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Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marc Morissette, Kenneth M McFarlin, Simona Scheggi, Carla Gambarana, Stephen C Fowler, Thérèse Di Paolo, Marco Bortolato
The enzyme steroid 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Previous investigations showed that 5αR2 is expressed in key brain areas for emotional and socio-affective reactivity, yet the role of this enzyme in behavioral regulation remains mostly unknown. Here, we profiled the behavioral characteristics of 5αR2 heterozygous (HZ) and knockout (KO) mice, as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. While male 5αR2 KO mice displayed no overt alterations in motoric, sensory, information-processing and anxiety-related behaviors, they exhibited deficits in neurobehavioral correlates of dominance (including aggression against intruders, mating, and tube dominance) as well as novelty-seeking and risk-taking responses...
February 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Diane L Rosenbaum, Jocelyn E Remmert, Evan M Forman, Meghan L Butryn
OBJECTIVES: Parenthood is a time marked by behaviors that may promote risk for weight gain, including decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating. Little is known about parents in the context of behavioral weight loss, such as whether they differ in weight losses, and related barriers, or behaviors. METHOD: We compared parents of children aged 18 and younger (n = 105) to other participants who did not have children, or whose children were in adulthood (n = 215) in a behavioral weight loss program to evaluate six-month weight losses, and weight loss barriers and behaviors...
March 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Linda D Cameron, Paul Carroll, W Kyle Hamilton
This phase II trial evaluated psychosocial and health outcomes of an intervention designed to improve emotion regulation skills in adults suffering from Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). The study utilized a pretest-posttest design in which 92 adults enrolled in the community-based program completed pretest measures, attended either a faith-based or secular version of the 12-week ACE Overcomers program, and then completed posttest measures. The theory-guided program involved group sessions providing education and skills training to improve emotion regulation, self-awareness, resilience, and social functioning...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Margaret Addabbo, Elena Longhi, Ioana Cristina Marchis, Paolo Tagliabue, Chiara Turati
The ability to discriminate between different facial expressions is fundamental since the first stages of postnatal life. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 2-days-old newborns are capable to discriminate facial expressions of emotions as they naturally take place in everyday interactions, that is in motion. When two dynamic displays depicting a happy and a disgusted facial expression were simultaneously presented (i.e., visual preference paradigm), newborns did not manifest any visual preference (Experiment 1)...
2018: PloS One
Leone de Voogd, Reinout W Wiers, Peter J de Jong, Robert J Zwitser, Elske Salemink
INTRODUCTION: Negatively biased interpretations play an important role in anxiety and depression, which are highly prevalent in adolescence, and changing such biases might thus reduce or prevent emotional disorders. We investigated the short- and long-term effects of an online interpretation bias modification training in unselected adolescents to explore its potential in preventing anxiety and depression. METHODS: Participants (N = 173) were randomly allocated to eight online sessions of interpretation or placebo training...
2018: PloS One
Stoyan Popkirov, Vera Flasbeck, Uwe Schlegel, Georg Juckel, Martin Brüne
Frontal EEG asymmetry (FEA) has been studied as both state and trait parameter in emotion regulation and affective disorders. Its significance in borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains largely unknown. Twenty-six BPD patients and 26 healthy controls underwent EEG before and after mood induction using aversive images. A slight but significant shift from left- to right-sided asymmetry over prefrontal electrodes occurred across all subjects. In BPD baseline FEA over F7 and F8 correlated significantly with childhood trauma and functional neurological "conversion" symptoms as assessed by respective questionnaires...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Matthew D Rocklage, Derek D Rucker, Loran F Nordgren
Persuasion is a foundational topic within psychology, in which researchers have long investigated effective versus ineffective means to change other people's minds. Yet little is known about how individuals' communications are shaped by the intent to persuade others. This research examined the possibility that people possess a learned association between emotion and persuasion that spontaneously shifts their language toward more emotional appeals, even when such appeals may be suboptimal. We used a novel quantitative linguistic approach in conjunction with controlled laboratory experiments and real-world data...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Marc N Jarczok, Corina Aguilar-Raab, Julian Koenig, Michael Kaess, Jeremy C Borniger, Randy J Nelson, Martica Hall, Beate Ditzen, Julian F Thayer, Joachim E Fischer
INTRODUCTION: Successful regulation of emotional states is positively associated to mental health, while difficulties in regulating emotions are negatively associated to overall mental health and in particular associated with anxiety or depression symptoms. A key structure associated to socio-emotional regulatory processes is the central autonomic network. Activity in this structure is associated to vagal activity can be indexed noninvasively and simply by measures of peripheral cardiac autonomic modulations such as heart rate variability...
March 15, 2018: Chronobiology International
Jeffrey E Stokes
OBJECTIVES: Social relations can influence well-being throughout the life course. Integration in one's community may serve as a source of social support whereas negative interactions such as day-to-day discrimination can be psychosocial stressors, particularly for neurotic persons. Yet social connectedness may vary in importance across the age range. Individuals trim their social networks in later life to optimize emotional well-being, but older adults may also be at heightened risk of social isolation...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Leanne K Knobloch, Lynne M Knobloch-Fedders, Jeremy B Yorgason
This study draws on the emotional cycle of deployment model (Pincus, House, Christenson, & Adler, 2001) to consider how the valence of communication between military personnel and at-home partners during deployment predicts their generalized anxiety upon reunion. Online survey data were collected from 555 military couples (N = 1,110 individuals) once per month for 8 consecutive months beginning at homecoming. Dyadic growth curve modeling results indicated that people's anxiety declined across the transition...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Steven L Sayers, Frances K Barg, Shahrzad Mavandadi, Tanya H Hess, Andreea Crauciuc
This concurrent embedded mixed methods study explored important aspects of communication occurring between military service members and their intimate partners during a combat deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fifty-eight participants (32 military veterans and 26 non-veteran partners) participated in an interview using standardized self-report measures assessing the current level of relationship satisfaction, trauma symptoms of the veteran, and the veterans' trauma exposure. Participants also participated in a semistructured interview focused on combat deployment and reintegration experiences...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Nubia A Mayorga, Charles Jardin, Jafar Bakhshaie, Lorra Garey, Andres G Viana, Jodi Berger Cardoso, Michael Zvolensky
Although recent work has highlighted the relation of acculturative stress with depression and anxiety symptoms specifically among Latino/a university students, the potential mechanisms underlying these associations remain relatively unknown. The present study aims to examine difficulties in emotion regulation as an explanatory factor in the relation of acculturative stress with symptoms of depression, suicidality, social anxiety, and anxious arousal. A sample of 448 Latino/a college students (Mage = 20.67 years, SD = 1...
March 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Roaa S Jamjoom, Yoon S Park
OBJECTIVES: To study burnout among pediatric residents at King  Abdulazaiz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey that was administered to all pediatric residents enrolled in the Saudi Paediatric Board program (PGY1-PGY4) in a large tertiary academic hospital in the Western region of Saudi Arabia (King Abdulaziz University Hospital). The survey were sent via E-mail to 50 registered general pediatric residents.  Results: Seventy percent of the pediatric residents completed the survey...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Thomas Waltemate, Dominik Gall, Daniel Roth, Mario Botsch, Marc Erich Latoschik
This article reports the impact of the degree of personalization and individualization of users' avatars as well as the impact of the degree of immersion on typical psychophysical factors in embodied Virtual Environments. We investigated if and how virtual body ownership (including agency), presence, and emotional response are influenced depending on the specific look of users' avatars, which varied between (1) a generic hand-modeled version, (2) a generic scanned version, and (3) an individualized scanned version...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Liana J Petruzzi, Samuel J Pullen, Brittany C L Lange, Lindsey Parnarouskis, Silvia Dominguez, Benjamin Harris, Nicole Quiterio, Gondah Lekpeh, Burgess Manobah, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
Substance use is prevalent among youth in postconflict African countries and is associated with a number of public health problems such as poverty, child homelessness, and school truancy. This qualitative study explores the risk factors associated with substance use among Liberian youth from the perspective of public-school students. Nine focus groups were conducted with 72 Liberian public-school students (35 female, 37 male). Multiple risk factors for substance use among Liberian youth were identified through qualitative analysis, including emotional instability, gender, fear of academic failure, accessibility to substances within the school and community, poverty, and unintentional drug use...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Maija Peltola, Pekka Isotalus, Päivi Åstedt-Kurki
The aim of our study is to determine the relational communication characteristics of professional-patient communication situations that have either facilitated or impeded patients' self-management. Conducted from the perspective of Finnish patients in the context of type 2 diabetes care, we used as our research methods an open e-survey and semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The critical incident technique was utilized throughout in all these methods. The results show that both positive and negative experiences described by patients were connected to four multidimensional relational communication characteristics: (a) building trust in the other party in the professional-patient relationship, (b) willingness to communicate, (c) emotional presence, and (d) appropriateness...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Seung Ho Jang, Jae Hee Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Sang Yeol Lee
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) induces emotional relaxation in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for CAD patients. METHODS: A total of 44 CAD patients were selected as participants, 21 patients belonged to a MBAT group, and 23 patients belonged to the control group. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
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