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Global neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626186/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#1
Kenji Isahaya, Kensuke Shinohara, Masashi Akamatu, Takahiro Shimizu, Kenzo Sakurai, Makoto Shiraishi, Hisanao Akiyama, Yasuhiro Hasegawa
A 65-year-old man who had been diagnosed with transient global amnesia (TGA) 15 years previously was admitted to hospital with complaints of amnesia and headache. His symptoms improved on day-2. The initial brain MRI and electroencephalography findings were normal. He was diagnosed with a recurrence of TGA and discharged. However, he returned with right leg weakness and complained of a thunderclap headache. MRI demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and multifocal segmental narrowing of the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and large intracranial arteries, and he was diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625615/efficacy-and-safety-of-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport%C3%A2-for-the-treatment-of-hemiparesis-in-adults-with-upper-limb-spasticity-previously-treated-with-botulinum-toxin-sub-analysis-from-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Christina Marciniak, Peter McAllister, Heather Walker, Allison Brashear, Steven Edgley, Thierry Deltombe, Svetlana Khatkova, Marta Banach, Fatma Gul, Claire Vilain, Philippe Picaut, Anne-Sophie Grandoulier, Jean-Michel Gracies
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity previously treated with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A). DESIGN: A post-hoc analysis from a Phase 3, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study SETTING: 34 neurology or rehabilitation clinics in nine countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18-80 years with hemiparesis, ≥6 months after stroke or traumatic brain injury. This analysis focused on a subgroup of subjects with previous onabotulinumtoxinA or incobotulinumtoxinA treatment (n=105 of 243 in the total trial population) in the affected limb...
June 15, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625587/a-rabbit-model-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-by-ear-central-artery-suprasellar-cistern-shunt
#3
Jing Lu, Fuxiang Chen, Bing Cai, Fan Chen, Dezhi Kang
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a life-threatening hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. The concept of early brain injury (EBI), induced by sharply increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and low cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) with cerebral global ischemia following aneurysm rupture, has been increasingly accepted. However, EBI has not been well studied partly due to lack of an ideal animal model. The purpose of this study was to establish a new aSAH model which can mimic the pathophysiological damage of EBI...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625547/contextual-fear-conditioning-is-enhanced-in-mice-lacking-functional-sphingosine-kinase-2
#4
Mona Lei, Adeena Shafique, Kani Shang, Timothy A Couttas, Hua Zhao, Anthony S Don, Tim Karl
The lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent neuroprotective signalling molecule that signals through its own family of five G-protein coupled receptors. S1P signalling enhances presynaptic glutamate release and is essential for neural development. S1P is synthesized by the enzymes sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and SphK2), of which SphK2 mRNA and activity is more abundant in the brain. In this study we investigated the consequences of global SphK2 knockout (SphK2(-/-)) on basic motor capabilities, anxiety, learning, and memory in mice, using a range of tests including the elevated plus maze, the cheeseboard, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and fear extinction...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624878/a-combination-of-three-repurposed-drugs-administered-at-reperfusion-as-a-promising-therapy-for-postischemic-brain-injury
#5
I-Chen Yu, Ping-Chang Kuo, Jui-Hung Yen, Hallel C Paraiso, Eric T Curfman, Benecia C Hong-Goka, Robert D Sweazey, Fen-Lei Chang
Cerebral ischemia leads to multifaceted injury to the brain. A polytherapeutic drug that can be administered immediately after reperfusion may increase protection to the brain by simultaneously targeting multiple deleterious cascades. This study evaluated efficacy of the combination of three clinically approved drugs: lamotrigine, minocycline, and lovastatin, using two mouse models: global and focal cerebral ischemia induced by transient occlusion of the common carotid arteries or the middle cerebral artery, respectively...
June 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623165/ocular-effects-of-zika-virus-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Maria Carolina Marquezan, Camila V Ventura, Jeanne S Sheffield, William Christopher Golden, Revaz Omiadze, Rubens Belfort, William May
Zika virus (ZIKV) was considered an innocent pathogen while restricted to the African and Asian population; however, after reaching the Americas in March 2015, it became a global threat. Despite usually causing mild or no symptoms in infected adults, ZIKV displays a different behavior towards fetuses. When infected during gestation, fetuses have their immature neural cells killed by the virus and consequently have devastating findings at birth. In the past year, the drastic effects of ZIKV infection in newborns include neurological, ophthalmological, audiological, and skeletal abnormalities...
June 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612835/coexisting-variants-in-ostm1-and-maneal-cause-a-complex-neurodegenerative-disorder-with-nbia-like-brain-abnormalities
#7
Diran Herebian, Bader Alhaddad, Annette Seibt, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Katharina Danhauser, Dirk Klee, Stefani Harmsen, Thomas Meitinger, Tim M Strom, Ansgar Schulz, Ertan Mayatepek, Tobias B Haack, Felix Distelmaier
Coexistence of different hereditary diseases is a known phenomenon in populations with a high consanguinity rate. The resulting clinical phenotypes are extremely challenging for physicians involved in the care of these patients. Here we describe a 6-year-old boy with co-occurrence of a homozygous splice defect in OSTM1, causing infantile malignant osteopetrosis, and a loss-of-function variant in MANEAL, which has not been associated with human disease so far. The child suffered from severe infantile-onset neurodegeneration that could not be stopped by bone marrow transplantation...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611310/chronic-inflammation-and-apoptosis-propagate-in-ischemic-cerebellum-and-heart-of-non-human-primates
#8
Sandra A Acosta, Sherwin Mashkouri, Diana Nwokoye, Jea Y Lee, Cesar V Borlongan
The major pathological consequences of cerebral ischemia are characterized by neurological deficits commonly ascribed to the infarcted tissue and its surrounding region, however, brain areas, as well as peripheral organs, distal from the original injury may manifest as subtle disease sequelae that can increase the risks of co-morbidities complicating the disease symptoms. To evaluate the vulnerability of the cerebellum and the heart to secondary injuries in the late stage of transient global ischemia (TGI) model in non-human primates (NHP), brain and heart tissues were collected at six months post-TGI...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608136/early-impairment-of-intracranial-conduction-time-predicts-mortality-in-deeply-sedated-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-observational-pilot-study
#9
Eric Azabou, Benjamin Rohaut, Nicholas Heming, Eric Magalhaes, Régine Morizot-Koutlidis, Stanislas Kandelman, Jeremy Allary, Guy Moneger, Andrea Polito, Virginie Maxime, Djillali Annane, Frederic Lofaso, Fabrice Chrétien, Jean Mantz, Raphael Porcher, Tarek Sharshar
BACKGROUND: Somatosensory (SSEP) and brainstem auditory (BAEP) evoked potentials are neurophysiological tools which, respectively, explore the intracranial conduction time (ICCT) and the intrapontine conduction time (IPCT). The prognostic values of prolonged cerebral conduction times in deeply sedated patients have never been assessed. Sedated patients are at risk of developing new neurological complications, undetected. In this prospective observational bi-center pilot study, we investigated whether early impairment of SSEP's ICCT and/or BAEP's IPCT could predict in-ICU mortality or altered mental status (AMS), in deeply sedated critically ill patients...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607832/headaches-more-common-among-epilepsy-sufferers-with-neurocysticercosis-than-other-structural-brain-lesions
#10
Erin K Saito, Bijal Mehta, Frances Wang, Beau Nakamoto, Aaron M McMurtray
Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the developing world. Cysticercosis is endemic in many regions of Central and South America, sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Asia. Neurocysticercosis is of emerging importance because globalization has increased travel between Hawai'i and disease-endemic areas. Headache and epilepsy are two of the most common complications of neurocysticercosis infection. Currently, it is not known if epilepsy patients with neurocysticercosis are more likely to have headaches than those with other structural brain lesions or those with no structural brain abnormalities...
June 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603769/longitudinal-changes-in-amyloid-positron-emission-tomography-and-volumetric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nondemented-down-syndrome-population
#11
Patrick J Lao, Ben L Handen, Tobey J Betthauser, Iulia Mihaila, Sigan L Hartley, Annie D Cohen, Dana L Tudorascu, Peter D Bulova, Brian J Lopresti, Rameshwari V Tumuluru, Dhanabalan Murali, Chester A Mathis, Todd E Barnhart, Charles K Stone, Julie C Price, Darlynne A Devenny, Marsha R Mailick, William E Klunk, Sterling C Johnson, Bradley T Christian
INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS) arises from a triplication of chromosome 21, causing overproduction of the amyloid precursor protein and predisposes individuals to early Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Fifty-two nondemented adults with DS underwent two cycles of carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B ([(11)C]PiB) and T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans 3.0 ± 0.6 years apart. Standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) images (50-70 minutes; cerebellar gray matter [GM]) and GM volumes were analyzed in standardized space (Montreal Neurological Institute space)...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603012/an-improved-three-vessel-occlusion-model-of-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#12
Dmitriy N Atochin, Galina A Chernysheva, Oleg I Aliev, Vera I Smolyakova, Anton N Osipenko, Sergey V Logvinov, Anna A Zhdankina, Tatiana M Plotnikova, Mark B Plotnikov
We developed an improved three-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in rats. This method consists in cessation of cerebral blood flow by accessing a. carotis communis sinistra through the ventral surface of the neck as well as tr. brachiocephalicus and a. subclavia sinistra through the first intercostal space, bypassing the pleural cavity and excluding pneumothorax. After the occlusion of the vessels that resulted in interruption of their blood flow, according to laser-Doppler flowmetry, there was a sharp decline in local cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex to 4±1% of the initial level...
June 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602630/correlation-between-standardized-assessment-of-concussion-scores-and-small-world-brain-network-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Yan Yan, Jian Song, Guozheng Xu, Shun Yao, Chenglong Cao, Chang Li, Guibao Peng, Hao Du
This study investigated the characteristics of the small-world brain network architecture of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and a correlation between brain functional connectivity network properties in the resting-state fMRI and Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) parameters. The neurological conditions of 22 MTBI patients and 17 normal control individuals were evaluated according to the SAC. Resting-state fMRI was performed in all subjects 3 and 7days after injury respectively. After preprocessing the fMRI data, cortex functional regions were marked using AAL90 and Dosenbach160 templates...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598725/a-critical-review-of-the-postulated-role-of-the-non-essential-amino-acid-%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-in-neurodegenerative-disease-in-humans
#14
N Chernoff, D J Hill, D L Diggs, B D Faison, B M Francis, J R Lang, M M Larue, T-T Le, K A Loftin, J N Lugo, J E Schmid, W M Winnik
The compound BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) has been postulated to play a significant role in four serious neurological human diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) found on Guam, and ALS, Parkinsonism, and dementia that occur globally. ALS/PDC with symptoms of all three diseases first came to the attention of the scientific community during and after World War II. It was initially associated with cycad flour used for food because BMAA is a product of symbiotic cycad root-dwelling cyanobacteria...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597709/philippine-academy-of-rehabilitation-medicine-emergency-basic-relief-and-medical-aid-mission-project-november-2013-february-2014-the-role-of-physiatrists-in-super-typhoon-haiyan
#15
Filipinas Ganchoon, Rommel Bugho, Liezel Calina, Rochelle Dy, James Gosney
BACKGROUND: Physiatrists have provided humanitarian assistance in recent large-scale global natural disasters. Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest and most costly typhoon in modern Philippine history, made landfall on 8 November 2013 resulting in significant humanitarian needs. METHODS: Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine physiatrists conducted a project of 23 emergency basic relief and medical aid missions in response to Super Typhoon Haiyan from November 2013 to February 2014...
June 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597398/determination-of-brain-regional-blood-perfusion-and-endogenous-cpkc%C3%AE-impact-on-ischemic-vulnerability-of-mice-with-global-ischemia
#16
Shuiqiao Liu, Qingqing Dai, Rongrong Hua, Ting Liu, Song Han, Shujuan Li, Junfa Li
Conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ participated in cerebral hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and affected the neurological outcome of ischemic stroked mice. As an independent predictor of ischemic stroke, the internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO)-caused brain-regional ischemic injury may worsen the neurological outcome of patients. However, the brain-regional ischemic vulnerability and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the bilateral ICAO (BICAO) model was applied in cPKCγ wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice to determine the cPKCγ impact on brain-regional ischemic vulnerability...
June 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595456/altered-brain-wiring-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-structural-connectome-based-analysis
#17
Apurva K Shah, Abhishek Lenka, Jitender Saini, Shivali Wagle, Rajini M Naduthota, Ravi Yadav, Pramod Pal, Madhura A Ingalhalikar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuro-degenerative disorder, which predominantly affects the motor system. Diffusion MRI has demonstrated deficits in anisotropy as well as increased diffusivity in the sub-cortical structures, primarily in the substantia nigra in PD. However, the clinical spectrum of PD is not limited to motor symptoms, rather it encompasses several non-motor symptoms such as depression, psychosis, olfactory dysfunction and cognitive impairment. These non-motor symptoms underscore PD as a complex neurological disorder arising from dysfunction of several network components...
June 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591484/safety-and-efficacy-of-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-in-hypothalamic-hamartomas-with-severe-epilepsies-a-prospective-trial-in-48-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Jean Régis, Medhi Lagmari, Romain Carron, Motohiro Hayashi, Aileen McGonigal, Géraldine Daquin, Nathalie Villeneuve, Virginie Laguitton, Fabrice Bartolomei, Patrick Chauvel
Epilepsies associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are frequently drug resistant with severe psychiatric and cognitive comorbidities. We performed a prospective trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). Between October 1999 and October 2007, a total of 57 patients were investigated, included and treated by GKS in Timone University Hospital. Preoperative workup and 3-year postoperative evaluation consisted of seizure diary, neuropsychological, psychiatric, endocrinologic, visual field, and visual acuity examinations...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591393/the-relationship-between-the-first-world-war-and-neurology-100-years-of-shell-shock
#19
José Luiz Pedroso, Stefanie C Linden, Orlando G Barsottini, Péricles Maranhão, Andrew J Lees
The First World War was a global war, beginning on 28 July 1914, until 11 November 1918. Soon after the beginning of the war, there was an "epidemic" of neurological conversion symptoms. Soldiers on both sides started to present in large numbers with neurological symptoms, such as dizziness, tremor, paraplegia, tinnitus, amnesia, weakness, headache and mutism of psychosomatic origin. This condition was known as shell shock, or "war neurosis". Because medically unexplained symptoms remain a major challenge, and considering the close relationship of symptoms described in shell shock with clinical neurology, we should study their history in order to improve future care...
May 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588297/targeted-patching-and-dendritic-ca-2-imaging-in-nonhuman-primate-brain-in-vivo
#20
Ran Ding, Xiang Liao, Jingcheng Li, Jianxiong Zhang, Meng Wang, Yu Guang, Han Qin, Xingyi Li, Kuan Zhang, Shanshan Liang, Jiangheng Guan, Jia Lou, Hongbo Jia, Bingbo Chen, Hui Shen, Xiaowei Chen
Nonhuman primates provide an important model not only for understanding human brain but also for translational research in neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, many high-resolution techniques for recording neural activity in vivo that were initially established for rodents have not been yet applied to the nonhuman primate brain. Here, we introduce a combination of two-photon targeted patching and dendritic Ca(2+) imaging to the neocortex of adult common marmoset, an invaluable primate model for neuroscience research...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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