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Pain and Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225715/the-role-of-cgrp-in-peripheral-and-central-pain-mechanisms-including-migraine
#1
Smriti Iyengar, Michael H Ossipov, Kirk W Johnson
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. CGRP was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently. Growing evidence indicates that CGRP plays a key role in the development of peripheral sensitization and the associated enhanced pain...
December 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224704/advanced-glycation-end-products-regulate-anabolic-and-catabolic-activities-via-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-human-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#2
Yu Song, Yan Wang, Yukun Zhang, Wen Geng, Wei Liu, Yong Gao, Shuai Li, Kun Wang, Xinghuo Wu, Liang Kang, Cao Yang
Intervertebral disc degeneration is widely recognized as a cause of lower back pain, neurological dysfunction and other musculoskeletal disorders. The major inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration; however, the molecular mechanisms that drive IL-1β production in the intervertebral disc, especially in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, are unknown. In some tissues, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in NP tissues and promote its degeneration, increase oxidative stress and IL-1β secretion, resulting in disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and ageing...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222891/coumarins-scaffolds-as-cox-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Hrishikesh Mohan Revankar, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Gajjela Bharath Kumar, Hua-Li Qin
The discovery of COX enzymes has led to a better understanding of inflammation and its related biological pathways. Apart from being related to inflammation and pain, it has also been associated with cancer and neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. Proverbially speaking, study of these enzymes has been crucial as they happen to "have fingers in many pies". Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) that act specifically as COX-2 inhibitors have been known for a while; however these are also associated with severe side effects such as cardiac problems...
February 9, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222422/impact-of-diet-and-or-exercise-intervention-on-infrapatellar-fat-pad-morphology-secondary-analysis-from-the-intensive-diet-and-exercise-for-arthritis-idea-trial
#4
Aarón Leonardo Pogacnik Murillo, Felix Eckstein, Wolfgang Wirth, Daniel Beavers, Richard F Loeser, Barbara J Nicklas, Shannon L Mihalko, Gary D Miller, David J Hunter, Stephen P Messier
OBJECTIVES: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents intra-articular adipose tissue that may contribute to intra-articular inflammation and pain by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we examined the impact of weight loss by diet and/or exercise interventions on the IPFP volume. METHODS: Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) was a single-blinded, single-center, 18-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial that enrolled 454 overweight and obese older adults with knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis...
February 22, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222030/sub-chronic-indomethacin-treatment-and-its-effect-on-the-male-reproductive-system-of-albino-rats-possible-protective-role-of-black-tea-extract
#5
Ishwar B Bagoji, Gavishiddappa A Hadimani, Saeed M Yendigeri, Kusal K Das
BACKGROUND: Indomethacin is commonly used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to treat inflammation, arthritis and joint pains. Unfortunately, it has a wide range of adverse effects on the physiological system, including gonads. This study aimed to assess possible beneficial effects of black tea extract (BTE) against indomethacin-induced alteration of gonadal hormone levels in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were divided into Group I (control), Group II (indomethacin, 5 mg/kg body weight [bwt...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217695/gut-microbiome-and-chronic-prostatitis-chronic-pelvic-pain-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Hans C Arora, Charis Eng, Daniel A Shoskes
Analysis of the human microbiome continues to reveal new and previously unrealized associations between microbial dysbiosis and disease. Novel approaches to bacterial identification using culture-independent methods allow practitioners to discern the presence of alterations in the taxa and diversity of the microbiome and identify correlations with disease processes. While some of these diseases that have been extensively studied are well-defined in their etiology and treatment methods (colorectal cancer), others have provided much more significant challenges in both diagnosis and treatment...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216312/bone-marrow-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-hand-osteoarthritis-are-associated-with-pain-and-interact-with-synovitis
#7
R Liu, W Damman, M Reijnierse, J L Bloem, F R Rosendaal, M Kloppenburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and (teno)synovitis as assessed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with pain in hand osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: In 105 consecutive primary hand OA patients (83% women, mean age 59 years), who were diagnosed by rheumatologists and included in the HOSTAS (Hand OSTeoArthritis in Secondary care) cohort, contrast-enhanced MR imaging of right distal and proximal interphalangeal joints were obtained...
February 12, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215304/neurotrophins-and-migraine
#8
L B Martins, A L Teixeira, R B Domingues
Neurotrophins (NTs) have been implicated in generation and modulation of nociceptive pathways. Change in NTs levels is associated with painful conditions and neurological diseases such as migraine. Currently, it is generally recognized that migraine headaches result from the activation and sensitization of trigeminal sensory afferent fibers leading to neuropeptides release such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP). This triggers an inflammatory cascade causing a neurogenic inflammation...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#9
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214597/classification-criteria-versus-physician-s-opinion-for-considering-a-patient-with-inflammatory-back-pain-as-suffering-from-spondyloarthritis
#10
Pierre Gazeau, Divi Cornec, Marie Agnes Timsit, Maxime Dougados, Alain Saraux
OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement among methods for classifying patients with inflammatory back pain [IBP] after a 2-year follow up. METHODS: Patients with IBP in the French nationwide, longitudinal, prospective cohort DESIR were classified after 2 years based on imaging findings, rheumatologist's confidence in a diagnosis of spondyloarthritis, three classification criteria sets [axial Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society (ASAS), European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG), and Amor] and treatment [TNFα antagonists]...
February 15, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213682/mathematical-modelling-of-cytokines-mmps-and-fibronectin-fragments-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#11
Michelle Baker, Bindi S Brook, Markus R Owen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which causes pain and stiffness in joints. OA progresses through excessive degradation of joint cartilage, eventually leading to significant joint degeneration and loss of function. Cytokines, a group of cell signalling proteins, present in raised concentrations in OA joints, can be classified into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory groups. They mediate cartilage degradation through several mechanisms, primarily the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of collagen-degrading enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213106/oral-treatment-with-essential-oil-of-hyptis-spicigera-lam-lamiaceae-reduces-acute-pain-and-inflammation-in-mice-potential-interactions-with-transient-receptor-potential-trp-ion-channels
#12
Róli Rodrigues Simões, Igor Dos Santos Coelho, Stella Célio Junqueira, Glauce Regina Pigatto, Marcos José Salvador, Adair Roberto Soares Santos, Felipe Meira de Faria
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Hyptis comprehends almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. The use of Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae) is reported in traditional medicine due to its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: The rationale of this study was to investigate the potential use of the essential oil of H. spicigera (EOHs) as analgesic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The antinociceptive effect of EOHs was verified analyzing acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by chemical noxious stimuli [i...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212278/the-effect-of-the-human-peptide-ghk-on-gene-expression-relevant-to-nervous-system-function-and-cognitive-decline
#13
Loren Pickart, Jessica Michelle Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions...
February 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212186/bisphosphonates-inhibit-pain-bone-loss-and-inflammation-in-a-rat-tibia-fracture-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211895/electroacupuncture-attenuates-cfa-induced-inflammatory-pain-by-suppressing-nav1-8-through-s100b-trpv1-opioid-and-adenosine-pathways-in-mice
#15
Hsien-Yin Liao, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Chun-Ping Huang, Yi-Wen Lin
Pain is associated with several conditions, such as inflammation, that result from altered peripheral nerve properties. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a common Chinese clinical medical technology used for pain management. Using an inflammatory pain mouse model, we investigated the effects of EA on the regulation of neurons, microglia, and related molecules. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injections produced a significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia that was reversed by EA or a transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) gene deletion...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210912/inhibitory-effects-of-emodin-thymol-and-astragalin-on-leptospira-interrogans-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-uterine-and-endometrium-epithelial-cells-of-mice
#16
Wenlong Zhang, Xiaojie Lu, Wei Wang, Zhuang Ding, Yunhe Fu, Xiaofei Zhou, Naisheng Zhang, Yongguo Cao
Leptospirosis is a systemic infection that causes, among others, acute kidney injury, acute liver disease, muscle pain, vasculitis, bleeding disorders, and reproductive loss. In an effort to reduce uterine inflammatory responses induced by Leptospira, we evaluated the anti-inflammation effects of emodin, thymol, and astragalin in a mouse model. Our results showed that treatment with emodin, thymol, and astragalin alleviated uterine inflammation induced by leptospira infection via suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and prevented tissue damage...
February 16, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209324/japanese-guidelines-for-allergic-conjunctival-diseases-2017
#17
REVIEW
Etsuko Takamura, Eiichi Uchio, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Shigeaki Ohno, Yuichi Ohashi, Shigeki Okamoto, Naoki Kumagai, Yoshiyuki Satake, Jun Shoji, Yayoi Nakagawa, Kenichi Namba, Kazumi Fukagawa, Atsuki Fukushima, Hiroshi Fujishima
The definition, classification, pathogenesis, test methods, clinical findings, criteria for diagnosis, and therapies of allergic conjunctival disease are summarized based on the Guidelines for Clinical Management of Allergic Conjunctival Disease (Second Edition) revised in 2010. Allergic conjunctival disease is defined as "a conjunctival inflammatory disease associated with a Type I allergy accompanied by some subjective or objective symptoms." Allergic conjunctival disease is classified into allergic conjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis...
February 10, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208898/to-study-the-efficacy-of-difluprednate-ophthalmic-emulsion-and-prednisolone-acetate-ophthalmic-suspension-on-post-operative-inflammation-in-cataract-surgery
#18
Punita Garg, Nupur Tuteja, Shazia Qayum
INTRODUCTION: Senile cataract is the most common cause of visual impairment. Removal of cataract and implantation of intraocular lens implantation (IOL) is the main surgical approach for cataract. The major block in quick visual rehabilitation of the patient is post-operative inflammation. To limit post-operative inflammation corticosteroids drugs are used in routine prophylactically. Topical prednisolone acetate 1% and betamethasone 0.1% remain gold standard to control post-operative inflammation but newer drugs like difluprednate, loteprednol are also effective in controlling inflammation...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207494/causes-and-consequences-of-fatigue-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
Patricia Katz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current information on the causes, treatments, and consequences of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis. RECENT FINDINGS: Disease activity (inflammation, pain, joint symptoms) is associated with greater fatigue. However, disease activity per se accounts for only a small portion of fatigue, and rheumatoid arthritis medications that reduce disease activity have small effects on fatigue. Instead, factors outside the direct effects of rheumatoid arthritis, such as obesity, physical inactivity, sleep disturbance, and depression, explain the majority of variation in fatigue...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203248/structural-determinants-of-the-hyperalgesic-activity-of-myotoxic-lys49-phospholipase%C3%A2-a2
#20
Vanessa Olzon Zambelli, Lucimara Chioato, Vanessa Pacciari Gutierrez, Richard John Ward, Yara Cury
BACKGROUND: Bothropstoxin-I (BthTx-I) is a Lys49-phospholipase A2 (Lys49-PLA2) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, which despite of the lack of catalytic activity induces myotoxicity, inflammation and pain. The C-terminal region of the Lys49-PLA2s is important for these effects; however, the amino acid residues that determine hyperalgesia and edema are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural determinants for the Lys49-PLA2-induced nociception and inflammation...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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