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filariasis guidelines

James E Wright, Marleen Werkman, Julia C Dunn, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: The human helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infections, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. It is estimated that almost 2 billion people worldwide are infected with helminths. Whilst the WHO treatment guidelines for helminth infections are mostly aimed at controlling morbidity, there has been a recent shift with some countries moving towards goals of disease elimination through mass drug administration, especially for LF and onchocerciasis...
January 31, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ramakrishna U Rao, Sandhya D Samarasekera, Kumara C Nagodavithana, Tharanga D M Dassanayaka, Manjula W Punchihewa, Udaya S B Ranasinghe, Gary J Weil
BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka was one of the first countries to initiate a lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program based on WHO guidelines. The Anti-Filariasis Campaign provided 5 annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole in all 8 endemic districts from 2002-2006. Microfilaremia (Mf) prevalences have been consistently <1% in all sentinel and spot-check sites since 2006, and all evaluation units passed school-based transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in 2013...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Olaf Horstick, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger
In light of the recent Zika virus outbreak, vector control has received renewed interest. However, which interventions are efficacious and community effective and how to best deliver them remains unclear. Following PRISMA guidelines, we did a systematic review to assess evidence for applied vector control interventions providing protection against Chagas disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis at the household level. We searched for published literature and grey literature between Jan 1, 1980, and Nov 30, 2015, and updated our search on April 2, 2017, using databases including the Cochrane, Embase, LILACS, PubMed, Web of Science, and WHOLIS...
May 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Katherine M Gass, Heven Sime, Upendo J Mwingira, Andreas Nshala, Maria Chikawe, Sonia Pelletreau, Kira A Barbre, Michael S Deming, Maria P Rebollo
Endemicity mapping is required to determining whether a district requires mass drug administration (MDA). Current guidelines for mapping LF require that two sites be selected per district and within each site a convenience sample of 100 adults be tested for antigenemia or microfilaremia. One or more confirmed positive tests in either site is interpreted as an indicator of potential transmission, prompting MDA at the district-level. While this mapping strategy has worked well in high-prevalence settings, imperfect diagnostics and the transmission potential of a single positive adult have raised concerns about the strategy's use in low-prevalence settings...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Colleen L Lau, Sarah Sheridan, Stephanie Ryan, Maureen Roineau, Athena Andreosso, Saipale Fuimaono, Joseph Tufa, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 by conducting mass drug administration (MDA) and controlling morbidity. Once elimination targets have been reached, surveillance is critical for ensuring that programmatic gains are sustained, and challenges include timely identification of residual areas of transmission. WHO guidelines encourage cost-efficient surveillance, such as integration with other population-based surveys. In American Samoa, where LF is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Aedes polynesiensis is the main vector, the LF elimination program has made significant progress...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Belete Mengistu, Kebede Deribe, Fikreab Kebede, Sarah Martindale, Mohammed Hassan, Heven Sime, Charles Mackenzie, Abate Mulugeta, Mossie Tamiru, Mesfin Sileshi, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre, Amha Fentaye, Biruck Kebede
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the most debilitating and disfiguring diseases common in Ethiopia and is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti. Mapping for LF has shown that 70 woredas (districts) are endemic and 5.9 million people are estimated to be at risk. The national government's LF elimination programme commenced in 2009 in 5 districts integrated with the onchocerciasis programme. The programme developed gradually and has shown significant progress over the past 6 years, reaching 100% geographical coverage for mass drug administration (MDA) by 2016...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Adelina Thomas, Humphrey D Mazigo, Alphaxard Manjurano, Domenica Morona, Eliningaya J Kweka
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes are well-known vectors of many diseases including malaria and lymphatic filariasis. Uses of synthetic insecticides are associated with high toxicity, resistance, environmental pollution and limited alternative, effective synthetic insecticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of clove and cinnamon essential oils against laboratory Anopheles gambiae (sensu stricto) and wild An. arabiensis larvae. METHODS: The standard WHO guideline for larvicides evaluation was used, and the GC-MS machine was used for active compounds percentage composition analysis and structures identification...
September 6, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Kebede Deribe, Biruck Kebede, Mossie Tamiru, Belete Mengistu, Fikreab Kebede, Sarah Martindale, Heven Sime, Abate Mulugeta, Biruk Kebede, Mesfin Sileshi, Asrat Mengiste, Scott McPherson, Amha Fentaye
PROBLEM: Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The diseases require a similar provision of care, but until recently the Ethiopian health system did not integrate the morbidity management. APPROACH: To establish health-care services for integrated lymphoedema morbidity management, the health ministry and partners used existing governmental structures. Integrated disease mapping was done in 659 out of the 817 districts, to identify endemic districts...
September 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Dziedzom Komi de Souza, Irene Offei Owusu, Joseph Otchere, Michelle Adimazoya, Kwadwo Frempong, Collins Stephen Ahorlu, Daniel Adjei Boakye, Michael David Wilson
The development of antibody testing for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is intended to enhance the monitoring and evaluation activities of the Global Program for the Elimination of LF. This is due to the fact that antibody tests are expected to be the most sensitive at detecting exposure to LF compared to antigen that takes longer to develop. To this end a new antibody-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123 has been developed and further designed into a point of care rapid diagnostic test, under evaluation...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Marleen Werkman, James E Truscott, Jaspreet Toor, James E Wright, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Current WHO guidelines for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on mass drug administration (MDA) targeting preschool-aged (pre-SAC) and school-aged children (SAC), with the goal of eliminating STH as a public health problem amongst children. Recently, attention and funding has turned towards the question whether MDA alone can result in the interruption of transmission for STH. The lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme, have been successful in reaching whole communities...
May 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
M Albonico, B Levecke, P T LoVerde, A Montresor, R Prichard, J Vercruysse, J P Webster
In the last decade, pharmaceutical companies, governments and global health organisations under the leadership of the World Health Organization (WHO) have pledged large-scale donations of anthelmintic drugs, including ivermectin (IVM), praziquantel (PZQ), albendazole (ALB) and mebendazole (MEB). This worldwide scale-up in drug donations calls for strong monitoring systems to detect any changes in anthelmintic drug efficacy. This review reports on the outcome of the WHO Global Working Group on Monitoring of Neglected Tropical Diseases Drug Efficacy, which consists of three subgroups: (i) soil-transmitted helminthiases (ALB and MEB); (ii) onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (IVM); and (iii) schistosomiasis (PZQ)...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula, Sriram Kumaraswamy, Madhusudhan Rao Kadiri, Balakrishna Nagalla
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major public health problem in India. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on LF in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A survey was carried out from 2004 to 2007 during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed. The microfilaria (mf) positive samples were taken as cases and matched with control group by sex and age (1:1) for case-control study...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Kathryn V Shuford, Hugo C Turner, Roy M Anderson
Preventive chemotherapy (PCT) programmes are used to control five of the highest burden neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, ascariasis, and trichuriasis), lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and trachoma. Over the past decade, new resource commitments for the NTDs have enabled such programmes to intensify their control efforts, and for some diseases, to shift from goals of morbidity control to the interruption of transmission and elimination...
January 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Maria P Rebollo, Heven Sime, Ashenafi Assefa, Jorge Cano, Kebede Deribe, Alba Gonzalez-Escalada, Oumer Shafi, Gail Davey, Simon J Brooker, Amha Kebede, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated...
November 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meghnath Dhimal, Bodo Ahrens, Ulrich Kuch
BACKGROUND: Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs), namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change...
2015: PloS One
Alberto E Paniz Mondolfi, Emilia M Sordillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Aaron L Berkowitz, Pooja Raibagkar, Bobbi S Pritt, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has identified 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that disproportionately affect the world's poorest populations. The neurologic aspects of many of these NTDs have received relatively little attention. METHODS: A review was performed in PubMed (MedLine) for each NTD by disease name, name of its causative organism, and neurology, neurosurgery, neurologist, brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, muscle, nervous system, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke, neuropathy, and myopathy (1968-Sept...
February 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ramakrishna U Rao, Kumara C Nagodavithana, Sandhya D Samarasekera, Asha D Wijegunawardana, Welmillage D Y Premakumara, Samudrika N Perera, Sunil Settinayake, J Phillip Miller, Gary J Weil
BACKGROUND: The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Deepak Kumar, Rakesh Chawla, P Dhamodaram, N Balakrishnan
Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn...
2014: Journal of Parasitology Research
Brian K Chu, Katherine Gass, Wilfrid Batcho, Malakai 'Ake, Améyo M Dorkenoo, Elvire Adjinacou, 'Eva Mafi, David G Addiss
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF...
February 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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