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Yi Liu, Qiang Liu, Jixiang Li, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Jiajun Hu, Min-Tian Gao, Qiyuan Wang, Yuansheng Hou
This study aims to investigate the usefulness of magnetic powder addition in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for membrane fouling mitigation and its effect on microbial community and composition. The comparison between the two MBRs (one with magnetic powder (MAS-MBR) and one without magnetic powder (C-MBR)) was carried out to treat synthetic municipal wastewater. Results showed that bioflocculation and adsorption of magnetic powder contributed only minimally to membrane fouling mitigation while the slower fouling rate might be ascribed to magnetic bio-effect...
October 10, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Alexander Williams, Sana Nasim, Manuel Salinas, Arash Moshkforoush, Nikolaos Tsoukias, Sharan Ramaswamy
Fluid-induced shear stresses are involved in the development of cardiovascular tissues. In a tissue engineering framework, this stimulus has also been considered as a mechanical regulator of stem cell differentiation. We recently demonstrated that the fluid-oscillating effect in combination with a physiologically-relevant shear stress magnitude contributes to the formation of stem cell-derived de novo heart valve tissues. However, the range of oscillations necessary to induce favorable gene expression and engineered tissue formation is unknown...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Lucia Tamborini, Pedro Fernandes, Francesca Paradisi, Francesco Molinari
Biocatalysis has widened its scope and relevance since new molecular tools, including improved expression systems for proteins, protein and metabolic engineering, and rational techniques for immobilization, have become available. However, applications are still sometimes hampered by low productivity and difficulties in scaling up. A practical and reasonable step to improve the performances of biocatalysts (including both enzymes and whole-cell systems) is to use them in flow reactors. This review describes the state of the art on the design and use of biocatalysis in flow reactors...
October 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
Lei Zhang, Satoshi Okabe
Despite that anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are key players in the global nitrogen cycle, no pure cultures are still available. Planktonic cell culture with high purity is, therefore, essential for physiological and biochemical studies of anammox bacteria. However, development of such planktonic cell cultures requires an enormous amount of time and effort. Here we developed a novel rapid method for cultivating free-living planktonic anammox cells. First, anammox granules were physically dispersed, immobilized in 6% polyvinyl alcohol-4% sodium alginate (PVA-SA) gel beads, and then pre-cultured in an up-flow column reactor...
October 15, 2017: Water Research
Erming Ouyang, Yao Lu, Jiating Ouyang, Lele Wang, Xiaohui Wang
Gibberellin wastewater cannot be directly discharged without treatment due to its high concentrations of sulfate and organic compounds and strong acidity. Therefore, multi-stage anaerobic bioreactor + micro-aerobic+ anoxic/aeration (A/O) + biological contact oxidation combined processes are used to treat gibberellin wastewater. However, knowledge of the treatment effects of the A/O process and bacterial community structure in the aeration tank reactors of such systems is sparse. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the treatment effects and operation of the A/O process on gibberellin wastewater, as well as changes in the bacterial community structure of activated sludge in the aeration tank during treatment...
2017: PloS One
Elisabetta Rosellini, Yu Shrike Zhang, Bianca Migliori, Niccoletta Barbani, Luigi Lazzeri, Su Ryon Shin, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Maria Grazia Cascone
Tissue engineering has emerged as a viable approach to treat disease or repair damage in tissues and organs. One of the key elements for the success of tissue engineering is the use of a scaffold serving as artificial extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM hosts the cells and improves their survival, proliferation, and differentiation, enabling the formation of new tissue. Here, we propose the development of a class of protein/polysaccharide-based porous scaffolds for use as ECM substitutes in cardiac tissue engineering...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
I Lamas-Toranzo, J Guerrero-Sánchez, H Miralles-Bover, G Alegre-Cid, E Pericuesta, P Bermejo-Álvarez
Genome modification at specific loci in livestock species was only achievable by performing homologous recombination in somatic cells followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The difficulty and inefficiency of this method have slowed down the multiple applications of genome modification in farm animals. The discovery of site-specific endonucleases has provided a different and more direct route for targeted mutagenesis, as these enzymes allow the ablation (KO) or insertion (KI) of specific genomic sequences on a single step, directly applied to zygotes...
October 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Marcus J Goudie, Jitendra Pant, Hitesh Handa
Recent reports on liquid-infused materials have shown promise in creating ultra-low fouling surfaces, but are limited in their ability to prevent bacterial proliferation and prevent platelet activation in blood-contacting applications. In this work, a liquid-infused nitric oxide-releasing (LINORel) material is created by incorporating the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and silicone oil in commercial medical grade silicone rubber tubing through a solvent swelling process. This combination provides several key advantages over previous NO-releasing materials, including decreased leaching of NO donor, controlled release of NO, and maintenance of ultra-low fouling property of liquid-infused materials...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrey V Mardanov, Alexey V Beletsky, Yury Nikolaev, Roman Y Kotlyarov, Anna Kallistova, Nikolai V Pimenov, Nikolai V Ravin
We sequenced the metagenome of a granular sludge in a nitritation/anammox bioreactor used for the treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater. Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Ignavibacteriae, and Acidobacteria were the predominant phyla in the studied bioreactor. Binning of contigs yielded a near-complete genome of the dominant anammox bacterium assigned to the candidate genus Brocadia.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
Bin Zhao, Liya Zhou, Li Ma, Ying He, Jing Gao, Dan Li, Yanjun Jiang
In this work, glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on novel silica inverse opals (IO-SiO2) through sol-gel process. The immobilized bi-enzyme system named GOD/CAT@IO-SiO2 was successfully fabricated and characterized. Morphology characterization indicated that GOD/CAT@IO-SiO2 had hierarchical porous structure, and the pore diameter of macroporous and mesoporous were 500±50nm and 6.8nm, respectively. The macrospores were connected through windows of 100±30nm. The results of stability tests indicated that both acid (or base) resistance and thermal tolerance of GOD/CAT@IO-SiO2 were improved...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mengmeng Xu, Jingbo Zhao, Le Yu, Shang-Tian Yang
Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 is a hyper butanol tolerant and producing strain obtained from asporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 through mutagenesis and adaptation in a fibrous bed bioreactor. The complete genomes of both strains were sequenced by the Illumina Hiseq2000 technology and assembled using SOAPdenovo approach. Compared to the genomic sequence of the type strain ATCC 824, 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17 insertion/deletion variations (InDels) were identified in the genome of ATCC 55025...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Xue Li, Jingyu Tang, Luhan Bao, Lin Chen, Feng F Hong
In order to improve property of bacterial nano-cellulose (BNC) to achieve the requirements of clinical application as small caliber vascular grafts, chitosan (CH) was deposited into the fibril network of the BNC tubes fabricated in unique Double-Silicone-Tube bioreactors. Heparin (Hep) was then chemically grafted into the BNC-based tubes using EDC/NHS crosslinking to improve performance of anticoagulation and endothelialization. Physicochemical and mechanical property, blood compatibility, and cytocompatibility were compared before and after compositing...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Manisha Lamba, Shaikh Ziauddin Ahammad
Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in developing countries is posing a greater health risk and increasing the global disease burden. AR proliferation mediated by treated/untreated discharges from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is a prime public health concern. Efficient sewage treatment is among our key defenses against the dissemination of infectious diseases. The present study aims to estimate the efficiency of aerobic [activated sludge process (ASP) and modified trickling filter (MTF)] and anaerobic reactors (anaerobic flow-through reactor) along with the three disinfection techniques (UV, ozone and chlorination) in reducing ARB and ARGs present in the domestic sewage...
October 12, 2017: Water Research
Xiaojing Jia, Xiaowei Peng, Ying Liu, Yejun Han
BACKGROUND: Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), the precursor of biofuel 2,3-butanediol, is an important bio-based platform chemical with wide applications. Fermenting the low-cost and renewable plant biomass is undoubtedly a promising strategy for acetoin production. Isothermal simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is regarded as an efficient method for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass, in which the temperature optima fitting for both lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and microbial strains...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jianglin Fan, Yajie Chen, Haizhao Yan, Manabu Niimi, Yanli Wang, Jingyan Liang
Rabbits are one of the most used experimental animals for biomedical research, particularly as a bioreactor for the production of antibodies. However, many unique features of the rabbit have also made it as an excellent species for examining a number of aspects of human diseases such as atherosclerosis. Rabbits are phylogenetically closer to humans than rodents, in addition to their relatively proper size, tame disposition, and ease of use and maintenance in the laboratory facility. Due to their short life spans, short gestation periods, high numbers of progeny, low cost (compared with other large animals) and availability of genomics and proteomics, rabbits usually serve to bridge the gap between smaller rodents (mice and rats) and larger animals, such as dogs, pigs and monkeys, and play an important role in many translational research activities such as pre-clinical testing of drugs and diagnostic methods for patients...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Emanuel Y C Ron, Merichel Plaza, Thordis Kristjansdottir, Roya R R Sardari, Snaedis H Bjornsdottir, Steinn Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson, Charlotta Turner, Ed W J van Niel, Eva Nordberg-Karlsson
Rhodothermus marinus, a marine aerobic thermophile, was first isolated from an intertidal hot spring in Iceland. In recent years, the R. marinus strain PRI 493 has been genetically modified, which opens up possibilities for targeted metabolic engineering of the species, such as of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the carotenoids of the R. marinus type-strain DSM 4252(T) , strain DSM 4253, and strain PRI 493 were characterized. Bioreactor cultivations were used for pressurized liquid extraction and analyzed by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography with diode array and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (UHPSFC-DAD-QTOF/MS)...
October 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
Xiaoxu Zhang, Yanyun Gao, Ying Yin, Menghao Cai, Xiangshan Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang
Light is an important environmental signal for many organisms. The light response reports of fungi usually focus on blue light and red light. Although the green light sensor has also been found in several fungi, the knowledge of the green light response in fungi is very limited. Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) is a light-sensitive endophytic fungus of mangrove leaf. In this study, we explored the specific effects of monochromatic blue light, red light, and green light on polyketides biosynthesis in Halorosellinia sp...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
A Marturano-Kruik, A Villasante, K Yaeger, S R Ambati, A Chramiec, M T Raimondi, G Vunjak-Novakovic
Predictive testing of anticancer drugs remains a challenge. Bioengineered systems, designed to mimic key aspects of the human tumor microenvironment, are now improving our understanding of cancer biology and facilitating clinical translation. We show that mechanical signals have major effects on cancer drug sensitivity, using a bioengineered model of human bone sarcoma. Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells were studied within a three-dimensional (3D) matrix in a bioreactor providing mechanical loadings. Mimicking bone-like mechanical signals within the 3D model, we rescued the ERK1/2-RUNX2 signaling pathways leading to drug resistance...
October 10, 2017: Biomaterials
Ping Wang, Zhisheng Yu, Jihong Zhao, Hongxun Zhang
Microbial communities of sludge samples from a full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) fed with primary sludge (PS) and excess sludge (ES) were analyzed using qPCR and MiSeq. The results showed that the microbial composition of digested sludge remained relatively stable but was partially changed by microbial immigration from feeding sludge. The dominant archaea in the digested sludge were largely the same as those in the feeding sludge, but their abundances differed markedly. The dominant fungal genera in the digested sludge were different from those in PS but were similar to those in ES...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Wenhai Luo, Ming Xie, Xiaoye Song, Wenshan Guo, Hao H Ngo, John L Zhou, Long D Nghiem
In this study, we investigated the performance of an osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) enabled by a novel biomimetic aquaporin forward osmosis (FO) membrane. Membrane performance and removal of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) were examined. Results show that the aquaporin FO membrane had better transport properties in comparison with conventional cellulose triacetate and polyamide thin-film composite FO membranes. In particular, the aquaporin FO membrane exhibited much lower salt permeability and thus smaller reverse salt flux, resulting in a less severe salinity build-up in the bioreactor during OMBR operation...
September 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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