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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747493/role-of-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-virus-matrix-m-protein-in-suppressing-host-transcription
#1
Qi Ke, Wade Weaver, Adam Pore, Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Julia Halo Wildschutte, Peng Xiao, Brian S Shepherd, Allyn Spear, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Carol A Stepien, Vikram N Vakharia, Douglas W Leaman
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSV) is a pathogenic fish rhabdovirus found in discrete locales throughout the northern hemisphere. VHSV infection of fish cells leads to upregulation of the host's virus detection response, but the virus quickly suppresses interferon (IFN) production and antiviral genes expression. By systematically screening each of the six VHSV structural and nonstructural genes, we have identified matrix protein (M) as its most potent anti-host protein. VHSV-IVb M alone suppressed mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and type I IFN-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent manner...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742741/an-unusual-case-of-acute-parotitis-in-a-young-adult
#2
Azra Sehic, Caitlin Haenig, Francis Spear
Acute bacterial parotitis is uncommon in young adults. Infection with Serratia marcescens is even rarer and usually found in hospitalized patients. This case report focuses on a young woman with acute bacterial parotitis caused by S. marcescens that required a longer-than-normal course of antibiotics.
August 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#3
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726478/the-association-of-positive-emotion-and-first-smoking-lapse-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study
#4
Christine Vinci, Liang Li, Cai Wu, Cho Y Lam, Lin Guo, Virmarie Correa-Fernández, Claire A Spears, Diana S Hoover, Paul E Etcheverry, David W Wetter
OBJECTIVE: Individuals attempting to quit smoking typically have poor success rates, and the majority fail to maintain long-term abstinence. Although a large body of evidence documents the impact of negative affect on reducing abstinence, there is a much smaller body of research on positive emotions, which could be an important mechanism that is associated with successful cessation. As such, this study examined positive emotions in real-time via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine whether discrete positive emotions were uniquely related to 2 cessation milestones: quit day lapse and first lapse...
July 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718946/evidence-for-plical-support-of-the-patella
#5
Robert M Geraghty, Michelle Spear
There is a consensus that there is no overt anterior joint capsule in the knee. However, other anterior structures act in lieu of a joint capsule: the quadriceps tendon and patellar retinacular fibres. In the absence of a capsule, the synovium forms the suprapatellar pouch. Other synovial structures, the plicae, are more controversial. They are often described as embryonic remnants with no function, despite surrounding the patella. We aimed to identify plical anatomy and histology on cadaveric dissection and to examine their embryology using the human virtual embryo website...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717166/targeting-cellular-calcium-homeostasis-to-prevent-cytokine-mediated-beta-cell-death
#6
Amy L Clark, Kohsuke Kanekura, Zeno Lavagnino, Larry D Spears, Damien Abreu, Jana Mahadevan, Takuya Yagi, Clay F Semenkovich, David W Piston, Fumihiko Urano
Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715752/switching-to-sanitation-understanding-latrine-adoption-in-a-representative-panel-of-rural-indian-households
#7
Diane Coffey, Dean Spears, Sangita Vyas
Open defecation, which is still practiced by about a billion people worldwide, is one of the most compelling examples of how place influences health in developing countries. Efforts by governments and development organizations to address the world's remaining open defecation would be greatly supported by a better understanding of why some people adopt latrines and others do not. We analyze the 2005 and 2012 rounds of the India Human Development Survey (IHDS), a nationally representative panel of households in India, the country which is home to 60% of the people worldwide who defecate in the open...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714268/nidotherapy-in-the-successful-management-of-comorbid-depressive-and-personality-disorder
#8
Ben Spears, Helen Tyrer, Peter Tyrer
Nidotherapy is a new form of psychological therapy that aims to improve mental health by a systematic and collaborative manipulation of the environment in all its forms without focusing on alleviation of symptoms. Following treatment with nidotherapy, we describe a dramatic, and continuing, improvement in a woman with comorbid severe depressive illness and borderline personality disorder. She had made repeated serious suicide attempts over the previous 25 years and had received many drug and psychological treatments without success...
July 17, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713297/a-multiple-identity-approach-to-gender-identification-with-women-identification-with-feminists-and-their-interaction
#9
Jolien A van Breen, Russell Spears, Toon Kuppens, Soledad de Lemus
Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705874/automated-quantification-of-low-amplitude-abnormal-qrs-peaks-from-high-resolution-ecg-recordings-predicts-arrhythmic-events-in-patients-with-cardiomyopathy
#10
Moloy Das, Adrian M Suszko, Sachin Nayyar, Karthik Viswanathan, Danna A Spears, George Tomlinson, Arnold Pinter, Eugene Crystal, Rupin Dalvi, Sridhar Krishnan, Vijay S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy patients are at risk of sudden death, typically from scar-related abnormalities of electrical activation that promote ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Abnormal intra-QRS peaks may provide a measure of altered activation. We hypothesized that quantification of such QRS peaks (QRSp) in high-resolution ECGs would predict arrhythmic events in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-eligible cardiomyopathy patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients with ischemic or non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing prophylactic ICD implantation were prospectively enrolled (age 62±11 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 27±7%)...
July 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704772/assessing-the-role-of-bed-sediments-in-the-persistence-of-red-mud-pollution-in-a-shallow-lake-kinghorn-loch-uk
#11
Justyna P Olszewska, Kate V Heal, Ian J Winfield, Lorna J Eades, Bryan M Spears
Red mud is a by-product of alumina production. Little is known about the long-term fate of red mud constituents in fresh waters or of the processes regulating recovery of fresh waters following pollution control. In 1983, red mud leachate was diverted away from Kinghorn Loch, UK, after many years of polluting this shallow and monomictic lake. We hypothesised that the redox-sensitive constituents of red mud leachate, phosphorus (P), arsenic (As) and vanadium (V), would persist in the Kinghorn Loch for many years following pollution control as a result of cycling between the lake bed sediment and the overlying water column...
July 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678422/redistribution-of-benefits-but-not-defection-in-a-fisheries-bycatch-reduction-management-initiative
#12
T R McClanahan, J K Kosgei
Reducing the capture of small fish, discards, and by-catch is a primary concern of fisheries mangers that propose to maintain high yields, species diversity, and associated ecosystem functions. Modified fishing gear is one of the primary ways to reduce by-catch and capture of small fish. The outcomes of gear modification may depend on competition with other gears using similar fishing grounds and resources and the subsequent adoption or defection of fishers using modified gears. We evaluated the adoption, size, catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE), yield, and income responses among gears in a coral reef fishery where a 3-cm escape gap was introduced into traditional traps...
July 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678313/evaluation-of-a-new-imaging-software-for-aortic-endograft-planning
#13
G Tinelli, A Hertault, T Martin Gonzalez, R Spear, R Azzaoui, J Sobocinski, R E Clough, S Haulon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a new 3D Workstation workflow (EVAR Assist, Advantage Windows, GE Healthcare, Chalfont, UK) (EA-AW) designed to simplify complex EVAR planning. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of patients who underwent repair at our institution of a complex aortic aneurysm using fenestrated endovascular repair (f-EVAR) between January and September 2014, were reviewed. For each patient, imaging analysis (12 measures: aortic diameters and length and "clock position" of visceral artery) was performed on two different workstations: Aquarius (TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA) and EA-AW...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674200/the-deep-hot-biosphere-twenty-five-years-of-retrospection
#14
Daniel R Colman, Saroj Poudel, Blake W Stamps, Eric S Boyd, John R Spear
Twenty-five years ago this month, Thomas Gold published a seminal manuscript suggesting the presence of a "deep, hot biosphere" in the Earth's crust. Since this publication, a considerable amount of attention has been given to the study of deep biospheres, their role in geochemical cycles, and their potential to inform on the origin of life and its potential outside of Earth. Overwhelming evidence now supports the presence of a deep biosphere ubiquitously distributed on Earth in both terrestrial and marine settings...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663773/optimizing-outcomes-of-postmastectomy-breast-reconstruction-with-acellular-dermal-matrix-a-review-of-recent-clinical-data
#15
Michael Zenn, Mark Venturi, Troy Pittman, Scott Spear, Geoffrey Gurtner, Geoffrey Robb, Alex Mesbahi, Joseph Dayan
Background: This article reports on the current use of acellular dermal matrix in breast reconstruction. Methods: A literature review of articles on acellular dermal matrix in breast reconstruction from January 1, 2010, through December 20, 2016, was performed and analyzed for trends in acellular dermal matrix use and differences between commonly used acellular dermal matrixes. Findings: Clinical findings varied but include improved cosmesis and more 1-stage reconstructions using acellular dermal matrix. Superiority of sterile versus aseptic acellular dermal matrixes was noted, and the increased incidence of red breast syndrome with AlloDerm was significant...
2017: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659969/complementary-network-based-approaches-for-exploring-genetic-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-two-vulnerable-endemic-ground-squirrels
#16
Victoria H Zero, Adi Barocas, Denim M Jochimsen, Agnès Pelletier, Xavier Giroux-Bougard, Daryl R Trumbo, Jessica A Castillo, Diane Evans Mack, Mark A Linnell, Rachel M Pigg, Jessica Hoisington-Lopez, Stephen F Spear, Melanie A Murphy, Lisette P Waits
The persistence of small populations is influenced by genetic structure and functional connectivity. We used two network-based approaches to understand the persistence of the northern Idaho ground squirrel (Urocitellus brunneus) and the southern Idaho ground squirrel (U. endemicus), two congeners of conservation concern. These graph theoretic approaches are conventionally applied to social or transportation networks, but here are used to study population persistence and connectivity. Population graph analyses revealed that local extinction rapidly reduced connectivity for the southern species, while connectivity for the northern species could be maintained following local extinction...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659176/isown-accurate-somatic-mutation-identification-in-the-absence-of-normal-tissue-controls
#17
Irina Kalatskaya, Quang M Trinh, Melanie Spears, John D McPherson, John M S Bartlett, Lincoln Stein
BACKGROUND: A key step in cancer genome analysis is the identification of somatic mutations in the tumor. This is typically done by comparing the genome of the tumor to the reference genome sequence derived from a normal tissue taken from the same donor. However, there are a variety of common scenarios in which matched normal tissue is not available for comparison. RESULTS: In this work, we describe an algorithm to distinguish somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in next-generation sequencing data from germline polymorphisms in the absence of normal samples using a machine learning approach...
June 29, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658253/return-of-warm-conditions-in-the-southeastern-bering-sea-phytoplankton-fish
#18
Janet T Duffy-Anderson, Phyllis J Stabeno, Elizabeth C Siddon, Alex G Andrews, Daniel W Cooper, Lisa B Eisner, Edward V Farley, Colleen E Harpold, Ron A Heintz, David G Kimmel, Fletcher F Sewall, Adam H Spear, Ellen C Yasumishii
In 2014, the Bering Sea shifted back to warmer ocean temperatures (+2 oC above average), bringing concern for the potential for a new warm stanza and broad biological and ecological cascading effects. In 2015 and 2016 dedicated surveys were executed to study the progression of ocean heating and ecosystem response. We describe ecosystem response to multiple, consecutive years of ocean warming and offer perspective on the broader impacts. Ecosystem changes observed include reduced spring phytoplankton biomass over the southeast Bering Sea shelf relative to the north, lower abundances of large-bodied crustacean zooplankton taxa, and degraded feeding and body condition of age-0 walleye pollock...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650195/mechanisms-underlying-mindfulness-based-addiction-treatment-versus-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-and-usual-care-for-smoking-cessation
#19
Claire Adams Spears, Donald Hedeker, Liang Li, Cai Wu, Natalie K Anderson, Sean C Houchins, Christine Vinci, Diana Stewart Hoover, Jennifer Irvin Vidrine, Paul M Cinciripini, Andrew J Waters, David W Wetter
OBJECTIVE: To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. METHOD: Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647087/the-evolution-of-library-design-crafting-smart-compound-collections-for-phenotypic-screens
#20
REVIEW
Kerry L Spear, Scott P Brown
The (re)emergence of phenotypic drug discovery has been marked by a growing interest in screening campaigns that utilize phenotypic assays. The key objectives of phenotypic screens are different from those of target-based screens and can require alternate library-design strategies. Designing a library that is appropriate to the selected assay increases the likelihood of identifying better quality hits, which can reduce both timelines and overall cost of the drug-discovery process. Here, we provide an overview of small-molecule library design principles as applied to phenotypic screening...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
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