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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336499/ecologically-driven-ultrastructural-and-hydrodynamic-designs-in-stomatopod-cuticles
#1
Lessa Kay Grunenfelder, Garrett Milliron, Steven Herrera, Isaias Gallana, Nicholas Yaraghi, Nigel Hughes, Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt, Pablo Zavattieri, David Kisailus
Ecological pressures and varied feeding behaviors in a multitude of organisms have necessitated the drive for adaptation. One such change is seen in the feeding appendages of stomatopods, a group of highly predatory marine crustaceans. Stomatopods include "spearers," who ambush and snare soft bodied prey, and "smashers," who bludgeon hard-shelled prey with a heavily mineralized club. The regional substructural complexity of the stomatopod dactyl club from the smashing predator Odontodactylus scyllarus represents a model system in the study of impact tolerant biominerals...
January 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333200/perceptions-of-mindfulness-in-a-low-income-primarily-african-american-treatment-seeking-sample
#2
Claire Adams Spears, Sean C Houchins, Wendy P Bamatter, Sandra Barrueco, Diana Stewart Hoover, Rokas Perskaudas
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332996/optimal-population-and-exhaustible-resource-constraints
#3
Nicholas Lawson, Dean Spears
A large literature considers the optimal size and growth rate of the human population, trading off the utility value of additional people with the costs of a larger population. In this literature, an important parameter is the social weight placed on population size; a standard result is that a planner with a larger weight on population chooses larger population levels and growth rates. We demonstrate that this result is conditionally overturned when an exhaustible resource constraint is introduced: if the discount rate is small enough, the optimal population today decreases with the welfare weight on population size...
January 2018: Journal of Population Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327841/abiraterone-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#4
Nicholas D James, Melissa R Spears, Matthew R Sydes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325711/effects-of-cortisol-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-expression-of-select-growth-stress-and-immune-related-genes-in-rainbow-trout-liver
#5
Brian S Shepherd, Allyn R Spear, Anju M Philip, Douglas W Leaman, Carol A Stepien, Osvaldo J Sepulveda-Villet, Debra E Palmquist, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Many studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol levels negatively influence growth and immunity in finfish. Despite this knowledge, few studies have assessed the direct effects of cortisol on liver immune function in finfish. Using real-time PCR, the expression of three cortisol-responsive genes (GR: glucocorticoid receptor, IGF-1: insulin-like growth factor-I and SOCS-1: suppressor of cytokine signaling-I), genes involved with innate and adaptive immunity (IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta, IgM: immunoglobin-M and Lyz: lysozyme), and liver-specific antimicrobial peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2A: liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2A) were studied in vitro using rainbow trout liver slices...
January 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324359/progress-toward-an-enhanced-vaccine-eight-marked-attenuated-viruses-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-disease-virus
#6
Allyn Spear, Feng-Xue Wang, Matthew A Kappes, Phani B Das, Kay S Faaberg
Recombinant viruses of strain Ingelvac® PRRS porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live virus vaccine were produced with two individual small in-frame deletions in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2; Δ23 and Δ87) and also the same deletions supplanted with foreign tags (Δ23-V5, Δ23-FLAG, Δ23-S, Δ87-V5, Δ87-FLAG, Δ87-S). The viruses, but one (Δ87-FLAG), were stable for 10 passages and showed minimal effects on in vitro growth. Northern hybridization showed that the Δ23-tagged probe detected intracellular viral genome RNA as well as shorter RNAs that may represent heteroclite species, while the Δ87-tagged probe detected predominantly only genome length RNAs...
January 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300809/evaluation-of-1-nitropyrene-as-a-surrogate-measure-for-diesel-exhaust
#7
Erin A Riley, Emily E Carpenter, Joemy Ramsay, Emily Zamzow, Christopher Pyke, Michael H Paulsen, Lianne Sheppard, Terry M Spear, Noah S Seixas, Dale J Stephenson, Christopher D Simpson
We investigated the viability of particle bound 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) air concentration measurements as a surrogate of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure, as compared with industry-standard elemental carbon (EC) and total carbon (TC) measurements. Personal exposures are reported for 18 employees at a large underground metal mine during four different monitoring campaigns. Full-shift personal air exposure sampling was conducted using a Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) compliant diesel particulate matter (DPM) impactor cassette downstream of a GS-1 cyclone pre-selector...
December 30, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288436/the-relationships-between-internal-and-external-measures-of-training-load-and-intensity-in-team-sports-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Shaun J McLaren, Tom W Macpherson, Aaron J Coutts, Christopher Hurst, Iain R Spears, Matthew Weston
BACKGROUND: The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships...
December 29, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273084/identification-of-cryptolepine-metabolites-in-rat-and-human-hepatocytes-and-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-of-cryptolepine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Arnold Donkor Forkuo, Charles Ansah, David Pearson, Werner Gertsch, Amanda Cirello, Adam Amaral, Jaimie Spear, Colin W Wright, Caroline Rynn
BACKGROUND: This study aims at characterizing the in vitro metabolism of cryptolepine using human and rat hepatocytes, identifying metabolites in rat plasma and urine after a single cryptolepine dose, and evaluating the single-dose oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of cryptolepine in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: The in vitro metabolic profiles of cryptolepine were determined by LC-MS/MS following incubation with rat and human hepatocytes. The in vivo metabolic profile of cryptolepine was determined in plasma and urine samples from Sprague Dawley rats following single-dose oral administration of cryptolepine...
December 22, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273066/co-regulation-of-transcription-by-brg1-and-brm-two-mutually-exclusive-swi-snf-atpase-subunits
#10
Jesse R Raab, John S Runge, Camarie C Spear, Terry Magnuson
BACKGROUND: SWI/SNF is a large heterogeneous multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex. It consists of multiple sets of mutually exclusive components. Understanding how loss of one sibling of a mutually exclusive pair affects the occupancy and function of the remaining complex is needed to understand how mutations in a particular subunit might affect tumor formation. Recently, we showed that the members of the ARID family of SWI/SNF subunits (ARID1A, ARID1B and ARID2) had complex transcriptional relationships including both antagonism and cooperativity...
December 22, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259756/vu6010608-a-novel-mglu7-nam-from-a-series-of-n-2-1h-1-2-4-triazol-1-yl-5-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl-benzamides
#11
Carson W Reed, Kevin M McGowan, Paul K Spearing, Branden J Stansley, Hanna F Roenfanz, Darren W Engers, Alice L Rodriguez, Eileen M Engelberg, Vincent B Luscombe, Matthew T Loch, Daniel H Remke, Jerri M Rook, Anna L Blobaum, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender, Craig W Lindsley
Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships within a series of mGlu7 NAMs based on an N-(2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)benzamide core with excellent CNS penetration (Kp 1.9-5.8 and Kp,uu 0.4-1.4). Analogues in this series displayed steep SAR. Of these, VU6010608 (11a) emerged with robust efficacy in blocking high frequency stimulated long-term potentiation in electrophysiology studies.
December 14, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250092/arabidopsis-tcp-transcription-factors-interact-with-the-sumo-conjugating-machinery-in-nuclear-foci
#12
Magdalena J Mazur, Benjamin J Spears, André Djajasaputra, Michelle van der Gragt, Georgios Vlachakis, Bas Beerens, Walter Gassmann, Harrold A van den Burg
In Arabidopsis more than 400 proteins have been identified as SUMO targets, both in vivo and in vitro. Among others, transcription factors (TFs) are common targets for SUMO conjugation. Here we aimed to exhaustively screen for TFs that interact with the SUMO machinery using an arrayed yeast two-hybrid library containing more than 1,100 TFs. We identified 76 interactors that foremost interact with the SUMO conjugation enzyme SCE1 and/or the SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1. These interactors belong to various TF families, which control a wide range of processes in plant development and stress signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239147/crowdsourced-asparagus-urinary-odor-population-kinetics
#13
Anuradha Ramamoorthy, Brian M Sadler, J G Coen van Hasselt, Jeroen Elassaiss-Schaap, Sreeneeranj Kasichayanula, Alena Y Edwards, Piet H van der Graaf, Lei Zhang, John A Wagner
The consumption of asparagus is associated with the production of malodorous urine with considerable interindividual variability (IIV). To characterize the urinary odor kinetics after consumption of asparagus spears, we conducted a study with consenting attendees from two American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) meetings. Subjects were randomized to eat a specific number of asparagus spears, and then asked to report their urinary odor perception. Eighty-seven subjects were included in the final analysis...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237071/measuring-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-knowledge-and-perceptions-of-risk-in-middle-class-african-americans
#14
Erica C Spears, Jeffrey J Guidry, Idethia S Harvey
There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often overlooked by researchers. This study quantitatively examines specific T2DM knowledge and perceptions of risk in middle-class African Americans (N = 121). The majority of respondents, 70...
December 11, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232015/constant-vigilance-plant-functions-guarded-by-resistance-proteins
#15
Jianbin Su, Benjamin J Spears, Sang Hee Kim, Walter Gassmann
Unlike animals, plants do not have an adaptive immune system and have instead evolved sophisticated and multi-layered innate immune mechanisms. To overcome plant immunity, pathogens secrete a diverse array of effectors into the apoplast and virtually all cellular compartments in order to dampen immune signaling and interfere with plant functions. Here we describe the scope of the arms race throughout the cell and summarize various strategies used by both plants and pathogens. Through studying the ongoing evolutionary battle between plants and key pathogens, we may yet uncover potential ways to achieve the ultimate goal of engineering broad-spectrum resistant crops without affecting food quality or productivity...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226033/patterns-in-artisanal-coral-reef-fisheries-revealed-through-local-monitoring-efforts
#16
David G Delaney, Lida T Teneva, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Jonatha L Giddens, Haruko Koike, Tom Ogawa, Alan M Friedlander, John N Kittinger
Sustainable fisheries management is key to restoring and maintaining ecological function and benefits to people, but it requires accurate information about patterns of resource use, particularly fishing pressure. In most coral reef fisheries and other data-poor contexts, obtaining such information is challenging and remains an impediment to effective management. We developed the most comprehensive regional view of shore-based fishing effort and catch published to date, to show detailed fishing patterns from across the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225683/concurrent-maternal-and-fetal-tachyarrhythmia-in-pregnancy
#17
Nadia Gabarin, Edgar T Jaeggi, Danna A Spears, Mathew Sermer, Candice K Silversides, Catriona J Bhagra
The occurrence of a maternal and fetal tachyarrhythmia together in pregnancy is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a persistent fetal atrial ectopic tachycardia occurring in conjunction with a maternal atrial tachycardia with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Amiodarone was effective in treating both maternal and fetal arrhythmias.
December 2017: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218497/diabetes-prevention-for-african-americans-a-scoping-review
#18
Erica C Spears, Margaret J Foster, Timethia J Bonner
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and is preventable in many instances. African-Americans are disproportionately represented in T2DM statistics. The strategies in place to prevent disease development in this population warrant critical examination. METHODS: A scoping review of literature was conducted to provide an overview of the largely inconsistent approach to African-American T2DM prevention research. Specific research questions included: (1) How are African-Americans treated in the existing T2DM literature? (1a) Are African-Americans primarily treated as a homogenous group in the literature? (1b) Has the literature addressed middle-class African-Americans? (2) Is the T2DM prevention literature focused on primary or secondary prevention? The review included articles published from 1985 to 2016, examining the methodology and approach toward African-Americans in each article...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217664/incidence-diagnosis-and-management-of-qt-prolongation-induced-by-cancer-therapies-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Andreu Porta-Sánchez, Cameron Gilbert, Danna Spears, Eitan Amir, Joyce Chan, Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular complications of cancer therapeutics are the focus of the burgeoning field of cardio-oncology. A common challenge in this field is the impact of cancer drugs on cardiac repolarization (ie, QT prolongation) and the potential risk for the life-threatening arrhythmia torsades de pointes. Although QT prolongation is not a perfect marker of arrhythmia risk, this has become a primary safety metric among oncologists. Cardiologists caring for patients receiving cancer treatment should become familiar with the drugs associated with QT prolongation, its incidence, and appropriate management strategies to provide meaningful consultation in this complex clinical scenario...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217289/javelin-avelumab-another-spear-to-fight-urothelial-carcinoma
#20
Aly-Khan A Lalani, Bradley A McGregor, Guru P Sonpavde, Toni K Choueiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Lancet Oncology
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