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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645136/childhood-traumatic-experiences-and-the-association-with-marijuana-and-cocaine-use-in-adolescence-through-adulthood
#1
Joy D Scheidell, Kelly Quinn, Susan P McGorray, B Christopher Frueh, Nisha N Beharie, Linda B Cottler, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Examination of longitudinal relationships between childhood traumatic experiences and drug use across the life-course at the national level, with control of confounding by other forms of trauma, is needed. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of nine typologies of childhood traumas and the cumulative number experienced, correlation between traumas, and associations between individual and cumulative number of traumas with drug use during adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645127/-high-prevalence-of-antipsychotic-medication-use-in-dementia-patients-in-german-neuropsychiatric-practices
#2
Jens Bohlken, Anke Booker, Karel Kostev
Background The aim of the present study was to examine inpatients as well as patients living at home with respect to the frequency of antipsychotic medication use and to determine the factors leading to initial use of antipsychotics following dementia diagnosis. Methods This study included patients aged 60 years and over with an initial diagnosis of all-cause dementia (index date) by German psychiatrists in Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health). The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients who initially received an antipsychotic prescription after the index date...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645020/do-we-see-how-they-perceive-risk-an-integrated-analysis-of-risk-perception-and-its-effect-on-workplace-safety-behavior
#3
Nini Xia, Xueqing Wang, Mark A Griffin, Chunlin Wu, Bingsheng Liu
While risk perception is a key factor influencing safety behavior, the academia lacks specific attention to the ways that workers perceive risk, and thus little is known about the mechanisms through which different risk perceptions influence safety behavior. Most previous research in the workplace safety domain argues that people tend to perceive risk based on rational formulations of risk criticality. However, individuals' emotions can be also useful in understanding their perceptions. Therefore, this research employs an integrated analysis concerning the rational and emotional perspectives...
June 20, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645001/a-role-for-visceral-feedback-and-interoception-in-feelings-of-knowing
#4
Chris M Fiacconi, Jane E Kouptsova, Stefan Köhler
Guided by the framework that autonomic feedback shapes emotional experience and other feeling states, we asked whether feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments may be influenced by visceral information through interoception. Participants performed a FOK task for previously studied face-name pairs while changes in cardiovascular and facial muscle activity were recorded. Previously studied face cues for which the corresponding name could not be recalled elicited an increased cardiac rate relative to novel face cues...
June 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644927/testing-an-integrative-model-of-affect-regulation-and-avoidance-in-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-disordered-eating
#5
Nicholas L Anderson, Kathryn E Smith, Tyler B Mason, Janis H Crowther
This research tested a model that integrates risk factors among NSSI and eating disorder (ED) behaviors to elucidate possible shared and unique mechanisms underlying both behaviors. Emotional distress, limited access to emotion regulation (ER) strategies, avoidance, and NSSI/ED frequency were examined in a sample of 230 female undergraduates. Structural equation modeling indicated that emotional distress had direct and positive associations with limited access to ER strategies and avoidance, and limited access to ER strategies mediated the relationship between emotional distress and avoidance...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644832/parent-child-discrepancies-in-the-report-of-adolescent-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-taiwan
#6
Ying-Yeh Chen, Suk-Yin Ho, Pei-Chen Lee, Chia-Kai Wu, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
The majority of studies on parent-child discrepancies in the assessment of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries. It is believed that parent-adolescent agreement would be higher in societies with a strong culture of familism. We examined whether parent-adolescent discrepancies in the rating of adolescent emotional and behavioral problems are related to parental and family factors in Taiwan. Participants included 1,421 child-parent pairs of 7th-grade students from 12 middle schools in Northern Taiwan and their parents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644822/the-effect-of-a-lay-led-group-based-self-management-program-for-patients-with-chronic-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-danish-version-of-the-chronic-pain-self-management-programme
#7
Mimi Mehlsen, Lea Hegaard, Eva Ørnbøl, Jens Søndergaard Jensen, Per Fink, Lisbeth Frostholm
The Stanford Chronic Pain Self-Management Programme (CPSMP) consists of six 2½-hour weekly workshops focusing on how to manage pain in daily life. The workshops are facilitated by two workshop leaders of whom at least one must suffer from a long-term pain condition. The program is highly structured and manualized. Only few controlled trials testing the effect of CPSMP exist.Enrolled in the study were 424 adults from 19 Danish municipalities, (72% women; age: 25-93 years) with pain of any etiology and great variation in pain history (0-50 yrs)...
June 22, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644705/narrative-development-and-supported-employment-of-persons-with-severe-mental-illness
#8
Kelly Ann Cartwright, Tania Lecomte, Marc Corbière, Paul Lysaker
BACKGROUND: While the relationship between objective recovery and work among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is well-established, few studies have examined the link between subjective recovery and employment. AIMS: The study investigated the prospective relationship between narrative development at the start of supported employment (SE) and positive work outcomes. METHODS: The authors employed a time-limited, mixed-method longitudinal design to examine the relationship between the baseline narrative development of 38 SE participants with SMI and employment outcomes eight months later, as well as whether narratives evolved over the course of the study...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644695/peer-supported-open-dialogue-a-thematic-analysis-of-trainee-perspectives-on-the-approach-and-training
#9
Tom Stockmann, Lisa Wood, Gabriela Enache, Frankie Withers, Lauren Gavaghan, Russell Razzaque
BACKGROUND: Open Dialogue (OD) is a Finnish social network based model of care, with practice and organisational aspects. Peer-supported Open Dialogue (POD) is a UK version involving peer workers, whose contributions include building on fragmented social networks. Fifty-four NHS staff undertook the first training in POD between 2014 and 2015. The training course was organised as four separate residential weeks, together with reflective sharing on an online platform. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the perspectives of the POD trainees on the training and the POD approach...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644680/exploring-the-factor-structure-of-the-social-cognition-and-object-relations-global-rating-method-support-for-two-and-three-factor-models
#10
Caleb J Siefert, Michelle Stein, Jenelle Slavin-Mulford, Greg Haggerty, Samuel J Sinclair, Danielle Funke, Mark A Blais
The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) contains 8 scales for coding narrative content. This study explores the factor structure of this measure using college (n = 171), outpatient (n = 239), and inpatient (n = 78) samples. Participants told stories to the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) cards. Stories were transcribed and coded by blind raters using the SCORS-G. Cases were randomly assigned to an exploratory or validation group. Exploratory factor analysis with the exploratory group suggested 2- and 3-factor models...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644290/could-emotional-intelligence-make-patients-safer
#11
Estelle Codier, David D Codier
: The vast majority of medical errors occurring each year involve faulty communication. For this reason, it's essential that we identify skills that support accurate communication and information transfer as well as optimum patient-centered care, team function, and patient safety. Research in nursing and other disciplines has demonstrated that emotional intelligence abilities improve communication, support constructive conflict resolution, and improve individual and team performance. Although further studies are needed, these findings suggest emotional intelligence ability can positively affect patient safety...
July 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644071/age-invariance-in-rapid-facial-affective-reactions-to-emotionally-valenced-stimuli
#12
Matthew R Nangle, Phoebe E Bailey, Julie D Henry, Georgina S Khlentzos, Kandice J Varcin, Alexis E Whitton
It has been suggested that an age-related positivity effect may only occur in the context of explicit information processing, but it is unclear whether this bias extends to the processing of rapid facial reactions. In addition, most studies that have looked for evidence of age-related implicit positivity have used attentional (as opposed to sensory) unawareness paradigms, or used broad-based indicators of attentional awareness that do not speak to the nature of the affective response. In the present study, younger and older adults were therefore asked to view non-facial images presented supraliminally (i...
June 23, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643531/difficult-conversations-talking-about-cost-in-audiology-consultations-with-older-adults
#13
Katie Ekberg, Caitlin Barr, Louise Hickson
OBJECTIVE: Financial cost is a barrier for many older adults in their decision to obtain hearing aids (HAs). This study aimed to examine conversations about the cost of HAs in detail within initial audiology appointments. DESIGN: Sixty-two initial audiology appointments were video-recorded. The data were analysed using conversation analysis. STUDY SAMPLE: Participants included 26 audiologists, 62 older adults and 17 companions. RESULTS: Audiologists and clients displayed interactional difficulty during conversations about cost...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643436/emotional-awareness-and-expression-training-improves-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
E R Thakur, H J Holmes, N A Lockhart, J N Carty, M S Ziadni, H K Doherty, J M Lackner, H Schubiner, M A Lumley
BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines identify several psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS patients, however, have elevated trauma, life stress, relationship conflicts, and emotional avoidance, which few therapies directly target. We tested the effects of emotional awareness and expression training (EAET) compared to an evidence-based comparison condition-relaxation training-and a waitlist control condition. METHODS: Adults with IBS (N=106; 80% female, Mean age=36 years) were randomized to EAET, relaxation training, or waitlist control...
June 22, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643242/what-influences-linkage-to-care-after-home-based-hiv-counseling-and-testing
#15
Reshma Naik, Wanga Zembe, Fatima Adigun, Elizabeth Jackson, Hanani Tabana, Debra Jackson, Frank Feeley, Tanya Doherty
To maximize the benefits of test and treat strategies that utilize community-based HIV testing, clients who test positive must link to care in a timely manner. However, linkage rates across the HIV treatment cascade are typically low and little is known about what might facilitate or hinder care-seeking behavior. This qualitative study was conducted within a home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBHCT) intervention in South Africa. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 HBHCT clients who tested HIV positive to explore what influenced their care-seeking behavior...
June 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643048/association-of-gastrointestinal-events-with-quality-of-life-and-treatment-satisfaction-in-osteoporosis-patients-results-from-the-medication-use-patterns-treatment-satisfaction-and-inadequate-control-of-osteoporosis-study-music-os
#16
A Modi, S Sen, J D Adachi, S Adami, B Cortet, A L Cooper, P Geusens, D Mellström, J P Weaver, J P van den Bergh, P A Keown, S Sajjan
The purpose of this study was to assess the association of GI events with HRQoL and treatment satisfaction. The effect of baseline GI events persisted through 1 year of follow-up, as indicated by lower EQ-5D, OPAQ-SV, and treatment satisfaction scores among patients with vs without baseline GI events. The presence of GI events is an independent predictor of decreased HRQoL and treatment satisfaction in patients being treated for osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to assess the association of gastrointestinal (GI) events with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and treatment satisfaction in patients being treated for osteoporosis...
June 22, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643033/the-role-of-sensory-perception-emotionality-and-lifeworld-in-auditory-word-processing-evidence-from-congenital-blindness-and-synesthesia
#17
Judith Papadopoulos, Frank Domahs, Christina Kauschke
Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642871/promoting-mental-health-in-italian-middle-and-high-school-a-pilot-study
#18
Franco Veltro, Valentina Ialenti, Manuel Alejandro Morales García, Emiliana Bonanni, Claudia Iannone, Marinella D'Innocenzo, Antonella Gigantesco
AIM: In Italy, a handbook has been developed based on the principles of cooperative learning, life skills, self-effectiveness, and problem-solving at high school level. Early studies have shown the handbook's effectiveness. It has been hypothesized that the revised handbook could be more effective in middle schools. METHOD: The study design is a "pre- and posttest" that compares the results obtained from 91 students of the high schools with those of the 38 students from middle schools...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642720/depressive-symptomatology-among-norwegian-adolescent-boys-and-girls-the-patient-health-questionnaire-9-phq-9-psychometric-properties-and-correlates
#19
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, Geir S Brunborg
This study explored the potential contribution of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)-based Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9) instrument to the developmental epidemiology research in Norway, by examining depressive symptoms in a school sample of adolescents (N = 846). The average PHQ-9 scores were 6.89 (SD = 5.13) for girls, and 4.57 (SD = 3.98) for boys; 8.5% of girls and 2.6% of boys were classified into the originally proposed categories indicative of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; PHQ-9 scores ≥ 15)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642690/autonomy-in-depressive-patients-undergoing-dbs-treatment-informed-consent-freedom-of-will-and-dbs-potential-to-restore-it
#20
Timo Beeker, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Volker A Coenen
According to the World Health Organization, depression is one of the most common and most disabling psychiatric disorders, affecting at any given time approximately 325 million people worldwide. As there is strong evidence that depressive disorders are associated with a dynamic dysregulation of neural circuits involved in emotional processing, recently several attempts have been made to intervene directly in these circuits via deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
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