for-the-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-loa-loa-endemic-countries-developing-an-action-plan
#16
Louise A Kelly-Hope, Michelle C Stanton, Honorat G M Zouré, Boniface E Kinvi, Alexei Mikhailov, Afework Tekle, Jonathan D King
Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne parasitic disease that is being targeted for elimination through mass drug administration (MDA). The co-distribution of Loa loa in Central Africa poses a significant barrier to the expansion of the MDA due to risk of severe adverse events (SAEs) associated with the drug ivermectin that is routinely used. National LF programmes are yet to significantly scale up in co-endemic areas and need a practical approach to make preliminary decisions based on the mapping status and potential treatment strategies...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200131/validation-of-an-algorithm-to-identify-infective-endocarditis-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#17
Laura J Ball, Adeel Sherazi, Dora Laczko, Kaveri Gupta, Sharon Koivu, Matthew A Weir, Tina Mele, Rommel Tirona, John K McCormick, Michael Silverman
INTRODUCTION: Infective endocarditis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is concern that the incidence of infective endocarditis associated with people who inject drugs (PWID) is increasing. However, it is difficult to monitor population-wide trends in PWID-associated infective endocarditis, as there is no International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code for injection drug use. To address this barrier, we sought to develop a validated algorithm using ICD-10 discharge diagnosis codes...
December 1, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199451/the-support-needs-of-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-in-india-implications-for-health-services
#18
Neha Lamech, Shruti Raghuraman, Sridhar Vaitheswaran, Thara Rangaswamy
The World Alzheimer's Report estimates that 4.1 million people in India have dementia. Caregivers of persons with dementia face physical, psychological, social and financial problems related to caring for a person with dementia. Literature on the caregiving experience however is highly specific to the sociocultural context and cannot be generalized. In low and middle income countries much of the caregiving takes place in people's homes and is provided by family caregivers. Aim This study aims to explore the needs and challenges of family caregivers in Chennai, India...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198871/trends-in-opioid-utilization-before-and-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#19
Cary S Politzer, Beau J Kildow, Daniel E Goltz, Cynthia L Green, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
BACKGROUND: Opioids are a mainstay in perioperative pain management among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, patterns in opioid use before and after TKA have not been well-studied. The objectives of this study are to characterize prescribing trends preoperatively and postoperatively and identify risk factors for chronic postoperative opioid use. METHODS: A review of the prescription-tracking database of a large private payer from 2007 to 2013 was performed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197164/epidemiology-and-morphology-of-full-thickness-macular-holes
#20
Vegard Asgeir Forsaa, Birger Lindtjørn, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Torbjørn Frøystein, Jørgen Krohn
PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs) and their morphological features according to the International Vitreomacular Traction Study (IVTS) classification. METHODS: The clinical records of all new patients with FTMH, referred between 2008 and 2014, were reviewed for demographics, cause of the FTMH, age at diagnosis, symptom duration, laterality, visual acuity (VA), axial length and lens status. A detailed analysis of the patients' spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images was performed, and the primary FTMHs were classified in clinical stages according to the IVTS classification...
December 2, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
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