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Longevity, telomeres

Milena Vitiello, Alberto Zullo, Luigi Servillo, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Adriana Borriello, Alfonso Giovane, Fulvio Della Ragione, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a member of the sirtuin family NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases with multiple roles in controlling organism homeostasis, lifespan, and diseases. Due to its complex and opposite functional roles, this sirtuin is considered a two-edged sword in health and disease. Indeed, SIRT6 improves longevity, similarly to the founding yeast member, silent information regulator-2 (Sir2), and modulates genome stability, telomere integrity, transcription, and DNA repair. Its deficiency is associated with chronic inflammation, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, obesity, liver dysfunction, muscle/adipocyte disorders, and cancer...
November 6, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Catherine M Milte, Aaron P Russell, Kylie Ball, David Crawford, Jo Salmon, Sarah A McNaughton
PURPOSE: Telomere length is a biomarker of cellular ageing, with longer telomeres associated with longevity and reduced risk of chronic disease in older age. Consumption of a healthy diet may contribute to longevity via its impact on cellular ageing, but studies on diet and telomere length to date have been limited and their findings equivocal. The aim of this study was to examine associations between three indices of diet quality and telomere length in older men and women. METHODS: Adults aged 57-68 years participating in the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life (WELL) study in Victoria, Australia (n = 679), completed a postal survey including an 111-item food frequency questionnaire in 2012...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
A larger body size confers many benefits, such as increased reproductive success, ability to evade predators and increased competitive ability and social status. However, individuals rarely maximize their growth rates, suggesting that this carries costs. One such cost could be faster attrition of the telomeres that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome protection. A relatively short telomere length is indicative of poor biological state, including poorer tissue and organ performance, reduced potential longevity and increased disease susceptibility...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Nicola S Schutte, Suresh K A Palanisamy, James R McFarlane
OBJECTIVE: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence, general self-efficacy and optimism. DESIGN AND MEASURES: One hundred and twenty women and men, with a mean age of 40...
December 2016: Psychology & Health
Franz Hoelzl, Jessica S Cornils, Steve Smith, Yoshan Moodley, Thomas Ruf
We studied the impact of hibernation and food supply on relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator for aging and somatic maintenance, in free-living edible dormice. Small hibernators such as dormice have ∼50% higher maximum longevity than non-hibernators. Increased longevity could theoretically be due to prolonged torpor directly slowing cellular damage and RTL shortening. However, although mitosis is arrested in mammals at low body temperatures, recent evidence points to accelerated RTL shortening during periodic re-warming (arousal) from torpor...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
N Rafie, S Golpour Hamedani, F Barak, S M Safavi, M Miraghajani
: Telomere length (TL) is recognized as a biomarker of aging and shorter telomeres are linked with shorter lifespan. Inter-individual variability in telomere length is highly heritable. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in the controversial relationship between diet and TL. Evaluating the impact of diet at the food group and dietary pattern level will provide greater insight into the effect of diet on TL dynamics, which are of significant importance in health and longevity...
August 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ramkumar Menon
Various endocrine, immune, and mechanical factors produced by feto-maternal compartments at term increase intrauterine inflammatory loads to induce labor. The role of fetal (placental) membranes (amniochorion) as providers of parturition signals has not been well investigated. Fetal membranes line the intrauterine cavity and grow with and protect the fetus. Fetal membranes exist as an entity between the mother and fetus and perform unique functions during pregnancy. Membranes undergo a telomere-dependent p38 MAPK-induced senescence and demonstrate a decline in functional and mechanical abilities at term, showing signs of aging...
August 2016: Placenta
Daniel E Cook, Stefan Zdraljevic, Robyn E Tanny, Beomseok Seo, David D Riccardi, Luke M Noble, Matthew V Rockman, Mark J Alkema, Christian Braendle, Jan E Kammenga, John Wang, Leonid Kruglyak, Marie-Anne Félix, Junho Lee, Erik C Andersen
Telomeres are involved in the maintenance of chromosomes and the prevention of genome instability. Despite this central importance, significant variation in telomere length has been observed in a variety of organisms. The genetic determinants of telomere-length variation and their effects on organismal fitness are largely unexplored. Here, we describe natural variation in telomere length across the Caenorhabditis elegans species. We identify a large-effect variant that contributes to differences in telomere length...
September 2016: Genetics
Marek Kasielski, Makandjou-Ola Eusebio, Mirosława Pietruczuk, Dariusz Nowak
BACKGROUND: Repeated nucleotide sequences combined with proteins called telomeres cover chromosome ends and dictate cells lifespan. Many factors can modify telomere length, among them are: nutrition and smoking habits, physical activities and socioeconomic status measured by education level. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of above mentioned factors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells telomere length. METHODS: Study included 28 subjects (seven male and 21 female, age 18-65 years...
2016: Nutrition Journal
Ana Latorre-Pellicer, Raquel Moreno-Loshuertos, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco, Fátima Sánchez-Cabo, Carlos Torroja, Rebeca Acín-Pérez, Enrique Calvo, Esther Aix, Andrés González-Guerra, Angela Logan, María Luisa Bernad-Miana, Eduardo Romanos, Raquel Cruz, Sara Cogliati, Beatriz Sobrino, Ángel Carracedo, Acisclo Pérez-Martos, Patricio Fernández-Silva, Jesús Ruíz-Cabello, Michael P Murphy, Ignacio Flores, Jesús Vázquez, José Antonio Enríquez
Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) shows extensive within population sequence variability. Many studies suggest that mtDNA variants may be associated with ageing or diseases, although mechanistic evidence at the molecular level is lacking. Mitochondrial replacement has the potential to prevent transmission of disease-causing oocyte mtDNA. However, extension of this technology requires a comprehensive understanding of the physiological relevance of mtDNA sequence variability and its match with the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes...
July 28, 2016: Nature
P Salmón, J F Nilsson, A Nord, S Bensch, C Isaksson
Urban environments are expanding rapidly, and with urbanization come both challenges and opportunities for wildlife. Challenges include combating the anthropogenic disturbances such as light, noise and air pollution and lower availability of natural food sources. The benefits are many, including the availability of anthropogenic food sources, breeding boxes and warmer temperatures. Thus, depending on the context, urbanization can have both positive and negative effects on fitness related traits. It is well known that early-life conditions can have lifelong implications on fitness; little is however known about development in urban environments...
June 2016: Biology Letters
Jason J Liu, Marta Crous-Bou, Edward Giovannucci, Immaculata De Vivo
BACKGROUND: Coffee is an important source of antioxidants, and consumption of this beverage is associated with many health conditions and a lower mortality risk. However, no study, to our knowledge, has examined whether varying coffee or caffeine consumption levels are associated with telomere length, a biomarker of aging whose shortening can be accelerated by oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: We performed a large comprehensive study on how coffee consumption is associated with telomere length...
July 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Huazong Yin, Liuwang Nie, Feifei Zhao, Huaxing Zhou, Haifeng Li, Xianmei Dong, Huanhuan Zhang, Yuqin Wang, Qiong Shi, Jun Li
Mauremys reevesii (Geoemydidae) is one of the most common and widespread semi-aquatic turtles in East Asia. The unusually long lifespan of some individuals makes this turtle species a potentially useful model organism for studying the molecular basis of longevity. In this study, pooled total RNA extracted from liver, spleen and skeletal-muscle of three adult individuals were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform. A set of telomere-related genes were found in the transcriptome, including tert, tep1, and six shelterin complex proteins coding genes (trf1, trf2, tpp1, pot1, tin2 and rap1)...
2016: PeerJ
Simone Ribero, Caterina Longo, Dan Glass, Paul Nathan, Veronique Bataille
New therapies for advanced melanoma have led to major advances, which, for the first time, showed improved survival for patients with this very challenging neoplasm. These new treatments are based on gene-targeted therapies or stimulation of immune responses. However, these treatments are not without challenges in terms of resistance and toxicity. Physicians should be aware of these side effects as prompt treatment may save lives. Melanoma genetics is also unravelling new genetic risk factors involving telomere genes as well as new gene pathways at the somatic level which may soon become therapeutic targets...
2016: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Fan Liu, Merel A Hamer, Joris Deelen, Japal S Lall, Leonie Jacobs, Diana van Heemst, Peter G Murray, Andreas Wollstein, Anton J M de Craen, Hae-Won Uh, Changqing Zeng, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Luba M Pardo, Marian Beekman, P Eline Slagboom, Tamar Nijsten, Manfred Kayser, David A Gunn
Looking young for one's age has been a desire since time immemorial. This desire is attributable to the belief that appearance reflects health and fecundity. Indeed, perceived age predicts survival [1] and associates with molecular markers of aging such as telomere length [2]. Understanding the underlying molecular biology of perceived age is vital for identifying new aging therapies among other purposes, but studies are lacking thus far. As a first attempt, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of perceived facial age and wrinkling estimated from digital facial images by analyzing over eight million SNPs in 2,693 elderly Dutch Europeans from the Rotterdam Study...
May 9, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Andrea G Bodnar, James A Coffman
Aging in many animals is characterized by a failure to maintain tissue homeostasis and the loss of regenerative capacity. In this study, the ability to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerative potential was investigated in sea urchins, a novel model to study longevity and negligible senescence. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages and reproduce throughout their lifespan and yet different species are reported to have very different life expectancies (ranging from 4 to more than 100 years)...
August 2016: Aging Cell
Christian Bär, Maria A Blasco
Telomeres, the protective ends of linear chromosomes, shorten throughout an individual's lifetime. Telomere shortening is a hallmark of molecular aging and is associated with premature appearance of diseases associated with aging. Here, we discuss the role of telomere shortening as a direct cause for aging and age-related diseases. In particular, we draw attention to the fact that telomere length influences longevity. Furthermore, we discuss intrinsic and environmental factors that can impact on human telomere erosion...
2016: F1000Research
Jagoda Adamczyk, Anna Deregowska, Marek Skoneczny, Adrianna Skoneczna, Aleksandra Kwiatkowska, Leszek Potocki, Ewa Rawska, Sylwia Pabian, Jakub Kaplan, Anna Lewinska, Maciej Wnuk
Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
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