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Infectious disease in hospital

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036988/-characteristics-of-molecular-typing-and-drug-resistance-of-67-salmonella-paratyphi-a-isolated-in-zhengzhou-from-2013-to-2015
#1
J Y Zhao, S Y Zhang, B F Zhang, Y J Mu, J Su, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of S.paratyphi A strains in Zhengzhou city isolated from sentinel hospitals in 2013-2015. Methods: According to Salmonella molecular typing and K-B drug susceptibility testing method published by international PulseNet bacterial infectious disease monitoring network and USA Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI2015), we analyzed drug sensitivity and PFGE molecular characteristics of 67 S.paratyphi A strains(11 strains in 2013, 7 strains in 2014, 49 strains in 2015) isolated from blood and stool samples in two sentinel hospitals of fever with rash syndrome surveillance system established in Zhengzhou city in 2013-2015...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036505/increased-mortality-in-haemodialysis-patients-administered-high-doses-of-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#2
Rafael Pérez-García, Javier Varas, Alejandro Cives, Alejandro Martín-Malo, Pedro Aljama, Rosa Ramos, Julio Pascual, Stefano Stuard, Bernard Canaud, José Ignacio Merello
Background: Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. The issue of ESA safety has been raised in multiple studies, with correlates derived for elevated cancer incidence and mortality. Whether these associations are related to ESA dose or the typology of the patient remains obscure. Methods: A multicentre, observational retrospective propensity score-matched study was designed to analyse the effects of weekly ESA dose in 1679 incident haemodialysis (HD) patients...
September 28, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035157/evaluation-of-serum-levels-of-c3-and-c4-complement-factors-in-patients-with-beta-thalassemia-major-in-khuzestan-province-southwest-iran
#3
Mehri Ghafourian, Mehrnosh Esmaeili, Alireza Sadeghi, Ali Malekei Naseri, Nader Dashti-Gerdabi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thalassemia syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in the world and infection is the second cause of death in these patients. Measurement of serum C3 and C4 complement factors in serum was done in 60 patients with beta-thalassemia major in comparison with 30 healthy subjects as control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The serum level of C3 and C4 complement factors in 60 patients with beta-thalassemia major who were randomly selected from among the patients referred to Shafa Hospital of Ahvaz was evaluated and compared with 30 samples from healthy individuals with no history of recent infectious or autoimmune diseases...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027888/same-hospital-re-admission-rate-is-not-reliable-for-measuring-post-operative-infection-related-re-admission
#4
Rishi Rattan, Joshua Parreco, Tanya L Zakrison, D Dante Yeh, Howard M Lieberman, Nicholas Namias
BACKGROUND: Post-operative infections cause morbidity, consume resources, and are an important quality measure in assessing and comparing hospitals. Commonly used metrics do not account for re-admission to a different hospital. The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) tracks re-admissions across United States (US) hospitals. Infection-related re-admission across US hospitals has not been studied previously. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The 2013 NRD was queried for admissions with a primary International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 9th revision, Clinical Modification code for the most frequently performed operations...
October 13, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023361/procalcitonin-and-mr-proadrenomedullin-combination-with-sofa-and-qsofa-scores-for-sepsis-diagnosis-and-prognosis-a-diagnostic-algorithm
#5
Silvia Spoto, Eleonora Cella, Marina de Cesaris, Luciana Locorriere, Silvia Mazzaroppi, Edoardo Nobile, Arcangela M Lanotte, Lucia Pedicino, Marta Fogolari, Sebastiano Costantino, Giordano Dicuonzo, Massimo Ciccozzi, Silvia Angeletti
PURPOSE: The third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as an organ dysfunction consequent to infection. A SOFA score ≥2 identifies sepsis. In this study, PCT and MR-proADM were evaluated along with SOFA and qSOFA scores in patients with sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: One hundred and nine septic patients and 50 patients with non-infectious disease admitted at the Department of Internal Medicine and General Surgery of the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome were enrolled...
October 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021518/the-lethal-spanish-influenza-pandemic-in-poland
#6
Marek L Grabowski, Bożena Kosińska, Józef P Knap, Lidia B Brydak
The Spanish influenza pandemic in the years 1918-1920 was the largest and most tragic pandemic of infectious disease in human history. Deciphering the structure of the virus (including the determination of complete genome sequence) of this pandemic and the phylogenetic analysis and explanation of its virulence became possible thanks to molecular genetic analysis of the virus isolated from the fixed and frozen lung tissue of influenza victims who died in 1918 and were buried frozen in Alaska and Spitsbergen...
October 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020436/short-course-versus-long-course-intravenous-therapy-with-the-same-antibiotic-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-aged-two-months-to-59-months
#7
REVIEW
Zohra S Lassi, Aamer Imdad, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of childhood mortality from infectious disease, responsible for an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually in children under five years of age, many of which are in low-income countries. The World Health Organization recommends intravenous antibiotics for five days as first-line treatment for children with severe pneumonia. Although controversy exists regarding the specific clinical features used to diagnose pneumonia, the criteria for diagnosis of severe pneumonia are better defined and are widely used to triage children for referral and second-line therapy...
October 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#8
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study Gram-negative rods (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during six months post-HSCT (February/2014-May/2015) were prospectively collected, and analysed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, non-carbapenem anti-Pseudomonas beta-lactams (non-carbapenems), carbapenems and multidrug-resistance (MDR). Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries (Europe, Australia, Asia) reported data on 655 GNR episodes/704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; non-fermentatives, 24% and 3% others)...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020334/lumbar-puncture-performed-promptly-or-after-neuroimaging-in-adult-bacterial-meningitis-a-prospective-national-cohort-study-evaluating-different-guidelines
#9
Martin Glimåker, Jan Sjölin, Styrbjörn Åkesson, Pontus Naucler
Background: Early treatment is pivotal for favourable outcome in acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Lumbar puncture (LP) is the diagnostic key. The aim was to evaluate the effect on outcome of adherence to European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and Swedish guidelines regarding neuroimaging before LP. Methods: The cohort comprised 815 adult ABM patients in Sweden registered prospectively between 2008-2015...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020328/early-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-improves-survival-in-severe-clostridium-difficile-infections
#10
Marie Hocquart, Jean Christophe Lagier, Nadim Cassir, Nadia Saidani, Carole Eldin, Jad Kerbaj, Marion Delord, Camille Valles, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Matthieu Million
Background: Severe Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are associated with a high mortality rate despite medical and/or surgical treatment. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) prevents recurrences, but its effect on survival has been shown only in O27 ribotype CDI patients. Here, we investigated whether early FMT could improve survival in hospitalized CDI patients, particularly those with severe infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study between May 2013 and April 2016 at the infectious diseases department of the North University Hospital of Marseille, France...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020290/implementing-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-long-term-care-settings-an-integrative-review-using-a-human-factors-approach
#11
Morgan J Katz, Ayse P Gurses, Pranita D Tamma, Sara E Cosgrove, Melissa A Miller, Robin L P Jump
Implementing effective antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is associated with challenges distinct from those faced by hospitals. LTCFs generally care for elderly populations who are vulnerable to infection, have prescribers who are often off-site, and have limited access to timely diagnostic testing. Identification of feasible interventions in LTCFs is important, particularly given the new requirement for stewardship programs by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020250/empiric-therapy-with-carbapenem-sparing-regimens-for-bloodstream-infections-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-results-from-the-increment-cohort
#12
Zaira Raquel Palacios-Baena, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Esther Calbo, Benito Almirante, Pierluigi Viale, Antonio Oliver, Vicente Pintado, Oriol Gasch, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Johann Pitout, Murat Akova, Carmen Peña, José Molina Gil-Bermejo, Alicia Hernández, Mario Venditti, Nuria Prim, German Bou, Evelina Tacconelli, Mario Tumbarello, Axel Hamprecht, Helen Giamarellou, Manel Almela, Federico Pérez, Mitchell J Schwaber, Joaquín Bermejo, Warren Lowman, Po-Ren Hsueh, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Maria Souli, Robert A Bonomo, Yehuda Carmeli, David L Paterson, Álvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
Background: There is little information about the efficacy of active alternative drugs to carbapenems except β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors for the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E). The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of patients with BSI due to ESBL-E who received empiric therapy with such drugs (other active drugs [OADs]) or carbapenems. Methods: A multinational retrospective cohort study of patients with BSI due to ESBL-E who received empiric treatment with OADs or carbapenems was performed...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020181/a-healthcare-improvement-intervention-combining-nucleic-acid-microarray-testing-with-direct-physician-response-for-management-of-staphyloccocus-aureus-bacteremia
#13
Joshua C Eby, Morgan M Richey, James A Platts-Mills, Amy J Mathers, Wendy M Novicoff, Heather L Cox
Background: Nucleic acid microarray (NAM) testing for detection of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and S. aureus resistance gene determinants can reduce time to targeted antibiotic administration. Evidence-based management of SAB includes bedside Infectious Diseases (ID) consultation. As a healthcare improvement initiative at our institution, with the goal of improving management and outcomes for subjects with SAB, we implemented NAM with a process for responding to positive NAM results by directly triggered, mandatory ID consultation...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020143/anti-infective-acquisition-costs-for-a-stewardship-program-getting-to-the-bottom-line
#14
Sarah K Parker, Amanda L Hurst, Cary Thurm, Matthew Millard, Timothy C Jenkins, Jason Child, Casey Dugan
Background: Though antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are in place for patient safety, financial justification is often required. In 2016, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommended that anti-infective costs be measured by patient-level administration data normalized for patient census. Few publications use this methodology. Here, we aim to compare 3 methods of drug cost analysis during 3 phases of an ASP as an example of this recommendation's implementation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018215/impact-of-infectious-disease-consultation-on-clinical-management-and-outcome-of-patients-with-bloodstream-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#15
Guangmin Tang, Liang Huang, Zhiyong Zong
The impact of consultation by infectious diseases (ID) physicians on management and outcomes of patients has not been determined in China. We assembled a retrospective cohort of 995 consecutive adult cases with bloodstream infections (BSI) in a major teaching hospital in China. Survival analysis was performed with Cox regression and the Kaplan-Meier curves. Among the 995 patients with BSI, 421 (42.3%) received consultation by ID physicians and 574 (57.7%) did not. ID consultation led to a significant lower hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017671/could-red-cell-distribution-width-be-a-marker-of-thyroid-cancer
#16
Gulali Aktas, Mustafa Sit, Ibrahim Karagoz, Edip Erkus, Bahri Ozer, Mehmet Zahid Kocak, Semih Yaman, Fatih Keyif, Rabia Altinordu, Hayri Erkol, Haluk Savli
OBJECTIVE: To study red cell distribution width (RDW) values, a novel inflammatory marker in routine hemogram, of patients with benign or malignant thyroid nodules and to compare with healthy population. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Abant Izzet Baysal University Hospital, Bolu, Turkey, from November 2015 and February 2017. METHODOLOGY: The hemogram values of patients undergone thyroid surgery for thyroid nodule between November 2015 and February 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, and compared to those in healthy subjects...
September 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016791/socioeconomic-status-and-infectious-intestinal-disease-in-the-community-a-longitudinal-study-iid2-study
#17
Natalie L Adams, Tanith C Rose, Jeremy Hawker, Mara Violato, Sarah J O'Brien, Margaret Whitehead, Benjamin Barr, David C Taylor-Robinson
Background: Infectious intestinal diseases (IID) are common, affecting around 25% of people in UK each year at an estimated annual cost to the economy, individuals and the NHS of £1.5 billion. While there is evidence of higher IID hospital admissions in more disadvantaged groups, the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of IID remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the relationship between SES and IID in a large community cohort. Methods: Longitudinal analysis of a prospective community cohort in the UK following 6836 participants of all ages was undertaken...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016319/clinical-epidemiology-of-septic-arthritis-caused-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-in-northeast-thailand
#18
Prapit Teparrukkul, Jiraphorn Nilsakul, Susanna Dunachie, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Septic arthritis is a medical emergency, and if not treated appropriately, it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Melioidosis, a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is highly endemic in South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia. We reviewed the medical charts of adult patients admitted with bacterial septic arthritis at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from January 2012 to December 2014. Bacterial septic arthritis was defined as one or more hot swollen joints with isolation of a pathogenic organism from an affected joint or from blood...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994741/assessment-of-the-public-health-risks-and-impact-of-a-tornado-in-funing-china-23-june-2016-a-retrospective-analysis
#19
Kaiwen Wang, Shuang Zhong, Xiaoye Wang, Zhe Wang, Lianping Yang, Qiong Wang, Suhan Wang, Rongrong Sheng, Rui Ma, Shao Lin, Wenyu Liu, Rongqiang Zu, Cunrui Huang
(1) Background: Tornadoes are one of the deadliest disasters but their health impacts in China are poorly investigated. This study aimed to assess the public health risks and impact of an EF-4 tornado outbreak in Funing, China; (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis on the characteristics of tornado-related deaths and injuries was conducted based on the database from the Funing's Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Funing People's Hospital. A change-point time-series analysis of weekly incidence for the period January 2010 to September 2016 was used to identify sensitive infectious diseases to the tornado; (3) Results: The 75 to 84 years old group was at the highest risk of both death (RR = 82...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994617/an-interim-examination-of-the-us-public-health-response-to-ebola
#20
Katherine Schemm Dwyer, Heather Misner, Sara Chang, Neyling Fajardo
From the summer of 2014 to the spring of 2016, the United States was involved in the Ebola response on both the national and international levels. The United States received 2 imported cases from West Africa and had 2 locally hospital-acquired cases, which spurred a massive and unprecedented public health response. As the domestic response stabilized and the epidemic in West Africa slowed, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), led an in-progress review to assess the national public health response to Ebola...
October 10, 2017: Health Security
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