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Kondwani R Msangosoko, Mark A Boetel
The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis Röder (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is native to North America. However, its primary crop host, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., was introduced to the continent from Europe in the late 19th century. This field and greenhouse research was conducted to compare the relative attractiveness of eight cultivated and wild plant species for oviposition by T. myopaeformis, and the suitability of these potential host plants for larval development to elucidate the potential native and current host range of this pest...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Huma Q Rana, Rebecca Gelman, Holly LaDuca, Rachel McFarland, Emily Dalton, Jennifer Thompson, Virginia Speare, Jill S Dolinsky, Elizabeth C Chao, Judy E Garber
Background: Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) has traditionally been identified by single-gene testing (SGT) of TP53 triggered by clinical criteria, but the widespread use of multigene panel tests (MGPTs) has upended this paradigm. We sought to compare the personal and family cancer histories of TP53-positive result (TP53+) carriers who were identified by either MGPT or SGT. Methods: Of 44 310 individuals who underwent testing of TP53 in a single clinical diagnostic laboratory between 2010 and 2014, 44 086 (40 885 MGPT and 3201 SGT) met study eligibility criteria...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Matthew R Sydes, Melissa R Spears, Malcolm D Mason, Noel W Clarke, David P Dearnaley, Johann S de Bono, Gert Attard, Simon Chowdhury, Bill Cross, Silke Gillessen, Zaf Malik, Rob Jones, Chris Parker, Alastair W S Ritchie, J Martin Russell, Robin Millman, David Matheson, Claire Amos, Clare Gilson, Alison Birtle, Susannah Brock, Lisa Capaldi, Prabir Chakraborti, Ananya Choudhury, Linda Evans, Daniel Ford, Joanna Gale, Stephanie Gibbs, Duncan Gilbert, Robert Hughes, Duncan McLaren, Jason Lester, Ashok Nikapota, Joe O'Sullivan, Omi Parikh, Clive Peedell, Andrew Protheroe, Sarah M Rudman, Richard Shaffer, Denise Sheehan, Matthew Simms, Narayanan Srihari, Räto Strebel, Santhanam Sundar, Shaun Tolan, David Tsang, Mohini Varughese, John Wagstaff, Mahesh K B Parmar, Nicholas D James
Background: Adding abiraterone acetate with prednisolone (AAP) or docetaxel with prednisolone (DocP) to standard-of-care (SOC) each improved survival in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage platform randomised controlled protocol recruiting patients with high-risk locally advanced or metastatic PCa starting long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The protocol provides the only direct, randomised comparative data of SOC+AAP vs SOC+DocP. Method: Recruitment to SOC+DocP and SOC+AAP overlapped Nov-2011─Mar-2013...
February 26, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Melaine A Kuenemann, Patricia A Spears, Paul E Orndorff, Denis Fourches
Peptidoglycan walls of gram positive bacteria are functionalized by glycopolymers called wall teichoic acid (WTA). In Listeria monocytogenes, multiple enzymes including the glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalU) were identified as mandatory for WTA galactosylation, so that the inhibition of GalU is associated with a significant attenuation of Listeria virulence. Herein, we report on a series of in silico predicted GalU inhibitors identified using structure-based virtual screening and experimentally validated to be effective in blocking the WTA galactosylation pathway in vitro...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Informatics
George D Thurston, Sara De Matteis, Kris Murray, Pauline Scheelbeek, Noah Scovronick, Mark Budolfson, Dean Spears, Paolo Vineis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Tessa J Koeffler, Natalie E Demeter, Lynn Kysh, Jeffrey Reeb, Alix Stayton, Robert Spears, Rita V Burke
The goal of this research was to identify, summarize, and evaluate pediatric disaster preparedness resources in the United States and to identify areas that need improvement or further development. Using standard literature, gray literature and website reviews, relevant resources were identified and the 50 most relevant resources were studied in depth. Each resource was given a grade of A, B, or C based on content, format, quality, and thoroughness. These resources were divided into 3 categories: (1) hospital resources, (2) school resources, and (3) training/education resources...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Annemarie Stroustrup, Jennifer B Bragg, Syam S Andra, Paul C Curtin, Emily A Spear, Denise B Sison, Allan C Just, Manish Arora, Chris Gennings
Every year in the United States, more than 300,000 infants are admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICU) where they are exposed to a chemical-intensive hospital environment during a developmentally vulnerable period. The neurodevelopmental impact of environmental exposure to phthalates during the NICU stay is unknown. As phthalate exposure during the third trimester developmental window has been implicated in neurobehavioral deficits in term-born children that are strikingly similar to a phenotype of neurobehavioral morbidity common among children born premature, the role of early-life phthalate exposure on the neurodevelopmental trajectory of premature infants may be clinically important...
2018: PloS One
Timothy T Spear, Yuan Wang, Thomas W Smith, Patricia E Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Michael I Nishimura
The use of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells in adoptive cell transfer has had promising clinical success, but often, simple preclinical evaluation does not necessarily accurately predict treatment efficacy or safety. Preclinical studies generally evaluate one or a limited number of type 1 cytokines to assess antigen recognition. However, recent studies have implicated other "typed" T cells in effective anti-tumor/viral immunity, and limited functional evaluations may underestimate cross-reactivity...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Rafaelle Spear, Jonathan Sobocinski, Adrien Hertault, Matthieu Delloye, Richard Azzauiu, Dominique Fabre, Stéphan Haulon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of the second generation BeGraft balloon expandable covered stent Graft System (Bentley InnoMed, Hechingen, Germany) implanted as bridging stent grafts during fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR) of complex aneurysms. DESIGN: This was a single centre prospective study including all consecutive patients treated by FEVAR performed with second generation BeGraft stent grafts as bridging stents. METHODS: Demographics of patients, diameter and length of the bridging stent grafts, technical success, re-interventions, occlusions, post-operative events, and imaging (Cone Beam CT and/or CT scan, and contrast enhanced ultrasound) were prospectively collected in an electronic database...
February 28, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
R E Clough, R Spear, K Van Calster, A Hertault, R Azzaoui, J Sobocinski, D Fabre, S Haulon
BACKGROUND: Surgical repair of aortic arch pathology is complex and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alternative approaches have been developed to reduce these risks, including the use of thoracic stent-grafts with fenestrations or in combination with bypass procedures to maintain supra-aortic trunk blood flow. Branched stent-grafts are a novel approach to treat aortic arch pathology. METHODS: Consecutive patients with aortic arch disease presenting to a single university hospital vascular centre were considered for branched stent-graft repair (October 2010 to January 2017)...
March 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Peter Gärdenfors, Marlize Lombard
With this contribution we analyze ancient hunting technologies as one way to explore the development of causal cognition in the hominin lineage. Building on earlier work, we separate seven grades of causal thinking. By looking at variations in force dynamics as a central element in causal cognition, we analyze the thinking required for different hunting technologies such as stabbing spears, throwing spears, launching atlatl darts, shooting arrows with a bow, and the use of poisoned arrows. Our interpretation demonstrates that there is an interplay between the extension of human body through technology and expanding our cognitive abilities to reason about causes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Pamela Mar, Robert Spears, Jeffrey Reeb, Sarah B Thompson, Paul Myers, Rita V Burke
OBJECTIVE: Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. METHODS: Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique...
February 22, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Rebeca Eriksen, Rachel Gibson, Kathryn Lamb, Yvonne McMeel, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Jeanette Spear, Maria Aresu, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Gary Frost
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848)...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Katherine Spear
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2018: Veterinary Record
Dakota M Spear, William A Foster, Andreas Dwi Advento, Mohammad Naim, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Sarah H Luke, Jake L Snaddon, Sudharto Ps, Edgar C Turner
Expansion of oil palm agriculture is currently one of the main drivers of habitat modification in Southeast Asia. Habitat modification can have significant effects on biodiversity, ecosystem function, and interactions between species by altering species abundances or the available resources in an ecosystem. Increasing complexity within modified habitats has the potential to maintain biodiversity and preserve species interactions. We investigated trophic interactions between Argyrodes miniaceus, a cleptoparasitic spider, and its Nephila spp...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
S A Lee, J Dunne, E Febery, P Wilcock, T Mottram, M R Bedford
1. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of high phytase doses on growth performance and real-time gastric pH measurements in broiler chickens and pigs. 2. In the first experiment, 576 male Ross 308 broilers were fed in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d) with 4 treatment groups, with diets meeting nutrient requirements containing 0, 500, 1500 or 2500 FTU/kg phytase. In the second, 64 Landrace weaners were fed on diets meeting nutrient requirements with or without phytase (0 or 2500 FTU/kg) in two phases (0-21 and 21-42 d)...
February 12, 2018: British Poultry Science
Claire Adams Spears, Dina M Jones, Scott R Weaver, Terry F Pechacek, Michael P Eriksen
BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are disproportionately high among adults with mental health conditions (MHC), and recent research suggests that among former smokers, those with MHC are more likely to use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study investigated reasons for ENDS use and related risk perceptions among individuals with versus without MHC. METHODS: Among adult current ENDS users (n=550), associations between self-reported MHC diagnoses and motives for ENDS use and ENDS risk perceptions were examined, stratified by smoking status...
January 16, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Susan B Sorenson, Devan Spear
Age at first marriage has risen substantially and birth rates are at a record low; people are spending more time in relationships that, by comparison, have fewer emotional, financial, and legal commitments. Little research has examined intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in current and former adult (vs. adolescent) dating relationships. Such information is relevant to federal firearms policies that are based on the nature of an intimate relationship. We examined assaultive behaviors by the type and status of the relationship - current spouse, former spouse, current boyfriend or girlfriend, and former boyfriend or girlfriend - in 31,206 IPV incidents responded to by Philadelphia police in 2013...
February 2018: Preventive Medicine
Min-Ae Song, Theodore M Brasky, Daniel Y Weng, Joseph P McElroy, Catalin Marian, Michael J Higgins, Christine Ambrosone, Scott L Spear, Adana A Llanos, Bhaskar V S Kallakury, Jo L Freudenheim, Peter G Shields
Despite known age-related DNA methylation (aDNAm) changes in breast tumors, little is known about aDNAm in normal breast tissues. Breast tissues from a cross-sectional study of 121 cancer-free women, were assayed for genome-wide DNA methylation. mRNA expression was assayed by microarray technology. Analysis of covariance was used to identify aDNAm's. Altered methylation was correlated with expression of the corresponding gene and with DNA methyltransferase protein DNMT3A, assayed by immunohistochemistry. Publically-available TCGA-BRCA data were used for replication...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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