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First-episode schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224285/abnormal-effective-connectivity-in-the-brain-is-involved-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#1
Baojuan Li, Long-Biao Cui, Yi-Bin Xi, Karl J Friston, Fan Guo, Hua-Ning Wang, Lin-Chuan Zhang, Yuan-Han Bai, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hongbing Lu
Information flow among auditory and language processing-related regions implicated in the pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia (SZ) remains unclear. In this study, we used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to quantify connections among the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (inner speech monitoring), auditory cortex (auditory processing), hippocampus (memory retrieval), thalamus (information filtering), and Broca's area (language production) in 17 first-episode drug-naïve SZ patients with AVHs, 15 without AVHs, and 19 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214176/sex-differences-in-prolactin-levels-in-emerging-psychosis-indication-for-enhanced-stress-reactivity-in-women
#2
Sarah Ittig, Erich Studerus, Ulrike Heitz, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Katharina Beck, Laura Egloff, Letizia Leanza, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
BACKGROUND: Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of antipsychotics. In recent reports it has also been shown in antipsychotic-naïve at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Prolactin is not only involved in reproduction and lactation, but is also synthesized in response to stress. As stress is thought to play an important role in the onset and relapse of schizophrenia, the aim of this study was to further elucidate the influence of prolactin in emerging psychosis...
February 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195569/rare-damaging-variants-in-dna-repair-and-cell-cycle-pathways-are-associated-with-hippocampal-and-cognitive-dysfunction-a-combined-genetic-imaging-study-in-first-episode-treatment-naive-patients-with-schizophrenia
#3
Z Yang, M Li, X Hu, B Xiang, W Deng, Q Wang, Y Wang, L Zhao, X Ma, P C Sham, G Northoff, T Li
Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder where changes in both hippocampus and memory-related cognitive functions are central. However, the exact relationship between neurodevelopmental-genetic factors and hippocampal-cognitive dysfunction remains unclear. The general aim of our study is to link the occurrence of rare damaging mutations involved in susceptibility gene pathways to the structure and function of hippocampus in order to define genetically and phenotypically based subgroups in schizophrenia...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194003/lower-levels-of-the-glial-cell-marker-tspo-in-drug-naive-first-episode-psychosis-patients-as-measured-using-pet-and-11-c-pbr28
#4
K Collste, P Plavén-Sigray, H Fatouros-Bergman, P Victorsson, M Schain, A Forsberg, N Amini, S Aeinehband, S Erhardt, C Halldin, L Flyckt, L Farde, S Cervenka
Several lines of evidence are indicative of a role for immune activation in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and radioligands for the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker for glial activation, have yielded inconsistent results. Whereas early studies using a radioligand with low signal-to-noise in small samples showed increases in patients, more recent studies with improved methodology have shown no differences or trend-level decreases. Importantly, all patients investigated thus far have been on antipsychotic medication, and as these compounds may dampen immune cell activity, this factor limits the conclusions that can be drawn...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193301/hippocampal-subregion-volume-changes-associated-with-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#5
K Rhindress, D G Robinson, J A Gallego, R Wellington, A K Malhotra, P R Szeszko
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal dysfunction is considered central to many neurobiological models of schizophrenia, yet there are few longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging studies that have investigated the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and morphologic changes within specific hippocampal subregions among patients with psychosis. METHOD: A total of 29 patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis with little or no prior antipsychotic exposure received structural neuroimaging examinations at illness onset and then following 12 weeks of treatment with either risperidone or aripiprazole in a double-blind randomized clinical trial...
February 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185786/the-course-of-negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-and-its-predictors-a-prospective-two-year-follow-up-study
#6
Gisela Mezquida, Bibiana Cabrera, Miquel Bioque, Silvia Amoretti, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Ana Espliego, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Daniel Bergé, Maria J Escartí, Ángela Ibañez, Rafael Penadés, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Miguel Bernardo
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the course of negative symptoms and its stability over a two-year period following a first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and the possible predictors of higher severity in this symptomatology after this period. METHODS: In this longitudinal two-year prospective follow-up study we included 268 patients with a FES, according to DSM-IV. Analysis of variance was conducted in patients who completed the full follow-up to study changes in negative symptoms over three visits...
February 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185785/can-antibiotics-cause-a-psychosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Duy Ly, Lynn E DeLisi
It is relatively unknown that some of the possible side effects of antibiotic treatment can be transient psychotic episodes and other encephalopathies such as seizure disorders. Since these are rare events, there have not been many studies about them, nor is there a clear understanding of the underlying basis for these symptoms. This phenomenon was recently brought to our attention by a patient whose case history is discussed here. For the past few years, he has been diagnosed at different times with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychosis, temporal lobe epilepsy, and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures...
February 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179063/modelling-gene-environment-interaction-in-first-episodes-of-psychosis
#8
Miguel Bernardo, Miquel Bioque, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Laura Pina, Iluminada Corripio, Julio Sanjuán, Anna Mané, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Eduard Vieta, Celso Arango, Gisela Mezquida, Patricia Gassó, Mara Parellada, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Manuel J Cuesta, Sergi Mas
INTRODUCTION: Recent research demonstrates the heterogeneous etiology of psychotic disorders, where gen-environment (GxE) interaction plays a key role. Large genetic studies have linked many genetic variants with schizophrenia, but each variant is only associated with a small effect and the GxE interaction contribution has not been evaluated. METHODS: The PEPs Project was designed to carefully collect a large amount of genetic and environmental exposure data of 335 FEP patients and 253 matched healthy controls...
February 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163856/29-year-old-man-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#9
Nahid Noorani, Fateme Hadi, Hamid Reza Ahmadkhaniha
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common debilitating neurological disease that affects adults, whether young adults or middle-aged. Although, most attention is toward the neurological signs of the disease, the neuropsychiatric signs are not uncommon. This case report presents a 29 year old male with a record of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without psychotic disorder, which coincides with the diagnosis MS, has been stricken to auditory hallucinations and reference delusion. The patient received some antipsychotic drugs such as Haloperidol and Perphenazine irregularly, but any psychotic signs of the patient were never in control...
December 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163499/long-term-benzodiazepine-treatment-in-patients-with-psychotic-disorders-attending-a-mental-health-service-in-rural-greece
#10
Vaios Peritogiannis, Thiresia Manthopoulou, Venetsanos Mavreas
INTRODUCTION: Long-term benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment in patients with mental disorders is widespread in clinical practice, and this is also the case of patients with schizophrenia, although the evidence is weak and BZD prescription is discouraged by guidelines and medical authorities. Data on BZD prescription are usually derived from national or regional databases whereas information on the use of BZD by patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses in general population-based samples is limited...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143678/episodic-memory-functions-in-first-episode-psychosis-and-clinical-high-risk-individuals
#11
Sarah E Greenland-White, J Daniel Ragland, Tara A Niendam, Emilio Ferrer, Cameron S Carter
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with schizophrenia have disproportionate memory impairments when encoding relational versus item-specific information, and when using recollection versus familiarity during retrieval. It is unclear whether this pattern is unique to people with chronic schizophrenia, or if it occurs in individuals after a first episode of psychosis (FE), or when at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR). METHODS: We administered the Relational and Item-Specific Memory task (RiSE) to 22 CHR, 101 FE, and 58 typically developing (TD) participants...
January 28, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142106/on-the-interconnectedness-and-prognostic-value-of-visual-and-auditory-hallucinations-in-first-episode-psychosis
#12
M L Clark, F Waters, T M Vatskalis, A Jablensky
BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations (VH) are common symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychoses. An understanding of their cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of association with auditory hallucinations (AH) is essential for developing accurate models of hallucinatory phenomena. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the most comprehensive examination of the association between VH and AH, and its change over time, in 1303 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 469 individuals with chronic schizophrenia...
January 27, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130726/the-effects-of-psychoeducation-on-the-expressed-emotion-and-family-functioning-of-the-family-members-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#13
Emine Öksüz, Semra Karaca, Gülten Özaltın, Mehmet Alpay Ateş
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the psychoeducation received by the family members of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia on the expressed emotion (EE) and the family functioning of the family members. This study has a quasi-experimental design with a control group. The sample of the study was 60 family members (30 experimental -30 control) of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia. The experimental group received 9 weeks of psychoeducation as a group. EE and family functioning were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the psychoeducation program...
January 27, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130005/resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia-patients-with-and-without-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-a-preliminary-report
#14
Xiao Chang, Guusje Collin, Yibin Xi, Longbiao Cui, Lianne H Scholtens, Iris E Sommer, Huaning Wang, Hong Yin, René S Kahn, Martijn P van den Heuvel
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia that has been associated with activation in language processing areas, in concert with higher-order cognitive brain networks. It remains to be determined whether, and if so how, the functional dynamics between these brain regions contributes to the emergence of AVH. The current study recruited 36 first-episode medication-naïve schizophrenia patients, including 18 patients with AVH, 18 patients free of AVH and 18 controls matched on age, gender and level of education...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130002/neurological-soft-signs-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-state-and-trait-related-relationships-to-psychopathology-cognition-and-antipsychotic-medication-effects
#15
Robin Emsley, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Laila Asmal, Sanja Kilian, M Riaan Olivier, Lebogang Phahladira, Akinsola Ojagbemi, Freda Scheffler, Jonathan Carr, Martin Kidd, Paola Dazzan
BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are proposed to represent both state- and trait-related features of schizophrenia. METHOD: We assessed the course of NSS with the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) over 12months of standardised treatment in 126 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, schizophreniform or schizoaffective disorder, and evaluated their state- and trait-related associations with psychopathology, functionality, cognition and antipsychotic treatment...
January 24, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125984/the-youth-mental-health-risk-and-resilience-study-your-study
#16
Peter J Uhlhaas, Ruchika Gajwani, Joachim Gross, Andrew I Gumley, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer
BACKGROUND: The transition from adolescence to adulthood is associated with the emergence of psychosis and other mental health problems, highlighting the importance of this developmental period for the understanding of developing psychopathology and individual differences in risk and resilience. The Youth Mental Health Risk and Resilience Study (YouR-Study) aims to identify neurobiological mechanisms and predictors of psychosis-risk with a state-of-the-art neuroimaging approach (Magnetoencephalography, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in combination with core psychological processes, such as affect regulation and attachment, that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of severe mental health problems...
January 26, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122016/gad1-gene-expression-in-blood-of-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#17
Jie Yin Yee, Milawaty Nurjono, Stephanie Ruth Teo, Tih-Shih Lee, Jimmy Lee
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, has often been studied in relation to its role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), derived from two genes, GAD1 and GAD2. GAD1 is expressed as both GAD67 and GAD25 mRNA transcripts with the former reported to have a lower expression level in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and latter was reported to be predominantly expressed fetally, suggesting a role in developmental process...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112539/long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Sarah Lytle, Molly McVoy, Martha Sajatovic
OBJECTIVE: While a number of articles have reviewed the use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in first-episode psychosis, there has been extremely limited focus on LAIs in children and adolescents. This review of the literature evaluated use of LAIs in children and youth under the age of 18. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of the PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using keywords related to LAIs, children, and psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109667/aberrant-alpha-and-gamma-oscillations-ex-vivo-after-single-application-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-mk-801
#19
Clément E Lemercier, Constance Holman, Zoltan Gerevich
Clinical symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with altered cortical neuronal oscillations in multiple frequency bands such as alpha (7-13Hz) and gamma (30-90Hz) rhythms. NMDA receptor antagonists induce psychotic symptoms in humans and a schizophrenia-like phenotype in animals, suggesting NMDA receptor dysfunction is involved in the generation of many symptoms of the disorder. We investigated the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in rats, a model of first-episode schizophrenia, on network oscillations recorded ex vivo in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107388/factors-moderating-the-relationship-between-childhood-trauma-and-premorbid-adjustment-in-first-episode-schizophrenia
#20
S Kilian, J K Burns, S Seedat, L Asmal, B Chiliza, S Du Plessis, M R Olivier, M Kidd, R Emsley
Childhood trauma is a recognised risk factor for schizophrenia. It has been proposed that childhood trauma interferes with normal neurodevelopment, thereby establishing a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia. Poor premorbid adjustment is frequently a precursor to schizophrenia, and may be a manifestation of neurodevelopmental compromise. We investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and premorbid adjustment in 77 patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. We also investigated possible mediating roles for other selected risk factors in the relationship...
2017: PloS One
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