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filariasis guidelines

Srinivasa Rao Mutheneni, Suryanaryana Murty Upadhyayula, Sriram Kumaraswamy, Madhusudhan Rao Kadiri, Balakrishna Nagalla
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major public health problem in India. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on LF in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: A survey was carried out from 2004 to 2007 during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed. The microfilaria (mf) positive samples were taken as cases and matched with control group by sex and age (1:1) for case-control study...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Kathryn V Shuford, Hugo C Turner, Roy M Anderson
Preventive chemotherapy (PCT) programmes are used to control five of the highest burden neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, ascariasis, and trichuriasis), lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and trachoma. Over the past decade, new resource commitments for the NTDs have enabled such programmes to intensify their control efforts, and for some diseases, to shift from goals of morbidity control to the interruption of transmission and elimination...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Maria P Rebollo, Heven Sime, Ashenafi Assefa, Jorge Cano, Kebede Deribe, Alba Gonzalez-Escalada, Oumer Shafi, Gail Davey, Simon J Brooker, Amha Kebede, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: Mapping of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is essential for the delineation of endemic implementation units and determining the population at risk that will be targeted for mass drug administration (MDA). Prior to the current study, only 116 of the 832 woredas (districts) in Ethiopia had been mapped for LF. The aim of this study was to perform a nationwide mapping exercise to determine the number of people that should be targeted for MDA in 2016 when national coverage was anticipated...
November 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Meghnath Dhimal, Bodo Ahrens, Ulrich Kuch
BACKGROUND: Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs), namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change...
2015: PloS One
Alberto E Paniz Mondolfi, Emilia M Sordillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Aaron L Berkowitz, Pooja Raibagkar, Bobbi S Pritt, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has identified 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that disproportionately affect the world's poorest populations. The neurologic aspects of many of these NTDs have received relatively little attention. METHODS: A review was performed in PubMed (MedLine) for each NTD by disease name, name of its causative organism, and neurology, neurosurgery, neurologist, brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, muscle, nervous system, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy, stroke, neuropathy, and myopathy (1968-Sept...
February 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Ramakrishna U Rao, Kumara C Nagodavithana, Sandhya D Samarasekera, Asha D Wijegunawardana, Welmillage D Y Premakumara, Samudrika N Perera, Sunil Settinayake, J Phillip Miller, Gary J Weil
BACKGROUND: The Sri Lankan Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethycarbamazine plus albendazole between 2002 and 2006. We now report results of a comprehensive surveillance program that assessed the lymphatic filariasis (LF) situation in Sri Lanka 6 years after cessation of MDA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) were performed per WHO guidelines in primary school children in 11 evaluation units (EUs) in all 8 formerly endemic districts...
2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Deepak Kumar, Rakesh Chawla, P Dhamodaram, N Balakrishnan
Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn...
2014: Journal of Parasitology Research
Brian K Chu, Katherine Gass, Wilfrid Batcho, Malakai 'Ake, Améyo M Dorkenoo, Elvire Adjinacou, 'Eva Mafi, David G Addiss
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) for lymphatic filariasis (LF) programs has delivered more than 2 billion treatments of albendazole, in combination with either ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine, to communities co-endemic for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), reducing the prevalence of both diseases. A transmission assessment survey (TAS) is recommended to determine if MDA for LF can be stopped within an evaluation unit (EU) after at least five rounds of annual treatment. The TAS also provides an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of these MDAs on STH and to determine the frequency of school-based MDA for STH after community-wide MDA is no longer needed for LF...
February 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dziedzom K de Souza, Santigie Sesay, Marnijina G Moore, Rashid Ansumana, Charles A Narh, Karsor Kollie, Maria P Rebollo, Benjamin G Koudou, Joseph B Koroma, Fatorma K Bolay, Daniel A Boakye, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration...
February 2014: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Armel Djènontin, Cédric Pennetier, Barnabas Zogo, Koffi Bhonna Soukou, Marina Ole-Sangba, Martin Akogbéto, Fabrice Chandre, Rajpal Yadav, Vincent Corbel
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg), a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin. METHODS: In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m² against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m² against Cx. quinquefasciatus) according to manufacturer's product label recommendations...
2014: PloS One
Doris W Njomo, Dunstan A Mukoko, Nipher K Nyamongo, Joan Karanja
INTRODUCTION: Implementation of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) in urban settings is an obstacle to Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. No urban-specific guidelines on MDA in urban areas exist. Malindi district urban area had received 4 MDA rounds by the time the current study was implemented. Programme data showed average treatment coverage of 28.4% (2011 MDA), far below recommended minimum of 65-80%. METHODS: To identify, design and test strategies for increased treatment coverage in urban areas, a quasi-experimental study was conducted in Malindi urban area...
2014: PloS One
Brian K Chu, Michael Deming, Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Windtaré R Bougma, Améyo M Dorkenoo, Maged El-Setouhy, Peter U Fischer, Katherine Gass, Manuel Gonzalez de Peña, Leda Mercado-Hernandez, Dominique Kyelem, Patrick J Lammie, Rebecca M Flueckiger, Upendo J Mwingira, Rahmah Noordin, Irene Offei Owusu, Eric A Ottesen, Alexandre Pavluck, Nils Pilotte, Ramakrishna U Rao, Dilhani Samarasekera, Mark A Schmaedick, Sunil Settinayake, Paul E Simonsen, Taniawati Supali, Fasihah Taleo, Melissa Torres, Gary J Weil, Kimberly Y Won
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for global elimination through treatment of entire at-risk populations with repeated annual mass drug administration (MDA). Essential for program success is defining and confirming the appropriate endpoint for MDA when transmission is presumed to have reached a level low enough that it cannot be sustained even in the absence of drug intervention. Guidelines advanced by WHO call for a transmission assessment survey (TAS) to determine if MDA can be stopped within an LF evaluation unit (EU) after at least five effective rounds of annual treatment...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cathy Steel, Allison Golden, Joseph Kubofcik, Nicole LaRue, Tala de Los Santos, Gonzalo J Domingo, Thomas B Nutman
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has an urgent need for rapid assays to detect ongoing transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) following multiple rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). Current WHO guidelines support using the antigen card immunochromatographic test (ICT), which detects active filarial infection but does not detect early exposure to LF. Recent studies found that antibody-based assays better serve this function. In the present study, two tests, a rapid IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lateral-flow strip immunoassay, were developed based on the highly sensitive and specific Wuchereria bancrofti antigen Wb123...
August 2013: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Gary J Weil, Kurt C Curtis, Lawrence Fakoli, Kerstin Fischer, Lincoln Gankpala, Patrick J Lammie, Andrew C Majewski, Sonia Pelletreau, Kimberly Y Won, Fatorma K Bolay, Peter U Fischer
Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) guidelines call for using filarial antigen testing to identify endemic areas that require mass drug administration (MDA) and for post-MDA surveillance. We compared a new filarial antigen test (the Alere Filariasis Test Strip) with the reference BinaxNOW Filariasis card test that has been used by the GPELF for more than 10 years. Laboratory testing of 227 archived serum or plasma samples showed that the two tests had similar high rates of sensitivity and specificity and > 99% agreement...
July 2013: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
K D Ramaiah
Human population migration is a common phenomenon in developing countries. Four categories of migration-endemic to nonendemic areas, rural to urban areas, non-MDA areas to areas that achieved lymphatic filariasis (LF) control/elimination, and across borders-are relevant to LF elimination efforts. In many situations, migrants from endemic areas may not be able to establish active transmission foci and cause infection in local people in known nonendemic areas or countries. Urban areas are at risk of a steady inflow of LF-infected people from rural areas, necessitating prolonged intervention measures or leading to a prolonged "residual microfilaraemia phase...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Nandha, K Krishnamoorthy, P Jambulingam
India is a signatory to World Health Assembly resolution for elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and National Health Policy has set the goal of LF elimination by 2015. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) is ongoing in endemic districts since 1996-97. Compliance rate is a crucial factor in achieving elimination and was assessed in three districts of Tamil Nadu for 10th and 11th treatment rounds (TRs). An in-depth study assessed the impact of social mobilization by drug distributors (DDs) in two areas from each of the three districts...
August 2013: Health Education Research
Patricia M Graves, Leo Makita, Melinda Susapu, Molly A Brady, Wayne Melrose, Corinne Capuano, Zaixing Zhang, Luo Dapeng, Masayo Ozaki, David Reeve, Kazuyo Ichimori, Walter M Kazadi, Frederick Michna, Moses J Bockarie, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is present at high prevalence in some parts of Papua New Guinea. However, there has been no rigorous data-based representative assessment of nationwide prevalence of LF. The LF programme has been daunted by the scope of the problem, and progress on mass drug administration (MDA) has been slow and lacking in resources. METHODS: A systematic literature review identified LF surveys in Papua New Guinea between 1980 and 2011...
2013: Parasites & Vectors
Deepti Yadav, Subhash Chandra Singh, Ram Kishore Verma, Kirti Saxena, Richa Verma, Puvvada Kalpana Murthy, Madan Mohan Gupta
Lymphatic filariasis continues to be a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. A macrofilaricidal agent capable of eliminating adult filarial parasites is urgently needed. Platyphyllenone (A), alusenone (B), hirustenone (C) and hirsutanonol (D) are important biologically active diarylheptanoids present in Alnus nepalensis. In the present study, we report the antifilarial activity in diarylheptanoids isolated from the leaves of A. nepalensis. Out of four compounds (A-D) tested in vitro one has shown promising anti-filarial activity both in vitro and in vivo studies...
January 15, 2013: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Subramanian Swaminathan, Vanamail Perumal, Srividya Adinarayanan, Krishnamoorthy Kaliannagounder, Ravi Rengachari, Jambulingam Purushothaman
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and evaluation guidelines of the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis require impact assessments in at least one sentinel and one spot-check site in each implementation unit (IU). Transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that assess antigenaemia (Ag) in children in IUs that have completed at least five rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) each with >65% coverage and with microfilaria (Mf) levels <1% in the monitored sites form the basis for stopping the MDA...
2012: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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