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Global neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164774/task-related-changes-in-degree-centrality-and-local-coherence-of-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-after-major-cardiac-surgery-in-older-adults
#1
Jeffrey N Browndyke, Miles Berger, Patrick J Smith, Todd B Harshbarger, Zachary A Monge, Viral Panchal, Tiffany L Bisanar, Donald D Glower, John H Alexander, Roberto Cabeza, Kathleen Welsh-Bohmer, Mark F Newman, Joseph P Mathew
OBJECTIVES: Older adults often display postoperative cognitive decline (POCD) after surgery, yet it is unclear to what extent functional connectivity (FC) alterations may underlie these deficits. We examined for postoperative voxel-wise FC changes in response to increased working memory load demands in cardiac surgery patients and nonsurgical controls. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Older cardiac surgery patients (n = 25) completed a verbal N-back working memory task during MRI scanning and cognitive testing before and 6 weeks after surgery; nonsurgical controls with cardiac disease (n = 26) underwent these assessments at identical time intervals...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163052/the-thymus-neocortex-hypothesis-of-the-brain-a-cell-basis-for-recognition-and-instruction-of-self
#2
Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Florence Faure
The recognition of internal and external sources of stimuli, the self from non-self, seems to be an intrinsic property to the adequate functioning of the immune system and the nervous system, both complex network systems that have evolved to safeguard the self biological identity of the organism. The mammalian brain development relies on dynamic and adaptive processes that are now well described. However, the rules dictating this highly constrained developmental process remain elusive. Here we hypothesize that there is a cellular basis for brain selfhood, based on the analogy of the global mechanisms that drive the self/non-self recognition and instruction by the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162126/targeting-the-master-regulator-mtor-a-new-approach-to-prevent-the-neurological-of-consequences-of-parasitic-infections
#3
REVIEW
Sheila Donnelly, Wilhelmina M Huston, Michael Johnson, Natalia Tiberti, Bernadette Saunders, Bronwyn O'Brien, Catherine Burke, Maurizio Labbate, Valery Combes
A systematic analysis of 240 causes of death in 2013 revealed that parasitic diseases were responsible for more than one million deaths. The vast majority of these fatalities resulted from protozoan infections presenting with neurological sequelae. In the absence of a vaccine, development of effective therapies is essential to improving global public health. In 2015, an intriguing strategy to prevent cerebral malaria was proposed by Gordon et al. 2015 mBio, 6:e00625. Their study suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin prevented experimental cerebral malaria by blocking the damage to the blood brain barrier and stopping the accumulation of parasitized red blood cells and T cells in the brain...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155976/description-of-a-mass-poisoning-in-a-rural-district-in-mozambique-the-first-documented-bongkrekic-acid-poisoning-in-africa
#4
Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kyla Cook, Amelia M Kasper, Alfredo Vergara, Cristolde Salomão, Fernanda Oliveira, Hamida Ismael, Cristovão Saeze, Carla Mosse, Quinhas Fernandes, Sofia Omar Viegas, Cynthia S Baltazar, Timothy J Doyle, Ellen Yard, Alaina Steck, Mayda Serret, Travis M Falconer, Sara E Kern, Jennifer L Brzezinski, James A Turner, Brian L Boyd, Ilesh V Jani
Background: On January 9, 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, over 230 people became sick and 75 died from an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage. Methods: An investigation was conducted to identify cases and determine the cause of the outbreak. A case was defined as any resident of Chitima who developed any new or unexplained neurologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular symptom from January 9 at 6:00 a.m. through January 12. We conducted medical record reviews; healthcare worker and community surveys; anthropological and toxicological investigations of local medicinal plants and commercial pesticides; and laboratory testing of the suspect and control pombe...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154038/dna-damage-and-neurodegenerative-phenotypes-in-aged-ciz1-null-mice
#5
Mohammad Moshahid Khan, Jianfeng Xiao, Damini Patel, Mark S LeDoux
Cell-cycle dysfunction and faulty DNA repair are closely intertwined pathobiological processes that may contribute to several neurodegenerative disorders. CDKN1A interacting zinc finger protein 1 (CIZ1) plays a critical role in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression at the G1/S checkpoint. Germline or somatic variants in CIZ1 have been linked to several neural and extra-neural diseases. Recently, we showed that germline knockout of Ciz1 is associated with motor and hematological abnormalities in young adult mice...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150900/genetic-overlap-between-epilepsy-and-schizophrenia-evidence-from-cross-phenotype-analysis-in-hong-kong-chinese-population
#6
Hongsheng Gui, Miaoxin Li, Pak C Sham, Larry Baum, Patrick Kwan, Stacey S Cherny
Epilepsy and schizophrenia are common and typical neurological or mental illness respectively, and sometimes they comorbid in the same patients, however the underlying genetic relationship between the two brain diseases is still not fully understood. To investigate the possible genetic contribution to their comorbidity, we performed polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses and genetic correlation estimation so as to identify the overall genetic overlap between the two diseases. The global schizophrenia PRS is strongly associated with schizophrenia phenotype in Hong Kong population (odds ratio = 1...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138801/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-influences-the-erk-pathway-and-protects-against-neurological-deficits-and-neuronal-death
#7
Jie Yuan, Xin Guo, Zhengang Liu, Xiuqin Zhao, Yan Feng, Sixin Song, Changmeng Cui, Pei Jiang
Previous studies have demonstrated that global cerebral ischemia (GCI) causes neurological deficits and neuronal cell apoptosis. Calcitriol, a biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its endocrinological influence via nuclear vitamin D receptor. It is being assessed as an emerging therapeutic strategy in models of various medical conditions, including acute brain injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol on GCI and further refine the potential underlying mechanisms...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138569/post-marketing-observational-program-of-the-effectiveness-of-fluvoxamine-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-patients-with-neurological-disorders-the-friends-study
#8
Nikolay N Yahno, Anastasia V Fedotova
In a prospective, non-blinded, uncontrolled, multicenter, post-marketing, observational study (FRIENDS; NCT02043197), fluvoxamine (50-300 mg/day for 90 days) was effective for the treatment of depression in 299 adult patients (age ≥18 years) with neurological disorders at baseline. The therapeutic effect of fluvoxamine was measured by means of changes in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression and anxiety scores (HADS-D and HADS-A, respectively), global severity of illness, and clinical condition (measured using the Clinical Global Improvement [CGI] scale)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135783/beyond-the-bottom-of-the-foot-topographic-organization-of-the-foot-dorsum-in-walking
#9
Taryn Klarner, Gregory E P Pearcey, Yao Sun, Trevor S Barss, Chelsea Kaupp, Bridget Munro, Nick Frank, E Paul Zehr
INTRODUCTION: Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. METHODS: Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking...
December 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#10
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123915/global-cerebral-ischemia-with-subsequent-respiratory-arrest-in-a-cat-after-repeated-use-of-a-spring-loaded-mouth-gag
#11
Emily A Hartman, Robert J McCarthy, Mary A Labato
Case summary: A 10-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of signs of stertorous breathing and reverse sneezing of 8 months' duration. A CT scan performed 1 week before evaluation indicated nasopharyngeal stenosis or collapse. Increased respiratory effort, stertorous breathing, coughing, reverse sneezing, bilateral black ocular discharge and mucoid left nasal discharge were noted. Rhinoscopy suggested possible nasopharyngeal stenosis. Balloon dilation was attempted but unsuccessful...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122608/thioredoxin-albumin-fusion-protein-prevents-copper-enhanced-zinc-induced-neurotoxicity-via-its-antioxidative-activity
#12
Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Mikako Shimoda, Victor T G Chuang, Kento Nishida, Masahiro Kawahara, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama, Yu Ishima
Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119462/syncope-in-pediatric-practice
#13
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Syncope is defined as a sudden, self-limited loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous and complete recovery without any neurological sequelae. It is one of the most common paroxysmal disorders in children and adolescents. The three major causes of syncope in children are neural, cardiovascular and other non-cardiovascular causes. The common unifying mechanism is transient global hypoperfusion of the brain. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and objective laboratory investigations add little to the diagnosis in children especially in neurocardiogenic subtype...
November 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118210/illuminating-neural-circuits-from-molecules-to-mri
#14
Jin Hyung Lee, Anatol C Kreitzer, Annabelle C Singer, Nicholas D Schiff
Neurological disease drives symptoms through pathological changes to circuit functions. Therefore, understanding circuit mechanisms that drive behavioral dysfunction is of critical importance for quantitative diagnosis and systematic treatment of neurological disease. Here, we describe key technologies that enable measurement and manipulation of neural activity and neural circuits. Applying these approaches led to the discovery of circuit mechanisms underlying pathological motor behavior, arousal regulation, and protein accumulation...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117195/biological-and-phylogenetic-characteristics-of-west-african-lineages-of-west-nile-virus
#15
Gamou Fall, Nicholas Di Paola, Martin Faye, Moussa Dia, Caio César de Melo Freire, Cheikh Loucoubar, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114077/the-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-traf6-exacerbates-ischemic-stroke-by-ubiquitinating-and-activating-rac1
#16
Tao Li, Juan-Juan Qin, Xia Yang, Yan-Xiao Ji, Fangliang Guo, Wen-Lin Cheng, Xiaolin Wu, Fu-Han Gong, Ying Hong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Jun Gong, Zhihua Wang, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and excitotoxicity contribute to neuronal death during ischemic stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying these complicated pathophysiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we found that the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was markedly increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice. TRAF6 ablation in male mice decreased the infarct volume and neurological deficit scores, and decreased pro-inflammatory signaling, oxidative stress and neuronal death after cerebral I/R, whereas transgenic overexpression of TRAF6 in male mice exhibited opposite effects...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102527/functional-assessment-of-a-series-of-paediatric-patients-receiving-neurointensive-treatment-new-functional-status-scale
#17
P Madurga-Revilla, J López-Pisón, P Samper-Villagrasa, R Garcés-Gómez, J P García-Íñiguez, M Domínguez-Cajal, I Gil-Hernández, S Viscor-Zárate
INTRODUCTION: Functional health, a reliable parameter of the impact of disease, should be used systematically to assess prognosis in paediatric intensive care units (PICU). Developing scales for the assessment of functional health is therefore essential. The Paediatric Overall and Cerebral Performance Category (POPC, PCPC) scales have traditionally been used in paediatric studies. The new Functional Status Scale (FSS) was designed to provide more objective results. This study aims to confirm the validity of the FSS compared to the classic POPC and PCPC scales, and to evaluate whether it may also be superior to the latter in assessing of neurological function...
November 1, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100095/mutations-in-gpaa1-encoding-a-gpi-transamidase-complex-protein-cause-developmental-delay-epilepsy-cerebellar-atrophy-and-osteopenia
#18
Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, Yoshiko Murakami, Eamonn Sheridan, Sophie Ehresmann, Justine Rousseau, Anik St-Denis, Guoliang Chai, Norbert F Ajeawung, Laura Fairbrother, Tyler Reimschisel, Alexandra Bateman, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Fan Xia, Jessica Tardif, David A Parry, Clare V Logan, Christine Diggle, Christopher P Bennett, Louise Hattingh, Jill A Rosenfeld, Michael Scott Perry, Michael J Parker, Françoise Le Deist, Maha S Zaki, Erika Ignatius, Pirjo Isohanni, Tuula Lönnqvist, Christopher J Carroll, Colin A Johnson, Joseph G Gleeson, Taroh Kinoshita, Philippe M Campeau
Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively)...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097988/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-can-induce-angiogenesis-and-regeneration-of-nerve-fibers-in-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#19
Sigal Tal, Amir Hadanny, Efrat Sasson, Gil Suzin, Shai Efrati
Background: Recent clinical studies in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) victims suffering chronic neurological injury present evidence that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) can induce neuroplasticity. Objective: To assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBOT on prolonged post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) due to TBI, using brain microstructure imaging. Methods: Fifteen patients afflicted with PPCS were treated with 60 daily HBOT sessions. Imaging evaluation was performed using Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast-Enhanced (DSC) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) MR sequences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097068/evaluation-of-cognitive-function-following-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#20
Masieh Abawi, Rehana de Vries, Pieter R Stella, Pierfrancesco Agostoni, Dirk H M Boelens, Romy C van Jaarsveld, Charlotte S van Dongen, Pieter A F M Doevendans, Mariëlle H Emmelot-Vonk
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with procedural-related neurological events and acute cognitive decline. However, data on the effect of TAVR on mid-term cognitive outcome are scarce. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of TAVR on mid-term cognitive outcome using different neurocognitive test batteries. METHODS: Patients with severe aortic valve stenosis scheduled for TAVR were enrolled. Cognitive assessment was performed at baseline and 4 months post-TAVR using an eight-word verbal-learning test ("Immediate Recall Memory Test" [IRMT], "Delayed Recall Memory Test" [DRMT], "Recognition of Verbal Information Test" [RVIT]), global cognitive function ("Mini Mental State Examination" [MMSE]), and executive function ("Trail Making Test" [TMT], "Clock-Drawing Test" [CDT])...
October 20, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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