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Anal disease

Ashwani Sharma, Sebastien Delile, Mohamed Jabri, Carlo Adamo, Claire Fave, Damien Marchal, Aurélie Perrier
In the course of developing ultrasensitive and quantitative electrochemical point-of-care analytical tools for genetic detection of infectious diseases, osmium(ii) metallointercalators were revealed to be suitable and efficient redox probes to monitor the in vitro DNA amplification [Defever etal, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 1815-1821]. In this work, we thus propose a complete computational protocol in order to evaluate the affinity between Os(ii) complexes with double-stranded DNA. This protocol is based on molecular dynamics, with the parametrization of the GAFF force field for the Os(ii) complexes presenting an octahedral environment with polypyridine ligands, and QM/QM' calculations to evaluate the binding energy...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vivienne Lea, Jing Jing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Peter V Chin-Hong
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in kidney transplant recipients. HPV causes cervical, anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and head and neck cancers. Kidney transplant recipients have a disproportionate burden of disease given prolonged immunosuppression. Given the long pre-invasive state of precancer lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) most HPV-cancers are preventable with screening and targeted treatment of disease. Pre-transplant vaccination of age-eligible kidney transplant recipients is otherwise ideal...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Zoran Bjelanovic, Miroljub Draskovic, Milic Veljovic, Ivan Lekovic, Menelaos Karanikolas, Dusica Stamenkovic
INTRODUCTION: This prospective, observational study evaluated transanal dearterialization (THD) efficacy and safety in grade 2-4 hemorrhoids (HD). METHODS: THD was performed under sedation-locoregional anesthesia in 402 outpatients. Patients had follow-up evaluation 3 days, 2 weeks, 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 46.4 (range 20-85) years. A total of 268 patients (66.6%) were male. Sixteen patients (4.0%) had grade 2 HD, 210 (52...
October 19, 2016: Cirugía Española
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Gakuji Osawa, Hajime Yokomizo, Yuki Yano, Sachiyo Okayama, Akiko Sakuma, Masaya Satake, Yasufumi Yamada, Shinichi Asaka, Takebumi Usui, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Shunichi Shiozawa, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
A 78-year-old man visited our hospital with a prolapsed hemorrhoid. He was referred to the dermatology unit due to the thickness and redness of the perianal skin. He was diagnosed as having extra mammary Paget's disease by skin biopsy. After a biopsy of the anal polyp was performed to investigate the primary site, he was diagnosed with early anal canal cancer with Pagetoid spread and underwent a radical operation. Abdominoperineal resection with skin(D2 prx D3 lymphadenectomy) was performed with perineal reconstruction using a gracilis muscle graft...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Eleanor M Osborne, Cathy Eng, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, George J Chang, Yi-Qian Nancy You, Brian K Bednarski, Bruce D Minsky, Marc E Delclos, Eugene Koay, Sunil Krishnan, Christopher H Crane, Prajnan Das
OBJECTIVES: Although chemoradiation is the standard of care for anal cancer, limited data exist regarding pelvic reirradiation (re-RT) for recurrent disease. We investigated toxicity and outcomes in patients who received prior pelvic radiation therapy (RT), and subsequently underwent hyperfractionated accelerated re-RT to the pelvis for recurrent anal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed records of 10 patients with recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma who previously received pelvic RT to at least 30 Gy as a component of their chemoradiation and underwent re-RT in 1...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Susannah J Clark
Benign anal disease encompasses common problems including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, pruritus ani, perianal abscesses, and fistulae. Although many people will suffer from at least one of these conditions in their lives, healthcare practitioners diagnose and treat them accurately about 50% to 83% of the time. This article reviews common anal problems and the importance of a thorough history and physical examination to proper patient management.
September 30, 2016: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Lila J Finney Rutten, Victoria Findley, Debra J Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Monica Albertie, Robert M Jacobson, Gerardo Colón-Otero
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines offer primary prevention of cervical cancer and protection against other HPV-associated cancers. HPV vaccine coverage in the United States (U.S.) remains low, particularly among older adolescents/young adults, and the uninsured. We assessed awareness and knowledge of HPV disease, HPV-related cancers, and HPV vaccines among working, uninsured adults. Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 4) were used as a benchmark. Patients were surveyed in late 2014 at the Volunteers in Medicine free clinic in Duval County, Florida...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) remains a less common gastrointestinal malignancy despite a continued increase in the annual incidence in the United States and globally. The vast majority of all cases are attributed to persistent infection and integration into host cell DNA by human papillomavirus (HPV). For patients with metastatic anal cancer, there is currently no accepted consensus standard of care. Given the viral etiology associated with the oncogenesis of this tumor, great interest exists for the development of immunotherapy as a novel approach to improving clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with this disease...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Yuzo Nagai, Sinsuke Kazama, Daisuke Yamada, Takuya Miyagawa, Koji Murono, Koji Yasuda, Takeshi Nishikawa, Toshiaki Tanaka, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Keisuke Hata, Kazushige Kawai, Yuri Masui, Hiroaki Nozawa, Hironori Yamaguchi, Soichiro Ishihara, Takafumi Kadono, Toshiaki Watanabe
Treatment of perianal and vulvar extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), rare intraepithelial malignancies, is often challenging because of its potential to spread into the anal canal. However, there is still no consensus regarding the optimal resection margin within the anal canal. Between 2004 and 2014, six patients (three with perianal EMPD and three with vulvar EMPD) in which the spread of Paget cells into the anal canal was highly suspected were referred to our department. To evaluate the disease extent within the anal canal, preoperative mapping biopsy of the anal canal was performed in five out of six patients...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
G Cocorullo, R Tutino, N Falco, T Fontana, G Salamone, L Licari, G Gulotta
Rectal bleeding is very common in general population with a prevalence of 10-20 %. Primary care physicians have to stratify patients basing on urgency and on the colo-rectal cancer risk and to conduct a decision making for the correct management. We report a case of a 61-years-old woman, complaining rectal bleeding and an anal mass attended to their family doctor who does a visit but without a digital rectal examination and diagnosed a hemorrhoidal prolapse suggesting medical therapy. For the persistence of symptoms she comes to our service from emergency attention...
May 2016: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Young Seob Shin, Yong Sik Yoon, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Tae Won Kim, Heung Moon Chang, Jin-Hong Park, Seung Do Ahn, Sang-Wook Lee, Eun Kyung Choi, Jin Cheon Kim, Jong Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by local excision (LE) is feasible approach in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who received PCRT and LE because of clinical T2 rectal cancer within 7 cm from anal verge between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LE was performed in case of a good clinical response after PCRT. Patients' characteristics, treatment record, tumor recurrence, and treatment-related complications were reviewed at a median follow-up of 49 months...
September 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Maki Miyakawa, Hiroki Tanaka, Masaki Yamashita, Ryosuke Sakemi, Masanao Nasuno, Manabu Ishii, Hideyuki Yanagisawa, Shin Ichihara, Hiroko Gotoda, Satoshi Motoya
A 19-year-old male with diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels was admitted to our hospital. Endoscopic examination and small intestinal contrast radiography revealed multiple longitudinal ulcers in the large intestine and ileum. A specimen biopsied from one of these ulcers revealed non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma. He also had a draining anal fistula. Plain chest computed tomography (CT) and abdominal contrast-enhanced CT did not reveal any vascular abnormality...
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Jason Chang, Elisabeth Mclemore, Talar Tejirian
Despite the fact that countless patients suffer from anal problems, there tends to be a lack of understanding of anal health care. Unfortunately, this leads to incorrect diagnoses and treatments. When treating a patient with an anal complaint, the primary goals are to first diagnose the etiology of the symptoms correctly, then to provide an effective and appropriate treatment strategy.The first step in this process is to take an accurate history and physical examination. Specific questions include details about bowel habits, anal hygiene, and fiber supplementation...
October 10, 2016: Permanente Journal
Kiryu Yap, Sarah Mills, Michelle Thomas, James Moore
BACKGROUND: To establish the incidence of unsuspected malignancy in lesions excised through transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) and examine the justification for full-thickness excision of all lesions thought to be benign pre-operatively. METHODS: Demographic, operative and pathology data of all patients undergoing TEM at a single institution were collected in a prospectively maintained database. Follow-up data were collected with a focus on polyp recurrence rates and outcome in patients found to harbour malignancy...
October 9, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Thomas Gryc, Oliver Ott, Florian Putz, Stefan Knippen, Dimitrios Raptis, Rainer Fietkau, Vratislav Strnad
PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy of a protocol-based brachytherapy (BT) boost after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with simultaneous chemotherapy in patients with anal carcinoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: About 190 patients have been analyzed. Around 143 patients were identified with a good clinical response at the end of EBRT. Another 47 patients received an additional BT boost to the residual tumor at 6 weeks after end of chemoradiation. RESULTS: The 5-year incidence of local recurrence was 24% in patients with BT boost and 19% in patients without BT boost (p = 0...
October 3, 2016: Brachytherapy
D Carrillo-Quintero, L Del Otero Sanz, S Hernández-Egido, A M Martín Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: Enterobius vermicularis, also known as pinworn, is the responsible agent for Human Enterobiasis. It is one of the most prevalent, but underrated, parasitic disease in children population. Diagnosis involves demonstration of either eggs or adult worms by Graham test. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, demographic and microbiological features of patients with suspected diagnosis of Enterobiasis in southern Gran Canaria. METHODS: Descriptive and prospective study of perianal samples evaluated by Graham test in the Microbiology Department of `Insular de Gran Canaria´ University Hospital between November 2014 and November 2015...
October 7, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Adil E Bharucha, Tae Hee Lee
Although pelvic pain is a symptom of several structural anorectal and pelvic disorders (eg, anal fissure, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease), this comprehensive review will focus on the 3 most common nonstructural, or functional, disorders associated with pelvic pain: functional anorectal pain (ie, levator ani syndrome, unspecified anorectal pain, and proctalgia fugax), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. The first 2 conditions occur in both sexes, while the latter occurs only in men...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
E Zittan, Grace W Ma, N Wong-Chong, R Milgrom, R S McLeod, M Silverberg, Z Cohen
BACKGROUND: We aimed to summarize the outcomes of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients receiving an ileal pouch-anal anastamosis (IPAA) over an 11-year period at a high-volume Canadian inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) center. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for subjects with UC who underwent IPAA between 2002 and 2013. Patient charts were reviewed for demographic data, clinical characteristics, preoperative medical treatment, and surgical outcomes...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
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