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First-episode schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164787/factors-related-to-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-of-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#1
Yong Qiu, Leijun Li, Zhaoyu Gan, Jihui Wang, Liangrong Zheng, Jiaoshi Zhao, Nianhong Guan, Qinling Wei
AIM: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with outcome and functioning. It is expected that scientists will find factors that modulate DUP, but thus far, research on this topic has shown inconsistent results. Furthermore, similar studies in China are insufficient. This study aims to explore social and clinical factors for DUP in South China and to learn the influence that family plays on DUP through their awareness of psychosis. METHODS: Participants included 216 patients with first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder...
November 22, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163982/individual-differences-in-schizophrenia
#2
Edmund T Rolls, Wenlian Lu, Lin Wan, Hao Yan, Chuanyue Wang, Fude Yang, Yunlong Tan, Lingjiang Li, Hao Yu, Peter F Liddle, Lena Palaniyappan, Dai Zhang, Weihua Yue, Jianfeng Feng
Background: Whether there are distinct subtypes of schizophrenia is an important issue to advance understanding and treatment of schizophrenia. Aims: To understand and treat individuals with schizophrenia, the aim was to advance understanding of differences between individuals, whether there are discrete subtypes, and how first-episode patients (FEP) may differ from multiple episode patients (MEP). Method: These issues were analysed in 687 FEP and 1880 MEP with schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for (PANSS) schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic medication for 6 weeks...
November 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154172/association-between-b-vitamins-and-schizophrenia-a-population-based-case-control-study
#3
Bing Cao, Xiao-Yu Sun, Chuan-Bo Zhang, Jing-Jing Yan, Qian-Qian Zhao, Si-Yu Yang, Lai-Lai Yan, Ning-Hua Huang, Jing Zeng, Jie-Ying Liao, Jing-Yu Wang
To explore the association between schizophrenia and six types of B vitamins, including choline, biotin, riboflavin, pyridoxamine, pyridoxine and nicotinamide, based on the hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC) Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) platform. We conducted the case-control study between November 2015 and September 2016 in Weifang, Shandong Province, China. Blood samples from 128 cases of schizophrenia and 101 controls were collected, and B vitamin were measured by LC-MS coupled with HILIC...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146020/clinical-and-demographic-predictors-of-continuing-remission-or-relapse-following-discontinuation-of-antipsychotic-medication-after-a-first-episode-of-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Meghan Bowtell, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick McGorry, Eoin Killackey, Brian O'Donoghue
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication for one to two years following remission of symptoms after a first episode of psychosis. However, recent research has suggested that this may not be indicated. Consistent predictors of outcome would be beneficial to guide clinicians as to which individuals are likely to have a successful discontinuation. OBJECTIVES: This study reviews the literature with the aim of identifying demographic and clinical predictors of either relapse or continued remission in those with a first episode of psychosis following discontinuation of antipsychotic medication...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143717/white-matter-abnormalities-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-patients-showing-cognitive-decline
#5
Jasper Olivier Nuninga, Marc Marijn Bohlken, Sanne Koops, Ania M Fiksinski, René C W Mandl, Elemi J Breetvelt, Sasja N Duijff, René S Kahn, Iris E C Sommer, Jacob A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive functioning precedes the first psychotic episode in the course of schizophrenia and is considered a hallmark symptom of the disorder. Given the low incidence of schizophrenia, it remains a challenge to investigate whether cognitive decline coincides with disease-related changes in brain structure, such as white matter abnormalities. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is an appealing model in this context, as 25% of patients develop psychosis. Furthermore, we recently showed that cognitive decline also precedes the onset of psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132653/prefrontal-and-striatal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid%C3%A2-levels-and-the-effect-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#6
Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Francisco Reyes-Madrigal, Xiangling Mao, Pablo León-Ortiz, Oscar Rodríguez-Mayoral, Helgi Jung-Cook, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Dikoma C Shungu
BACKGROUND: Abnormally elevated levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been reported in antipsychotic-free patients with schizophrenia. Whether such GABA elevations are also present in other brain regions and persist after antipsychotic treatment has not been previously investigated. METHODS: Twenty-eight antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 18 healthy control subjects completed the study...
October 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129510/increase-in-serum-hdl-level-is-associated-with-less-negative-symptoms-after-one-year-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Priyanthi B Gjerde, Ingrid Dieset, Carmen Simonsen, Eva Z Hoseth, Trude Iversen, Trine V Lagerberg, Siv Hege Lyngstad, Ragni H Mørch, Silje Skrede, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Vidar M Steen
BACKGROUND: A potential link between increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides and clinical improvement has been observed during antipsychotic drug treatment in chronic schizophrenia patients, possibly due to drug related effects on lipid biosynthesis. We examined whether changes in serum lipids are associated with alleviation of psychosis symptoms after one year of antipsychotic drug treatment in a cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: A total of 132 non-affective antipsychotic-treated FEP patients were included through the Norwegian Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) project...
November 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128871/neural-substrate-of-unrelenting-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Mingli Li, Wei Deng, Tushar Das, Yinfei Li, Liansheng Zhao, Xiaohong Ma, Yingcheng Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Ya-Jing Meng, Qiang Wang, Lena Palaniyappan, Tao Li
Developing a mechanistic insight into the specific brain processes that underpin improvement in negative symptoms can help us design novel chemical and physical treatments against these unrelenting symptoms. The aim of the present study is to explore the longitudinal changes in the brain's regional functional efficiency that accompany improvement in negative symptoms seen in first-episode patients with schizophrenia when treated with antipsychotic for 1 year. Forty-seven first-episode patients with schizophrenia were scanned at a drug-naive baseline state and followed up for 1 year to identify negative symptom responders (Rn) and non-responders (NRn)...
November 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128326/cognitive-remediation-can-improve-negative-symptoms-and-social-functioning-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Joseph Ventura, Kenneth L Subotnik, Denise Gretchen-Doorly, Laurie Casaus, Michael Boucher, Gerhard S Hellemann, Keith H Nuechterlein
BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have reported that the effects of cognitive remediation might go beyond improvement in cognition to include unexpected benefits for schizophrenia patients such as negative symptom reduction and improvements in functioning. In addition, some evidence indicated that these potentially beneficial effects are also present in the initial course of schizophrenia, but work in this area is still developing. METHOD: A RCT compared Cognitive Remediation (CR) to Healthy Behaviors Training (HBT) in 80 patients (78% male) with a mean age of 21...
November 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#10
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126609/meta-analysis-of-adult-height-and-birth-length-in-schizophrenia
#11
Keely Latham, Brian Kirkpatrick
OBJECTIVE: As a group, people with schizophrenia have a number of subtle anatomical abnormalities as well as physiological abnormalities that precede antipsychotic treatment. Some studies have also found shorter birth length or shorter adult height in people with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of birth length and adult height in schizophrenia, following PRISMA guidelines (Prospero Registration # CRD42016043718)...
November 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122402/altered-corticostriatal-pathway-in-first-episode-paranoid-schizophrenia-resting-state-functional-and-causal-connectivity-analyses
#12
Huan Huang, Chang Shu, Jun Chen, Jilin Zou, Cheng Chen, Shihao Wu, Ling Xiao, Zhongchun Liu, Huiling Wang, Yuan Zhou, Gaohua Wang, Tianzi Jiang
Neuroimaging studies suggest the abnormal structure and function of basal ganglion may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, little is investigated about the both aberrant functional and causal connectivity of striatum in first-episode paranoid schizophrenia (FEPS). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to characterize the functional connectivity (FC) and casual connectivity within the corticostriatal circuit in 31 patients with FEPS and 33 healthy controls. Degree centrality (DC) was used to explore the regions influenced in schizophrenia at the whole-brain level...
August 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121974/a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-minocycline-and-or-omega-3-fatty-acids-added-to-treatment-as-usual-for-at-risk-mental-states-nayab-study-protocol
#13
Inti Qurashi, Imran B Chaudhry, Ameer B Khoso, Sana Farooque, Steve Lane, Mohammad Omair Husain, Simon Chu, Jane Sarginson, Munir Hamarani, Haider A Naqvi, Bushra Razzaque, Fareed A Minhas, Alison R Yung, J F W Deakin, Nusrat Husain
BACKGROUND: The at-risk mental state (ARMS) describes individuals at high risk of developing schizophrenia or psychosis. The use of antipsychotics in this population is not supported, because most individuals with ARMS are unlikely to develop psychosis. Anti-inflammatory treatments and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have some beneficial effects in the treatment of ARMS. There have been no controlled clinical trials in which researchers have investigated the use of minocycline for ARMS and no trials involving PUFAs in combination with other proposed treatments...
November 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#14
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116582/late-onset-first-episode-psychosis-emerging-as-delusional-misidentification-of-familiar-sacred-places-during-a-holy-pilgrimage-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Mahmoud A Awara, Hamdy F Moselhy, Manal O Elnenaei
BACKGROUND: The delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS) include a myriad of discrete but related syndromes, which have wide spectrum anomalies of familiarity. Several misidentification syndromes have been described in the psychiatric literature, the most common of these delusions are: the Capgras syndrome; the Fregoli syndrome; the syndrome of inter-metamorphosis; reduplicative paramnesia; and environmental reduplication. CASE PRESENTATION: The reported case highlights the emergence of late onset first episode psychosis in a Middle Eastern 65-year-old female who has no previous psychiatric history...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#16
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108272/up-regulated-expression-of-oxytocin-mrna-in-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-from-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients
#17
Xiudeng Yang, Yamei Tang, Qinling Wei, Bing Lang, Huai Tao, Xianghui Zhang, Yong Liu, Aiguo Tang
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with significant social cognition impairment. Increasing evidence has suggested that neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are important mediators of complex social cognition and behavior associates with SZ. In the present study, forty-three first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and forty-seven healthy controls (HC) were included. The peripheral mRNA expression of OXT, OXT receptor (OXTR), AVP, AVP 1a receptor (AVPR1a) and CD38 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107832/impaired-action-self-monitoring-and-cognitive-confidence-among-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-and-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#18
Ł Gawęda, E Li, S Lavoie, T J Whitford, S Moritz, B Nelson
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients...
September 22, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107210/biological-and-cognitive-correlates-of-cortical-curvature-in-schizophrenia
#19
Alba Lubeiro, Rodrigo de Luis-García, Margarita Rodríguez, Aldara Álvarez, Henar de la Red, Vicente Molina
Mean cortical curvature may relate to cortico-cortical connections integrity. We explored the association between prefrontal (PFC) cortical curvature and fractional anisotropy (FA) values for tracts connecting PFC and relevant cortical regions. In schizophrenia Anatomical and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained from 34 patients (16 of them first-episodes) and 32 healthy controls. We calculated curvature at rostral lateral prefrontal (RLPF) and superior medial prefrontal (SMPF) areas and mean FA for the tracts respectively connecting RLPF and SMPF areas with anterior caudal cingulate (ACC), superior temporal gyrus (STG) and superior parietal SP regions...
October 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106694/episodic-memory-for-dynamic-social-interaction-across-phase-of-illness-in-schizophrenia
#20
Junghee Lee, Keith H Nuechterlein, Barbara J Knowlton, Carrie E Bearden, Tyrone D Cannon, Alan P Fiske, Livon Ghermezi, Jacqueline N Hayata, Gerhard S Hellemann, William P Horan, Kimmy Kee, Robert S Kern, Kenneth L Subotnik, Catherine A Sugar, Joseph Ventura, Cindy M Yee, Michael F Green
Although a number of studies examined recollection and familiarity memory in schizophrenia, most of studies have focused on nonsocial episodic memory. Little is known about how schizophrenia patients remember social information in everyday life and whether social episodic memory changes over the course of illness. This study aims to examine episodic memory for dynamic social interaction with multimodal social stimuli in schizophrenia across phase of illness. Within each phase of illness, probands and demographically matched controls participated: 51 probands at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 36 controls, 80 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 49 controls, and 50 chronic schizophrenia patients and 39 controls...
July 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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