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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092752/optimising-uk-urban-road-verge-contributions-to-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services-with-cost-effective-management
#1
REVIEW
Odhran S O'Sullivan, Alison R Holt, Philip H Warren, Karl L Evans
Urban road verges can contain significant biodiversity, contribute to structural connectivity between other urban greenspaces, and due to their proximity to road traffic are well placed to provide ecosystem services. Using the UK as a case study we review and critically evaluate a broad range of evidence to assess how this considerable potential can be enhanced despite financial, contractual and public opinion constraints. Reduced mowing frequency and other alterations would enhance biodiversity, aesthetics and pollination services, whilst delivering costs savings and potentially being publically acceptable...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092122/how-size-determines-the-value-of-gold-economic-aspects-of-wet-chemical-and-laser-based-metal-colloid-synthesis
#2
Sandra Jendrzej, Bilal Gökce, Matthias Epple, Stephan Barcikowski
Gold is one of the most valuable materials, but its monetary value is even enhanced by size reduction from bullions to colloidal nanoparticles by a factor of 400. Wet-chemical reduction with subsequent centrifugation and pulsed laser ablation in liquids are frequently used for pure colloidal gold synthesis. Both methods provide similar physicochemical nanoparticle properties but are quite different synthesis techniques. However, surprisingly little is discussed about cost effects inherent to those methods. Both methods have in common that labor effort poses the majority of synthesis costs...
January 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#3
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092100/comparing-human-resource-planning-models-in-dentistry-a-case-study-using-canadian-armed-forces-dental-clinics
#4
Jodi L Shaw, Julie W Farmer, Peter C Coyte, Herenia P Lawrence
OBJECTIVES: To compare two methods of allocating general dentists to Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) dental detachments: a dentist-to-population ratio model and a needs-based model. METHODS: Data obtained from CAF sources were analysed to compare models. Times assigned to treatment plan procedures were used as a proxy for treatment needs. Full-time equivalents (FTEs) were used as an indicator for the number of dentists allocated to each detachment. FTE values were adjusted for military dentists to account for time spent on compulsory nonclinical duties...
January 16, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092012/results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-analyzing-telemedically-supported-case-management-in-the-first-year-after-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-a-budget-impact-analysis-from-the-healthcare-perspective
#5
Klaus Kaier, Silvia Hils, Stefan Fetzer, Philip Hehn, Anja Schmid, Dieter Hauschke, Lioudmila Bogatyreva, Bernd Jänigen, Przemyslaw Pisarski
: ᅟ: We analyze one-year costs and savings of a telemedically supported case management program after kidney transplantation from the perspective of the German Healthcare System. Recipients of living donor kidney transplantation (N = 46) were randomly allocated to either (1) standard aftercare or (2) standard aftercare plus additional telemedically supported case management. A range of cost figures of each patient's medical service utilization were calculated at month 3, 6 and 12 and analyzed using two-part regression models...
December 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091740/controlling-eutrophication-in-a-mediterranean-shallow-reservoir-by-phosphorus-loading-reduction-the-need-for-an-integrated-management-approach
#6
Mikel Zaragüeta, Pablo Acebes
Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090226/more-use-of-peritoneal-dialysis-gives-significant-savings-a-systematic-review-and-health-economic-decision-model
#7
Eva Pike, Vida Hamidi, Tove Ringerike, Torbjorn Wisloff, Marianne Klemp
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are in need of renal replacement therapy as dialysis and/or transplantation. The prevalence of ESRD and, thus, the need for dialysis are constantly growing. The dialysis modalities are either peritoneal performed at home or hemodialysis (HD) performed in-center (hospital or satellite) or home. We examined effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HD performed at different locations (hospital, satellite, and home) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) at home in the Norwegian setting...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089723/cost-effectiveness-of-the-decipher-genomic-classifier-to-guide-individualized-decisions-for-early-radiation-therapy-after-prostatectomy-for-prostate-cancer
#8
Jennifer M Lobo, Daniel M Trifiletti, Vanessa N Sturz, Adam P Dicker, Christine Buerki, Elai Davicioni, Matthew R Cooperberg, R Jeffrey Karnes, Robert B Jenkins, Robert B Den, Timothy N Showalter
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of early adjuvant versus salvage radiation therapy after prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Estimates of prostate cancer progression from the Decipher genomic classifier (GC) could guide informed decision-making and improve the outcomes for patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a Markov model to compare the costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with GC-based treatment decisions regarding adjuvant therapy after prostatectomy with those of 2 control strategies: usual care (determined from patterns of care studies) and the alternative of 100% adjuvant radiation therapy...
August 17, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089535/farmer-attitudes-and-perceptions-to-the-re-use-of-fertiliser-products-from-resource-oriented-sanitation-systems-the-case-of-vellore-south-india
#9
Prithvi Simha, Cecilia Lalander, Björn Vinnerås, M Ganesapillai
Relatively little research has been conducted to date on farmer attitudes towards the use of fertilisers from resource-oriented sanitation systems. This study employed a psycho-sociological approach to identify factors that encourage, or discourage, negative and positive attitudes to human waste recycling among farmers in southern India. A survey involving face-to-face interviews was performed with 120 randomly sampled farmers, taking into account the following factors: gender, age, religion, caste, type of farming, farm size, annual income and farming history...
January 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089436/the-significance-of-histologic-examination-of-gastrectomy-specimens-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-511-cases
#10
Pavel Kopach, Elizabeth M Genega, Sajani N Shah, Julie J Kim, Yvelisse Suarez
BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is quickly becoming the preferred procedure for bariatric surgery. According to the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery guidelines, routine preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopies are not recommended universally for bariatric surgery. Some studies have shown that the histologic examination of SG specimens is insignificant and not a cost-effective practice. However, some speculate SG examination may unveil pertinent findings and prevent further progression of precursor lesions...
November 15, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089159/immunohistochemistry-for-egfr-mutation-detection-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Nina Turnšek Hitij, Izidor Kern, Aleksander Sadikov, Lea Knez, Karmen Stanič, Matjaž Zwitter, Tanja Cufer
INTRODUCTION: The sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) was compared with the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detecting common activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Additionally, we evaluated predictive value of IHC EGFR mutation-positive status for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment outcome and estimated cost-effectiveness for the upfront IHC testing. METHODS: The trial included 79 consecutive EGFR mutation-positive and 29 EGFR mutation-negative NSCLC cases diagnosed with reflex PCR-based testing...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088771/do-we-still-need-cross-sectional-studies-in-nephrology-yes-we-do
#12
Giovanni Tripepi, Graziella D'Arrigo, Kitty J Jager, Vianda S Stel, Friedo W Dekker, Carmine Zoccali
Cross-sectional studies represent the second line of evidence (after case reports) in the ladder of evidence aimed at defining disease aetiology. This study design is used to generate hypotheses about the determinants of a given disease but also to investigate the accuracy of diagnostic tests and to assess the burden of a given disease in a population. The intrinsic limitation of cross-sectional studies, when applied to generate aetiological hypotheses, is that both the exposure under investigation and the disease of interest are measured at the same point in time...
January 14, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088400/hospitalizations-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-vaccine-preventable-infections-in-the-first-2-years-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#13
Amy G Feldman, Shikha S Sundaram, Brenda L Beaty, Allison Kempe
OBJECTIVES: To examine in liver transplant recipients at centers participating in the Pediatric Health Information System dataset the number of hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and vaccine-preventable infections (VPIs) in the first 2 years after transplantation, morbidity and mortality associated with these hospitalizations, and costs associated with these hospitalizations. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years of age who underwent liver transplantation at a Pediatric Health Information System center between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088246/budget-impact-analysis-of-vaccination-against-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-as-a-part-of-a-pentavalent-vaccine-in-the-childhood-immunization-schedule-of-iran
#14
Fatemeh Teimouri, Abbas Kebriaeezadeh, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, MohammadMahdi Gheiratian, Shekoufeh Nikfar
BACKGROUND: Health decision makers need to know the impact of the development of a new intervention on the public health and health care costs so that they can plan for economic and financial objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of adding Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine (Hib-HBV-DTP) to the national childhood immunization schedule of Iran. METHODS: An excel-based model was developed to determine the costs of including the Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization program (NIP), comparing the present schedule with the previous one (including separate DTP and hepatitis B vaccines)...
January 14, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088238/lymph-node-pooling-a-feasible-and-efficient-method-of-lymph-node-molecular-staging-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#15
Natalia Rakislova, Carla Montironi, Iban Aldecoa, Eva Fernandez, Josep Antoni Bombi, Mireya Jimeno, Francesc Balaguer, Maria Pellise, Antoni Castells, Miriam Cuatrecasas
BACKGROUND: Pathologic lymph node staging is becoming a deficient method in the demanding molecular era. Nevertheless, the use of more sensitive molecular analysis for nodal staging is hampered by its high costs and extensive time requirements. Our aim is to take a step forward in colon cancer (CC) lymph node (LN) pathology diagnosis by proposing a feasible and efficient molecular method in routine practice using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). RESULTS: Molecular detection of tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA with RT-LAMP was performed in 3206 LNs from 188 CC patients using two methods: individual analysis of 1449 LNs from 102 patients (individual cohort), and pooled LN analysis of 1757 LNs from 86 patients (pooling cohort)...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088236/economic-burden-of-family-caregiving-for-elderly-population-in-southern-ghana-the-case-of-a-peri-urban-district
#16
Stephen Tettey Nortey, Genevieve Cecilia Aryeetey, Moses Aikins, Djesika Amendah, Justice Nonvignon
BACKGROUND: Health systems in low and lower-middle income countries, particularly in sub-Sahara Africa, often lack the specialized personnel and infrastructure to provide comprehensive care for elderly/ageing populations. Close-to-client community-based approaches are a low-cost way of providing basic care and social support for elderly populations in such resource-constrained settings and family caregivers play a crucial role in that regard. However, family caregiving duties are often unremunerated and their care-related economic burden is often overlooked though this knowledge is important in designing or scaling up effective interventions...
January 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#17
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087552/screening-for-atrial-fibrillation-using-economical-and-accurate-technology-safety-a-pilot-study
#18
Mark Lown, Arthur Yue, George Lewith, Paul Little, Mike Moore
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of stroke and a marker of atherosclerosis and of all patients with stroke, around 17% have AF. The screening and treatment of AF could prevent about 12% of all strokes. Several relatively low-cost devices with good accuracy now exist which can detect AF including WatchBP and AliveCor. However, they can only measure the ECG or pulse over short time periods. Inexpensive devices such as heart rate monitors, which are widely available, can measure heart rate for prolonged periods and may have potential in screening for AF...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087549/engaging-stakeholders-and-target-groups-in-prioritising-a-public-health-intervention-the-creating-active-school-environments-case-online-delphi-study
#19
Katie L Morton, Andrew J Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Marc Suhrcke, David Turner, Esther M F van Sluijs
OBJECTIVES: Stakeholder engagement and public involvement are considered as integral to developing effective public health interventions and is encouraged across all phases of the research cycle. However, limited guidelines and appropriate tools exist to facilitate stakeholder engagement-especially during the intervention prioritisation phase. We present the findings of an online 'Delphi' study that engaged stakeholders (including young people) in the process of prioritising secondary school environment-focused interventions that aim to increase physical activity...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087381/prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-atopic-and-nonatopic-asthma-among-rural-children
#20
Joshua A Lawson, Luan M Chu, Donna C Rennie, Louise Hagel, Chandima P Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, James A Dosman
BACKGROUND: Because of time and cost constraints, objective classification of atopic and nonatopic asthma has been limited in large epidemiologic studies. However, as we try to better understand exposure-outcome associations and ensure appropriate treatment of asthma, it is important to focus on phenotype-defined asthma classification. OBJECTIVE: To compare atopic and nonatopic asthma in rural children with regard to risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2011...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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