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Alzheimer's behavioral manifestations

N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Denise Isabelle Briggs, Mariana Angoa-Pérez, Donald Michael Kuhn
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), resulting from insults caused by an external mechanical force that disrupts normal brain function, has been linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and Alzheimer disease; however, neither the severity nor frequency of head injury required to trigger adverse behavioral outcomes is well understood. In this study, the administration of 30 head impacts using two different weights to lightly anesthetized, completely unrestrained mice established a paradigm that simulates the highly repetitive nature of sports- and military-related head injury...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Jie Yang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Winnie C W Chu, Yun-Yun Xiong, Eugene S K Lo, Lorraine S N Law, Thomas W H Leung, Linda C W Lam, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie O Y Soo, Eric Y L Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. METHODS: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3-6 months post index admission...
2016: PloS One
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jinte Middeldorp, Benoit Lehallier, Saul A Villeda, Suzanne S M Miedema, Emily Evans, Eva Czirr, Hui Zhang, Jian Luo, Trisha Stan, Kira I Mosher, Eliezer Masliah, Tony Wyss-Coray
Importance: Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology starts long before clinical symptoms manifest, and there is no therapy to treat, delay, or prevent the disease. A shared blood circulation between 2 mice (aka parabiosis) or repeated injections of young blood plasma (plasma from 2- to 3-month-old mice) into old mice has revealed benefits of young plasma on synaptic function and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential benefit of young blood has not been tested in preclinical models of neurodegeneration or AD...
September 6, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Yuji Kajiwara, Andrew McKenzie, Nate Dorr, Miguel A Gama Sosa, Gregory Elder, James Schmeidler, Dara L Dickstein, Ozlem Bozdagi, Bin Zhang, Joseph D Buxbaum
Recent studies have indicated that innate immune signalling molecules are involved in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk. Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulates in AD brain, and has been proposed to act as a trigger of innate immune responses. Caspase-4 is an important part of the innate immune response. We recently characterized transgenic mice carrying human CASP4, and observed that the mice manifested profound innate immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since these inflammatory processes are important in the aetiology of AD, we have now analysed the correlation of expression of caspase-4 in human brain with AD risk genes, and studied caspase-4 effects on AD-related phenotypes in APPswe/PS1deltaE9 (APP/PS1) mice...
August 11, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Lingxi Wang, Yehong Du, Kejian Wang, Ge Xu, Shifang Luo, Guiqiong He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia frequently responsible for cognitive decline in the elderly. The etiology and molecular mechanism of AD pathogenesis remain inconclusive. Aging and vascular factors are important independent causes and contributors to sporadic AD. Clinical imaging studies showed that cerebral blood flow decreases before cognitive impairment in patients with AD. To investigate the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) on cognitive impairment and morphological features, we developed a new manner of CCH mouse model by narrowing bilateral common carotid arteries...
September 2016: Experimental Neurology
Sandro Dá Mesquita, Ana Catarina Ferreira, João Carlos Sousa, Margarida Correia-Neves, Nuno Sousa, Fernanda Marques
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, whose prevalence is growing along with the increased life expectancy. Although the accumulation and deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is viewed as one of the pathological hallmarks of AD and underlies, at least in part, brain cell dysfunction and behavior alterations, the etiology of this neurodegenerative disease is still poorly understood. Noticeably, increased amyloid load is accompanied by marked inflammatory alterations, both at the level of the brain parenchyma and at the barriers of the brain...
September 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
F Brossard, R Caron
OBJECTIVES: Various behavior disorders can occur during Alzheimer's disease, in particular unexpected outings. This article aims at understanding the diverse mechanisms present during a "runaway" episode, which can manifest in an acute way. The authors bring to light through clinical examples what is at work from a psychological perspective in order to create new accompaniment methods. METHOD: First, the authors reviewed the literature on runaway episodes in order to point out necessary themes for reflection...
May 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
Lan Li, Jia Luo, Dan Chen, Jian-Bin Tong, Le-Ping Zeng, Yan-Qun Cao, Jian Xiang, Xue-Gang Luo, Jing-Ming Shi, Hui Wang, Ju-Fang Huang
Because of a lack of sensitive biomarkers, the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cannot be made prior to symptom manifestation. Therefore, it is crucial to identify novel biomarkers for the presymptomatic diagnosis of AD. While brain lesions are a major feature of AD, retinal pathological changes also occur in patients. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes in β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression in the retina and brain to determine whether it could serve as a suitable biomarker for early monitoring of AD...
March 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Shanna L Burke, Peter Maramaldi, Tamara Cadet, Walter Kukull
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the result of neurodegeneration, which manifests clinically as deficits in memory, thinking, and behavior. It was hypothesized that neuropsychiatric symptoms and the apolipoprotein E genotype increase the likelihood of Alzheimer's disease development. METHODS: Utilizing data from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, information from evaluations of 11,453 cognitively intact participants was analyzed. Survival analysis was used to explore relationships between individual neuropsychiatric symptoms as determined by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire, apolipoprotein E, and eventual AD diagnosis...
July 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Pai-Yi Chiu, Chun-Tang Tsai, Ping-Kun Chen, Whe-Jen Chen, Te-Jen Lai
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies on the clinical and pathological manifestations of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) have reported findings more similar to dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PDD compared to DLB and AD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study on 125 newly diagnosed consecutive PDD patients and age- and dementia stage-matched controls with either DLB (N = 250) or AD (N = 500) who visited the same hospital over the same period...
2016: PloS One
Mariel B Deutsch, Li-Jung Liang, Elvira E Jimenez, Michelle J Mather, Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Clinical research studies of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) often use Alzheimer disease (AD) as a comparison group for control of dementia variables, using tests of cognitive function to match the groups. These two dementia syndromes, however, are very different in clinical manifestations, and the comparable severity of these dementias may not be reflected by commonly used cognitive scales such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). METHODS: We evaluated different measures of dementia severity and symptoms among 20 people with bvFTD compared to 24 with early-onset AD...
September 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Qi Wang, Hao Li, Fei-Xue Wang, Lei Gao, Ji-Chang Qin, Jian-Gang Liu, Yun Wei, Mei-Xia Liu
OBJECTIVE: Huannao Yicong Decoction (, HYD), an effective herbal formula against Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been proven to have neuroprotective action in amyloid β-protein1-42 (Aβ1-42)- induced rat model. This study was designed to characterize mechanisms by which HYD leads to suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in the brains of Aβ1-42-induced rat. METHODS: A total of 72 rats were divided into 6 groups, which were referred to as: sham operation group, model group, donepezil-treated group, HYD low-dose group (HYDL), HYD middle-dose group (HYDM) and HYD high-dose group (HYDH)...
March 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Ambra Bisio, Matthieu Casteran, Yves Ballay, Patrick Manckoundia, France Mourey, Thierry Pozzo
Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients' behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Dexter N Dean, Kayla M Pate, Melissa A Moss, Vijayaraghavan Rangachari
Oligomers of amyloid-β (Aβ) have emerged as the primary toxic agents responsible for early synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Characterization of oligomers is an important step in the progress toward delineating the complex molecular mechanisms involved in AD pathogenesis. In our previous reports, we established that a distinct 12-24mer neurotoxic oligomer of Aβ42, called Large Fatty Acid derived Oligomers (LFAOs), exhibits a unique property of replication in which LFAOs directly duplicate to quantitatively larger amounts upon interacting with monomers...
April 19, 2016: Biochemistry
Nahla Mahgoub, George S Alexopoulos
Antidepressants have modest efficacy in late-life depression (LLD), perhaps because various neurobiologic processes compromise frontolimbic networks required for antidepressant response. We propose that amyloid accumulation is an etiologic factor for frontolimbic compromise that predisposes to depression and increases treatment resistance in a subgroup of older adults. In patients without history of depression, amyloid accumulation during the preclinical phase of Alzheimer disease (AD) may result in the prodromal depression syndrome that precedes cognitive impairment...
March 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Rinat Cohen, Hava Golander, Jeremia Heinik
OBJECTIVE: To portray the emotional and behavioral reactions of persons with dementia to the delusions and hallucinations they experience, according to the reports of their family caregivers. The article also explores the relationship between those reactions and background variables. METHODS: Study participants were family caregivers of 74 older persons with a diagnosis of dementia (aged ≥ 65) residing in the community recruited from adult day centers and support groups for caregivers of persons with dementia and by advertising online...
March 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Eric Racine, Cynthia Forlini, John Aspler, Jennifer Chandler
Preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), a newly proposed, actively researched, and hotly debated research-only diagnostic category, raises the prospect of an ethical dilemma: whether, and possibly how, to treat a disorder with no target symptoms. This proposed category rests on the detection of a number of biomarkers thought to provide evidence of AD pathophysiology years before any behavioral symptoms manifest. Faced with limited treatment options, patients and their relatives may come to consider complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) a viable option, albeit one with minimal supporting evidence...
2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Brian Murray, Mirco Sorci, Joseph Rosenthal, Jennifer Lippens, David Isaacson, Payel Das, Daniele Fabris, Shaomin Li, Georges Belfort
The histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the aggregation and accumulation of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) into misfolded oligomers and fibrils. Here we examine the biophysical properties of a protective Aβ variant against AD, A2T, and a causative mutation, A2T, along with the wild type (WT) peptide. The main finding here is that the A2V native monomer is more stable than both A2T and WT, and this manifests itself in different biophysical behaviors: the kinetics of aggregation, the initial monomer conversion to an aggregation prone state (primary nucleation), the abundances of oligomers, and extended conformations...
April 2016: Proteins
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