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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#1
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331802/molecular-epidemiology-and-pathology-of-spirorchiid-infection-in-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas
#2
Phoebe A Chapman, Helen Owen, Mark Flint, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Rebecca J Traub, Thomas H Cribb, Myat T Kyaw-Tanner, Paul C Mills
Spirorchiid blood fluke infections affect endangered turtle populations globally, and are reported as a common cause of mortality in Queensland green sea turtles. Both the flukes and their ova are pathogenic and can contribute to the stranding or death of their host. Of particular interest are ova-associated brain lesions, which have been associated with host neurological deficits. Accurate estimations of disease frequency and the relative effect of infection relating to different spirorchiid species are made difficult by challenges in morphological identification of adults of some genera, and a lack of species-level identifying features for ova...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326747/laboratory-methods-for-diagnostics-of-hiv-infection-and-hiv-associated-neuroinfections
#3
(no author information available yet)
HIV Infection resulting in AIDS remains serious global public health problem. In the fight with the global health problem plays a key role a simple, reliable and fast diagnostics. An important method in diagnostics is the identification and detection of viral capside p24 antigen levels. Fourth generation tests for the diagnostics of HIV infection simultaneously detect the presence of HIV antibodies and p24 antigen. Based on the monitoring of CD4 count, we can estimate the stage in which the infection is, and we can also suggest a therapeutic approach...
January 22, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320635/safety-and-efficacy-of-multipotent-adult-progenitor-cells-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-masters-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#4
David C Hess, Lawrence R Wechsler, Wayne M Clark, Sean I Savitz, Gary A Ford, David Chiu, Dileep R Yavagal, Ken Uchino, David S Liebeskind, Alexander P Auchus, Souvik Sen, Cathy A Sila, Jeffrey D Vest, Robert W Mays
BACKGROUND: Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a bone marrow-derived, allogeneic, cell therapy product that modulates the immune system, and represents a promising therapy for acute stroke. We aimed to identify the highest, well-tolerated, and safest single dose of multipotent adult progenitor cells, and if they were efficacious as a treatment for stroke recovery. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial of intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cells in 33 centres in the UK and the USA...
March 17, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320296/biological-basis-for-amyloidogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
T V Andreeva, W J Lukiw, E I Rogaev
Certain cellular proteins normally soluble in the living organism under certain conditions form aggregates with a specific cross-β sheet structure called amyloid. These intra- or extracellular insoluble aggregates (fibers or plaques) are hallmarks of many neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion disease, and other progressive neurological diseases that develop in the aging human central nervous system. Amyloid diseases (amyloidoses) are widespread in the elderly human population, a rapidly expanding demographic in many global populations...
February 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320147/malignancy-in-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-twelve-year-single-center-study
#6
Fu Liong Hiew, Yusuf A Rajabally
The relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and malignancy is uncertain. We retrospectively analyzed data of 118 consecutive patients admitted with GBS from Birmingham, U.K. (2001-2012). We calculated relative cancer risk using different definitions and determined characteristics of malignancy-associated GBS. Malignancy was globally commoner in our GBS cohort compared to the general population (odds ratio: 2.08; CI: 1.06-3.71; p=0.036). However, this was unconfirmed if paraneoplastic criteria were applied...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318367/combinatorial-control-of-messenger-rnas-by-pumilio-nanos-and-brain-tumor-proteins
#7
René M Arvola, Chase A Weidmann, Traci M Tanaka Hall, Aaron C Goldstrohm
Eukaryotes possess a vast array of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that affect mRNAs in diverse ways to control protein expression. Combinatorial regulation of mRNAs by RBPs is emerging as the rule. No example illustrates this as vividly as the partnership of three Drosophila RBPs, Pumilio, Nanos and Brain Tumor, which have overlapping functions in development, stem cell maintenance and differentiation, fertility and neurological processes. Here we synthesize thirty years of research with new insights into their molecular functions and mechanisms of action...
March 20, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318359/zika-virus-and-eye
#8
Rupesh Agrawal, Hnin Hnin Oo, Praveen Kumar Balne, Lisa Ng, Louis Tong, Yee Sin Leo
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the latest global health concern. Transmission is mainly via Aedes mosquitoes and the infection can be diagnosed on molecular or serologic testings. It typically causes a mild self-remitting illness of low-grade fever, maculopapular rash, and myalgia, but when severe, it is associated with neurological deficits and congenital structural defects. Ocular manifestations are usually mild like nonpurulent conjunctivitis in adults, though it may be linked to uveitis, maculopathy, and hypertensive iridocyclitis...
March 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315758/tat-pep-a-novel-blocker-of-pirb-enhances-the-recovery-of-cognitive-function-in-mice-after-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia
#9
Liya Li, Bin Deng, Shuang Li, Tao Jiang, Zhaoyang Xiao, Qiang Wang
Neuronal damage and axonal regeneration inhibition are the main reasons to poor functional recovery after ischemia. Nogo-A signals inhibit axon outgrowth through the PirB receptor after ischemic reperfusion injury in central nervous system. We use TAT-PEP, a novel protein which could pass through the blood brain barrier, to block the function of PirB and identify the long-term neurological and behavioral recovery after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. We observed that TAT-PEP promoted neuron survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis...
March 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294064/knockdown-of-c-c-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-is-protective-against-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#10
Edna Constanza Gómez Victoria, Eliana Cristina de Brito Toscano, Ana Clara de Sousa Cardoso, Daniele Gonçalves da Silva, Aline Silva de Miranda, Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, Michelle Adriane Sugimoto, Lirlândia Pires Sousa, Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Fátima Brant, Fabiana Simão Machado, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Milene Alvarenga Rachid
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability of adults worldwide. Inflammatory processes are known to contribute to the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, especially following reperfusion. Chemokines and their receptors are involved in migration of leukocytes and have been implicated in pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effects of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) deficiency on neurological outcome, brain damage and expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293972/a-comparison-of-patients-and-physicians-assessments-of-disease-activity-using-the-swedish-version-of-the-systemic-lupus-activity-questionnaire
#11
S Pettersson, E Svenungsson, J Gustafsson, S Möller, I Gunnarsson, E Welin Henriksson
OBJECTIVES: We compared patients' assessments of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity by a Swedish version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) with physicians' assessments by the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). We also explored the performance of the SLAQ in patients with short (< 1 year) versus long (≥ 1 year) disease duration. METHOD: Patients filled out the SLAQ before physicians' assessments...
March 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293905/hyperphenylalaninemia-correlated-with-global-decrease-of-antioxidant-genes-expression-in-white-blood-cells-of-adult-patients-with-phenylketonuria
#12
Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle Debeissat, Hélène Blasco, Franck Patin, Hélène Henique, Patrick Emond, Catherine Antar, Valérie Gissot, Olivier Herault, François Maillot
BACKGROUND: Several studies have highlighted disturbance of redox homeostasis in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) which may be associated with neurological disorders observed in patients, especially during adulthood when phenylalanine restrictive diets are not maintained. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant profile in a cohort of PKU patients in comparison to the controls and to evaluate its relation to biochemical parameters especially phenylalaninemia. METHODS: We measured RNA expression of 22 antioxidant genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in white blood cells of 10 PKU patients and 10 age- and gender-matched controls...
March 15, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293478/disrupted-brain-network-functional-dynamics-and-hyper-correlation-of-structural-and-functional-connectome-topology-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-prior-to-treatment
#13
Shelli R Kesler, Marjorie Adams, Melissa Packer, Vikram Rao, Ashley M Henneghan, Douglas W Blayney, Oxana Palesh
INTRODUCTION: Several previous studies have demonstrated that cancer chemotherapy is associated with brain injury and cognitive dysfunction. However, evidence suggests that cancer pathogenesis alone may play a role, even in non-CNS cancers. METHODS: Using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, we measured structural and functional connectome topology as well as functional network dynamics in newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer. Our study involved a novel, pretreatment assessment that occurred prior to the initiation of any cancer therapies, including surgery with anesthesia...
March 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288145/rectal-temperature-in-the-first-five-hours-after-hypoxia-ischaemia-critically-affects-neuropathological-outcomes-in-neonatal-rats
#14
Thomas Wood, Catherine Hobbs, Mari Falck, Anne Charlotte Brun, Else Marit Løberg, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia after hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in newborn infants is associated with worse neurological outcomes. Loss of thermoregulation may also be associated with greater injury. METHODS: In the postnatal-day 7 (P7) rat, the effect of 5h of graded hyperthermia (38°C or 39°C) immediately after unilateral HI was compared to normothermia (NT, 37°C), and therapeutic hypothermia (TH, 32°C). Early (negative geotaxis) and late (staircase test) behavioural testing was performed, as well as neuropathology scoring in adulthood...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286989/a-precision-medicine-initiative-for-alzheimer-s-disease-the-road-ahead-to-biomarker-guided-integrative-disease-modeling
#15
REVIEW
H Hampel, S E O'Bryant, S Durrleman, E Younesi, K Rojkova, V Escott-Price, J-C Corvol, K Broich, B Dubois, S Lista
After intense scientific exploration and more than a decade of failed trials, Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a fatal global epidemic. A traditional research and drug development paradigm continues to target heterogeneous late-stage clinically phenotyped patients with single 'magic bullet' drugs. Here, we propose that it is time for a paradigm shift towards the implementation of precision medicine (PM) for enhanced risk screening, detection, treatment, and prevention of AD. The overarching structure of how PM for AD can be achieved will be provided through the convergence of breakthrough technological advances, including big data science, systems biology, genomic sequencing, blood-based biomarkers, integrated disease modeling and P4 medicine...
April 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284393/epilepsy-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-therapeutic-options
#16
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282088/-history-of-the-department-of-neurology-at-the-university-of-buenos-aires-1887-2007
#17
Ricardo F Allegri, Leonardo Bartoloni, Roberto E Sica
In 1887, only five years after Jean-Martin Charcot was awarded the Head of Neurology at "La Salpetrière" in Paris, José María Ramos Mejía became the first professor of Neurology in South America, at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires. Ramos Mejía convoked three assistants, the neuropathologist Christofredo Jakob, the clinician José A. Esteves and José Ingenieros. Hence it followed that Neurology in Argentina took a stand based on a clinical neurology-neuropathology approach (1941-1987) followed by a clinical-semiological attitude, finally inserting itself within the modern times (1987-present) by creating subspecialties...
July 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277248/electrochemical-biosensors-for-early-stage-zika-diagnostics
#18
REVIEW
Ajeet Kaushik, Sneham Tiwari, Rahul D Jayant, Arti Vashist, Roozbeh Nikkhah-Moshaie, Nazira El-Hage, Madhavan Nair
Health agencies have declared the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection an epidemic and a public health emergency of global concern due to its association with microcephaly and serious neurological disorders. The unavailability of effective drugs, vaccines, and diagnostic tools increases the demand for efficient analytical devices to detect ZIKV infection. However, high costs, longer diagnostic times, and stringent expertise requirements limit the utility of reverse transcriptase-PCR methods for rapid diagnostics...
October 26, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272532/trna-n6-adenosine-threonylcarbamoyltransferase-defect-due-to-kae1-tcs3-osgep-mutation-manifest-by-neurodegeneration-and-renal-tubulopathy
#19
Simon Edvardson, Laurence Prunetti, Aiman Arraf, Drago Haas, Jo Marie Bacusmo, Jennifer F Hu, Asas Ta-Shma, Peter C Dedon, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Orly Elpeleg
Post-transcriptional tRNA modifications are numerous and require a large set of highly conserved enzymes in humans and other organisms. In yeast, the loss of many modifications is tolerated under unstressed conditions; one exception is the N(6)-threonyl-carbamoyl-adenosine (t(6)A) modification, loss of which causes a severe growth phenotype. Here we aimed at a molecular diagnosis in a brother and sister from a consanguineous family who presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive and a renal defect manifesting in proteinuria and hypomagnesemia...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271403/combination-treatment-with-methylene-blue-and-hypothermia-in-global-cerebral-ischemia
#20
Lei Li, Rongli Yang, Pingjing Li, Hailong Lu, Jingbo Hao, Liyan Li, Donovan Tucker, Quanguang Zhang
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the most potent therapeutic strategy for global cerebral ischemia (GCI), usually induced by cardiac arrest. TH has been shown both to suppress the delayed neuronal cell death in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion and to improve neurological outcomes in experimental animals after GCI. However, given the multiple adverse effects resulting from TH, application of such a therapy is typically limited. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has emerged as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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