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First-episode schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932499/genetic-variation-in-one-carbon-metabolism-and-changes-in-metabolic-parameters-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#1
Błażej Misiak, Łukasz Łaczmański, Natalia Kinga Słoka, Elżbieta Szmida, Ryszard Ślęzak, Patryk Piotrowski, Andrzej Kiejna, Dorota Frydecka
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of polymorphisms in genes encoding 1-carbon metabolism enzymes on differential development of metabolic parameters during 12 weeks of treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia patients. METHODS: The following polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolism genes were genotyped: MTHFR (C677T and A1298C), MTHFD1 (G1958A), MTRR (A66G), and BHMT (G742A). A broad panel of metabolic parameters including body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol low and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 was determined...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931900/dimensions-of-schizophrenia-and-their-time-course-of-response-to-a-second-generation-antipsychotic-olanzapine-a-clinical-study
#2
Badari Birur, Jagadisha Thirthalli, N Janakiramaiah, Richard C Shelton, Bangalore N Gangadhar
BACKGROUND: The pattern of symptom response to second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has not been studied extensively. Understanding the time course of symptom response would help to rationally monitor patient progress. OBJECTIVE: To determine the short-term differential time course of response of symptom dimensions of first episode schizophrenia viz., negative, positive symptoms and 5 factors of anergia, thought disturbance, activation, paranoid-belligerence and depression to treatment with SGA olanzapine...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923116/new-evidence-in-support-of-staging-approaches-in-schizophrenia-differences-in-clinical-profiles-between-first-episode-early-stage-and-late-stage
#3
Bruno Bertolucci Ortiz, Fernanda Dal Medico Eden, Aline Silva Rodrigues de Souza, Carla Agostinho Teciano, Daniela Malatesta de Lima, Cristiano Noto, Cinthia Hiroko Higuchi, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Ary Gadelha
Few studies have examined the progression of symptom dimensions in schizophrenia patients over the course of the illness. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clinical and psychopathological differences exist between first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and multiple-episode patients in an inpatient setting. Patients (N=203) were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) over time. Five different generalized estimating equations were built for the PANSS factors using the following as covariates: sex, patient's age, assessment time point (i...
November 18, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916287/polygenic-risk-score-associated-with-specific-symptom-dimensions-in-first-episode-psychosis
#4
Sarojini M Sengupta, Kathleen MacDonald, Ferid Fathalli, Anita Yim, Martin Lepage, Srividya Iyer, Ashok Malla, Ridha Joober
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have provided evidence for the involvement of a number of genetic variants in schizophrenia (SCZ). The objective of the current study was to examine the association between these variants and symptom dimensions, evaluated prospectively over a period of 24months, in a clinically well-characterized sample of individuals (n=241) with first-episode psychosis (FEP). The genetic variants were analyzed collectively as captured through a Polygenic Risk Score (PRS), calculated for each individual...
December 1, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#5
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913160/psychological-well-being-and-mental-health-recovery-in-the-nimh-raise-early-treatment-program
#6
Julia Browne, David L Penn, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Kim T Mueser, Sue E Estroff, Mary F Brunette, Christoph U Correll, James Robinson, Robert A Rosenheck, Nina Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, Jean Addington, Patricia Marcy, John M Kane
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP)...
November 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901520/depot-antipsychotics-where-do-we-stand
#7
Ahsan Y Khan, Salman Salaria, Muhammad Ovais, George D Ide
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to medication is a major problem for patients with schizophrenia. To counter this problem, pharmaceutical companies began developing depot antipsychotics. Although there are currently 5 first-generation and 6 second-generation depot antipsychotics available worldwide, many physicians are still reluctant to use this category of drug initially. This review provides the latest information about the use of depot antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment as well as several studies in support of depot antipsychotic use as first-line treatment for patients with schizophrenia...
November 2016: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891431/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-schizophrenia-a-naturalistic-clinical-study
#8
Payal Sharma, Reetika Dikshit, Nilesh Shah, Sagar Karia, Avinash De Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) and sleep problems are common in patients with schizophrenia. The symptom of EDS in schizophrenia can be attributed to various causes including neurobiological changes, sleep disorders, medication or as a symptom of schizophrenia itself. EDS as a symptom in schizophrenia has been understudied. AIM: To assess the prevalence of EDS and to the study the same in patients with first episode and chronic schizophrenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study 100 patients suffering from schizophrenia as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria were evaluated for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and EDS using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888974/early-intervention-in-schizophrenia-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Sunny Chieh Cheng, Karen G Schepp
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder seen across the world. Recently, investigators have witnessed an upsurge in research on the potential benefits of early intervention during the prodromal stage: the sooner people start the treatment at their first psychotic episode, the better outcome on symptom relief and better functioning. This paper aims to critically review and synthesize empirical evidence published between 2005 and 2015 regarding the effectiveness of preemptive interventions on transition rate, symptom severity, depression, anxiety, and function level...
December 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887780/insight-and-white-matter-fractional-anisotropy-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#10
Laila Asmal, Stefan du Plessis, Matthijs Vink, Jean-Paul Fouche, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Robin Emsley
Impaired insight is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia. Structural studies implicate predominantly prefrontal, cingulate, cuneus/precuneus, and inferior temporal brain regions. The cortical midline structures (CMS) are also implicated in functional studies primarily through self-reflective processing tasks. However, few studies have explored the relationship between white matter tracts and insight in schizophrenia, and none in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Here, we examined for fractional anisotropy (FA) differences in 89 minimally treated FES patients and 98 matched controls, and identified those FA differences associated with impaired clinical insight in patients...
November 23, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884145/estimation-of-the-cool-executive-function-using-frontal-electroencephalogram-signals-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#11
Yi Yu, Yun Zhao, Yajing Si, Qiongqiong Ren, Wu Ren, Changqin Jing, Hongxing Zhang
BACKGROUND: In schizophrenia, executive dysfunction is the most critical cognitive impairment, and is associated with abnormal neural activities, especially in the frontal lobes. Complexity estimation using electroencephalogram (EEG) recording based on nonlinear dynamics and task performance tests have been widely used to estimate executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. METHODS: The present study estimated the cool executive function based on fractal dimension (FD) values of EEG data recorded from first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during the performance of three cool executive function tasks, namely, the Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B), and Tower of Hanoi tasks...
November 25, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878417/neurobehavioural-evaluation-of-resveratrol-in-murine-models-of-anxiety-and-schizophrenia
#12
Mohammed Garba Magaji, Loretta Oghenekome Iniaghe, Mutiat Abolarin, Opeyemi Isa Abdullahi, Rabiu Abdusalam Magaji
Resveratrol, a caloric restriction mimetic, is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety and schizophrenia. This study investigated the anxiolytic and antipsychotic potentials of resveratrol in murine models of anxiety and schizophrenia. Mice were pretreated with resveratrol (200 and 400 mg/kg) in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose for 14 days and subjected to behavioural tests on the 15th day...
November 22, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877101/from-molecules-to-the-clinic-linking-schizophrenia-and-metabolic-syndrome-through-sphingolipids-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Rolando I Castillo, Leonel E Rojo, Marcela Henriquez-Henriquez, Hernán Silva, Alejandro Maturana, María J Villar, Manuel Fuentes, Pablo A Gaspar
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872587/the-association-between-anomalous-self-experiences-self-esteem-and-depressive-symptoms-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#14
Elisabeth Haug, Merete G Øie, Ole A Andreassen, Unni Bratlien, Kristin L Romm, Paul Møller, Ingrid Melle
Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868463/postural-changes-in-different-stages-of-schizophrenia-is-associated-with-inflammation-and-pain-a-cross-sectional-observational-study
#15
Viviane Batista Cristiano, Michele Fonseca Vieira Szortyka, Maria Inês Lobato, Keila Maria Ceresér, Paulo Belmonte-de-Abreu
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between posture and inflammatory response markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and von Willebrand factor [vWF]) in schizophrenics. METHODS: Forty patients with stable schizophrenia were divided into early-stage (<10 years since first episode, n = 15) and late-stage (≥10 years since first episode, n = 25) groups. Both groups were compared to controls (n = 26). All participants underwent postural assessment by biophotogrammetry...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861956/the-prevalence-of-sleep-disturbance-and-its-socio-demographic-and-clinical-correlates-in-first-episode-individuals-with-schizophrenia-in-rural-china
#16
Xin-Rong Ma, Guang-Rong Song, Xue-Bing Xu, Tao Tian, Shao-Hua Chang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the socio-demographic and clinical correlates of sleep disturbance in first-episode individuals with schizophrenia in rural China and the factors that impact sleep among individuals with schizophrenia. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 104 first-episode individuals with schizophrenia were randomly selected in rural areas in Ningxia, China, in 2015 as the study sample. FINDINGS: In first-episode individuals with schizophrenia, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 78...
November 8, 2016: Perspectives in Psychiatric Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860369/factor-structure-of-therapist-fidelity-to-individual-resiliency-training-in-the-recovery-after-an-initial-schizophrenia-episode-early-treatment-program
#17
Julia Browne, Alexandra N Edwards, David L Penn, Piper S Meyer-Kalos, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Paul Julian, Kelsey Ludwig, Kim T Mueser, John M Kane
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based approaches and early intervention have improved the long-term prognosis of individuals with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the therapeutic processes involved in individual therapy in first-episode psychosis. A comprehensive psychosocial/psychiatric programme for this population, NAVIGATE, includes an individual therapy component, individual resiliency training (IRT). Fidelity of clinicians' adherence to the IRT protocol has been collected to ensure proper implementation of this manual-based intervention...
November 9, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859668/the-effects-of-olanzapine-treatment-on-brain-regional-glucose-metabolism-in-neuroleptic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenic-patients
#18
Hirofumi Yoshimuta, Masayuki Nakamura, Eisuke Kanda, Seigo Fujita, Kouzou Takeuchi, Toshiro Fujimoto, Yoshiaki Nakabeppu, Yasuaki Akasaki, Akira Sano
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined metabolic alterations associated with a positive response to olanzapine and identified brain regions associated with treatment-related improvement of symptoms in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients using [(18) F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography analysis. METHODS: Neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients who showed good or poor clinical responses to olanzapine were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale...
November 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847923/stages-of-the-clinical-course-of-schizophrenia-staging-concept
#19
REVIEW
Paweł Wójciak, Agnieszka Remlinger-Molenda, Janusz Rybakowski
Clinical staging is a tool useful in medical sciences. It assumes the presence of three key elements. Firstly, pathologic indices are progressing in subsequent stages. Secondly, the patients in the individual stages present similar pathological changes. Thirdly, treatment should be most effective in the earlier stages. Such model is particularly well established in the treatment of malignancies. Staging is useful here to define prognosis, to evaluate the results of treatment, facilitate the exchange and comparison of information among treatment centres...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845318/-the-cellular-factors-of-innate-immunity-in-nonpsychotic-patients-at-high-risk-for-schizophrenia
#20
E F Vasil'eva, S G Kushner, M I Faktor, M A Omel'chenko, E D Bogdanova, L N Petrakova, O S Brusov
AIM: Changes in the parameters of innate immunity in patients with schizophrenia are observed already in the first episode. The study was performed to find out whether these changes take place prior to disease manifestation, and what role do they play in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five male nonpsychotic patients at high risk of psychosis, aged between 17 to 23 years, were examined. Phagocyte activity (PA) of neutrophils in the blood serum was evaluated by the number of active neutrophils, i...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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