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Longevity, telomeres

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510637/telomeres-nutrition-and-longevity-can-we-really-navigate-our-aging
#1
Nikolina Škrobot Vidacek, Lucia Nanic, Sanda Ravlic, Mary Sopta, Marko Geric, Goran Gajski, Vera Garaj-Vrhovac, Ivica Rubelj
Telomeres are dynamic chromosome-end structures that serve as guardians of genome stability. They are known to be one of the major determinants of aging and longevity in higher mammals. Studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between telomere length and life expectancy, stress, DNA damage, and onset of aging-related diseases. This review discusses the most important factors that influence our telomeres. Various genetic and environmental factors such as diet, physical activity, obesity, and stress are known to influence health and longevity as well as telomere dynamics...
May 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399814/sirt6-polymorphism-rs117385980-is-associated-with-longevity-and-healthy-aging-in-finnish-men
#2
Katariina Hirvonen, Hannele Laivuori, Jari Lahti, Timo Strandberg, Johan G Eriksson, Peter Hackman
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin-6 (SIRT6) is involved in various crucial cellular pathways, being a key regulator of telomere structure, DNA repair, metabolism, transcriptional control and the NF-kappa B pathway. Sirt6 knock-out mice have been reported to develop typical features of aging and senescence at the age of 2-3 weeks and die within 4 weeks. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sequence variations of SIRT6 are associated with aging and longevity in Finnish men. METHODS: The sample of this study consisted of 43 longer-living and healthy males and 92 male control subjects who have died of natural causes at an average age of 66,6 (±4,1) years and who belonged to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS)...
April 11, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394764/telomeres-and-the-natural-lifespan-limit-in-humans
#3
Troels Steenstrup, Jeremy D Kark, Simon Verhulst, Mikael Thinggaard, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Christine Dalgård, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Lene Christiansen, Massimo Mangino, Timothy D Spector, Inge Petersen, Masayuki Kimura, Athanase Benetos, Carlos Labat, Ronit Sinnreich, Shih-Jen Hwang, Daniel Levy, Steven C Hunt, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Wei Chen, Gerald S Berenson, Michelangela Barbieri, Giuseppe Paolisso, Shahinaz M Gadalla, Sharon A Savage, Kaare Christensen, Anatoliy I Yashin, Konstantin G Arbeev, Abraham Aviv
An ongoing debate in demography has focused on whether the human lifespan has a maximal natural limit. Taking a mechanistic perspective, and knowing that short telomeres are associated with diminished longevity, we examined whether telomere length dynamics during adult life could set a maximal natural lifespan limit. We define leukocyte telomere length of 5 kb as the 'telomeric brink', which denotes a high risk of imminent death. We show that a subset of adults may reach the telomeric brink within the current life expectancy and more so for a 100-year life expectancy...
April 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298930/predicting-the-remaining-lifespan-and-cultivation-related-loss-of-osteogenic-capacity-of-bone-marrow-multipotential-stromal-cells-applicable-across-a-broad-donor-age-range
#4
Sarah M Churchman, Sally A Boxall, Dennis McGonagle, Elena A Jones
Background and Objectives. Culture expanded multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) have considerable potential for bone regeneration therapy but their wider use is constrained by the lack of simple and predictive assays of functional potency. Extended passaging leads to loss of multipotency but speed of decline depends on MSC donor age. The aim of this study was to develop an assay predictive of MSC culture longevity applicable to a broad donor age range. Materials and Methods. Bone marrow (BM, n = 7) was obtained from a diverse range (2-72 years) of healthy donors...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259133/aging-in-birds
#5
REVIEW
D Y Travin, B A Feniouk
Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214534/demographic-phenotypic-and-genetic-characteristics-of-centenarians-in-okinawa-and-honshu-japan-part-2-honshu-japan
#6
REVIEW
Yasumichi Arai, Takashi Sasaki, Nobuyoshi Hirose
The scope and purpose of this review was to summarize the aims, methods, findings, and future of centenarian and (semi)-supercentenarian studies in Japan, particularly those from our own interdisciplinary laboratory. Medically, approximately 97% of centenarians contract chronic diseases including hypertension and gastrointestinal disease; however, they present with few cardiovascular risk factors. The low prevalence of diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerotic plaques is peculiarities of centenarians, which could be associated with high adiponectin levels...
February 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177119/downregulation-of-methyltransferase-dnmt2-results-in-condition-dependent-telomere-shortening-and-senescence-or-apoptosis-in-mouse-fibroblasts
#7
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Maciej Wnuk
Dnmt2 is a highly conserved methyltransferase of uncertain biological function(s). As Dnmt2 was considered as a driver of fruit fly longevity and a modulator of stress response, we decided to evaluate the role of Dnmt2 during stress-induced premature senescence in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Stable knockdown of Dnmt2 resulted in hydrogen peroxide-mediated sensitivity and apoptosis, whereas in the control conditions, senescence was induced. Cellular senescence was accompanied by elevated levels of p53 and p21, decreased telomere length and telomerase activity, increased production of reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation, and DNA damage...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129920/sex-dependent-telomere-shortening-telomerase-activity-and-oxidative-damage-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-during-aging
#8
Bill Wp Yip, Helen Ol Mok, Drew R Peterson, Miles T Wan, Y Taniguchi, Wei Ge, Doris Wt Au
Marine medaka Oryzias melastigma at 4months (young), 8months (middle-aged) and 12months old (senior) were employed to determine age-associated change of sex ratios, sex hormones, telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), telomerase transcription (omTERT) and oxidative damage in the liver. Overall, O. melastigma exhibited gradual senescence, sex differences in longevity (F>M), TL (F>M) and oxidative damage (F<M) during aging. In females, the plasma E2 level was positively correlated with TL (TRF>5kb), TA and omTERT expression (p≤0...
January 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120189/hst1-increases-replicative-lifespan-of-a-sir2%C3%AE-mutant-in-the-absence-of-pde2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Woo Kyu Kang, Mayur Devare, Jeong-Yoon Kim
Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2), which is the founding member of the sirtuin family of proteins, is a pro-longevity factor for replicative lifespan (RLS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sir2 is required for transcriptional silencing at mating type loci, telomeres, and rDNA loci. Sir2 also represses transcription of highly expressed growth-related genes, such as PMA1 and some ribosomal protein genes. Although the Sir2 paralogues Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, and Hst4 occur in S. cerevisiae, none of them could replace the transcriptional regulation of PMA1 by Sir2 in the wild type...
February 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062617/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-biomarker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Kai C Wollert, Tibor Kempf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is expressed and secreted in response to inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, telomere erosion, and oncogene activation. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major driver of GDF-15 production. GDF-15 has favorable preanalytic characteristics and can be measured in serum and plasma by immunoassay. CONTENT: In community-dwelling individuals higher concentrations of GDF-15 are associated with increased risks of developing CV disease, chronic kidney disease, and cancer, independent of traditional CV risk factors, renal function, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039025/common-variants-of-human-tert-and-terc-genes-and-susceptibility-to-sporadic-alzheimers-disease
#11
D Scarabino, E Broggio, G Gambina, F Pelliccia, R M Corbo
Studies investigating telomere length in association with cognitive decline, dementia, and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) have frequently found shorter telomeres to be associated with the development of AD and telomerase expression with pathological processes in AD. Human telomerase is constituted by two components: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA component (TERC). Genetic variation at the two loci has been investigated in relation to telomere length, longevity, and common diseases of advanced age, but not in relation to AD...
February 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018048/childhood-personality-betrayal-trauma-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-adulthood-a-lifespan-perspective-on-conscientiousness-and-betrayal-traumas-as-predictors-of-a-biomarker-of-cellular-aging
#12
Grant W Edmonds, Sarah E Hampson, Hélène C F Côté, Patrick L Hill, Bridget Klest
Conscientiousness is associated with longevity. As such, identifying the biological pathways linking personality to mortality is important. This study employs longitudinal data spanning >40 years to test prospective associations with Leukocyte Telomere Length (LTL), a potential marker of cellular aging. Because telomeres shorten over time, and are sensitive to oxidative stress, shorter LTL may reflect cumulative damage associated with negative health behaviors and past stressful events. We investigated childhood conscientiousness as a protective factor, expecting an association with longer LTL in adulthood, possibly reflecting slower LTL shortening...
September 2016: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922939/telomere-length-is-longer-in-women-with-late-maternal-age
#13
Erin Fagan, Fangui Sun, Harold Bae, Irma Elo, Stacy L Andersen, Joseph Lee, Kaare Christensen, Bharat Thyagarajan, Paola Sebastiani, Thomas Perls, Lawrence S Honig, Nicole Schupf
OBJECTIVE: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of 29 years or less. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted using data from the Long Life Family Study. Three hundred eighty-seven women who gave birth to at least one child and lived to the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort, or died before the top fifth percentile of their birth cohort died, but were at least 70 years old, were studied...
May 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829173/multiple-pathways-of-sirt6-at-the-crossroads-in-the-control-of-longevity-cancer-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Milena Vitiello, Alberto Zullo, Luigi Servillo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Adriana Borriello, Alfonso Giovane, Fulvio Della Ragione, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the sirtuin family NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with multiple roles in controlling organism homeostasis, lifespan, and diseases. Due to its complex and opposite functional roles, this sirtuin is considered a two-edged sword in health and disease. Indeed, SIRT6 improves longevity, similarly to the founding yeast member, silent information regulator-2 (Sir2), and modulates genome stability, telomere integrity, transcription, and DNA repair. Its deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, liver dysfunction, muscle/adipocyte disorders, and cancer...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785566/diet-quality-and-telomere-length-in-older-australian-men-and-women
#15
Catherine M Milte, Aaron P Russell, Kylie Ball, David Crawford, Jo Salmon, Sarah A McNaughton
PURPOSE: Telomere length is a biomarker of cellular ageing, with longer telomeres associated with longevity and reduced risk of chronic disease in older age. Consumption of a healthy diet may contribute to longevity via its impact on cellular ageing, but studies on diet and telomere length to date have been limited and their findings equivocal. The aim of this study was to examine associations between three indices of diet quality and telomere length in older men and women. METHODS: Adults aged 57-68 years participating in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 679), completed a postal survey including an 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2012...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751173/maternal-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-and-newborn-telomere-length
#16
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708454/assessing-the-effects-of-repeated-handling-on-the-physiology-and-condition-of-semi-precocial-nestlings
#17
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662635/interactions-between-parental-traits-environmental-harshness-and-growth-rate-in-determining-telomere-length-in-wild-juvenile-salmon
#18
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
A larger body size confers many benefits, such as increased reproductive success, ability to evade predators and increased competitive ability and social status. However, individuals rarely maximize their growth rates, suggesting that this carries costs. One such cost could be faster attrition of the telomeres that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome protection. A relatively short telomere length is indicative of poor biological state, including poorer tissue and organ performance, reduced potential longevity and increased disease susceptibility...
November 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616348/the-relationship-between-positive-psychological-characteristics-and-longer-telomeres
#19
Nicola S Schutte, Suresh K A Palanisamy, James R McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and optimism. DESIGN AND MEASURES: One hundred and twenty women and men, with a mean age of 40...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535986/telomere-dynamics-in-free-living-edible-dormice-glis-glis-the-impact-of-hibernation-and-food-supply
#20
Franz Hoelzl, Jessica S Cornils, Steve Smith, Yoshan Moodley, Thomas Ruf
We studied the impact of hibernation and food supply on relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator for aging and somatic maintenance, in free-living edible dormice. Small hibernators such as dormice have ∼50% higher maximum longevity than non-hibernators. Increased longevity could theoretically be due to prolonged torpor directly slowing cellular damage and RTL shortening. However, although mitosis is arrested in mammals at low body temperatures, recent evidence points to accelerated RTL shortening during periodic re-warming (arousal) from torpor...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
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