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Pancreatic acinar cells

Guojian Yin, Guoyong Hu, Rong Wan, Ge Yu, Xiaofeng Cang, Jie Xiong, Jianbo Ni, Yanling Hu, Miao Xing, Yuting Fan, Wenqin Xiao, Lei Qiu, Maochun Tang, Yan Zhao, Shaofeng Wang, Xingpeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown an obvious protective effect on acute pancreatitis (AP). The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of bone marrow MSC-derived microvesicles (bmMSC-MVs) on AP and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Bone marrow MSCs and bmMSC-MVs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Cerulein-induced mild AP (MAP) and sodium taurocholate-induced severe AP (SAP) were used as AP models in vivo and in vitro...
October 2016: Pancreas
Chen Luo, Lu-Ting Yu, Meng-Qi Yang, Xiang Li, Zhi-Yuan Zhang, Martin O Alfred, Jun-Li Liu, Min Wang
Regenerating genes (Reg) have been found during the search for factors involved in pancreatic islet regeneration. Our recent study discovered that pancreatic β-cell-specific overexpression of Reg3β protects against streptozotocin (Stz) -induced diabetes in mice. To investigate its potential roles in the treatment of diabetes, we produced a recombinant Reg3β protein and provided evidence that it is active in promoting islet β-cell survival against Stz- triggered cell death. Though ineffective in alleviating preexisting diabetes, pretreatment of recombinant Reg3β was capable of minimizing the Stz-induced hyperglycemia and weight loss, by preserving serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and islet β-cell mass...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qiang Zhang, Yaqing Zhang, Joshua D Parsels, Ines Lohse, Theodore S Lawrence, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Yi Sun, Meredith A Morgan
Pancreatic cancers driven by KRAS mutations require additional mutations for tumor progression. The tumor suppressor FBXW7 is altered in pancreatic cancers, but its contribution to pancreatic tumorigenesis is unknown. To determine potential cooperation between Kras mutation and Fbxw7 inactivation in pancreatic tumorigenesis, we generated P48-Cre;LSL-Kras(G12D);Fbxw7(fl/fl) (KFC(fl/fl)) compound mice. We found that KFC(fl/fl) mice displayed accelerated tumorigenesis: all mice succumbed to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) by 40 days of age, with PDA onset occurring by 2 weeks of age...
October 17, 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Guoliang Wang, Jingchao Zhang, Danhua Dui, Haoyuan Ren, Jin Liu
The pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains unclear. The Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is important for various cytokines and growth factors. This study investigated the effect of the late inflammatory factor high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) on the activation of JAK2/STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells and the inhibitory effects of AG490 (a JAK2 inhibitor) and rapamycin (a STAT3 inhibitor) on this pathway. Rat pancreatic acinar cells were randomly divided into the control, HMGB1, AG490, and rapamycin groups...
October 18, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Zygmunt Warzecha, Paweł Sendur, Piotr Ceranowicz, Marcin Dembiński, Jakub Cieszkowski, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Rafał Olszanecki, Romana Tomaszewska, Tadeusz Ambroży, Artur Dembiński
: Coagulation is recognized as a key player in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the current research was to examine the effect of pretreatment with acenocoumarol on the development of acute pancreatitis (AP) evoked by cerulein. METHODS: AP was induced in rats by cerulein administered intraperitoneally. Acenocoumarol (50, 100 or 150 µg/kg/dose/day) or saline were given once daily for seven days before AP induction. RESULTS: In rats with AP, pretreatment with acenocoumarol administered at the dose of 50 or 100 µg/kg/dose/day improved pancreatic histology, reducing the degree of edema and inflammatory infiltration, and vacuolization of acinar cells...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mariia Lunova, Peggy Schwarz, Renwar Nuraldeen, Kateryna Levada, Deniz Kuscuoglu, Michael Stützle, Maja Vujic, Johannes Haybaeck, Piotr Ruchala, Milan Jirsa, Jean-Christophe Deschemin, Sophie Vaulont, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
Iron is both an essential and a potentially toxic element and its systemic homeostasis is controlled by the iron-hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin, causes its degradation and thereby diminishes iron uptake from the intestine and the release of iron from macrophages. Given that hepcidin-resistant ferroportin mutant mice display exocrine pancreas dysfunction, we analysed pancreata of aging hepcidin knockout mice (KOs). Hepcidin and Hfe KOs were compared to wild type animals (WTs) kept on standard or iron-rich diets...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Chinh Q Hoang, Michael A Hale, Ana Azevedo-Pouly, Hans P Elsässer, Tye G Deering, Spencer G Willet, Fong C Pan, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher V E Wright, Galvin H Swift, Raymond J MacDonald
Maintenance of cell-type identity is crucial for health, yet little is known of the regulation that sustains the long-term stability of differentiated phenotypes. To investigate the roles that key transcriptional regulators play in adult differentiated cells, we examined the effects of depletion of the developmental master regulator PTF1A on the specialized phenotype of the adult pancreatic acinar cell in vivo. RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq results showed that PTF1A maintains the expression of genes for all cellular processes dedicated to the production of the secretory digestive enzymes, a highly attuned surveillance of unfolded proteins, and a heightened unfolded protein response (UPR)...
October 3, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Mauro J Muraro, Gitanjali Dharmadhikari, Dominic Grün, Nathalie Groen, Tim Dielen, Erik Jansen, Leon van Gurp, Marten A Engelse, Francoise Carlotti, Eelco J P de Koning, Alexander van Oudenaarden
To understand organ function, it is important to have an inventory of its cell types and of their corresponding marker genes. This is a particularly challenging task for human tissues like the pancreas, because reliable markers are limited. Hence, transcriptome-wide studies are typically done on pooled islets of Langerhans, obscuring contributions from rare cell types and of potential subpopulations. To overcome this challenge, we developed an automated platform that uses FACS, robotics, and the CEL-Seq2 protocol to obtain the transcriptomes of thousands of single pancreatic cells from deceased organ donors, allowing in silico purification of all main pancreatic cell types...
September 29, 2016: Cell Systems
Ajay Kumar Dixit, Anne E Sarver, Zuobiao Yuan, John George, Usman Barlass, Hassam Cheema, Archana Sareen, Sulagna Banerjee, Vikas Dudeja, Rajinder K Dawra, Subbaya Subramanian, Ashok K Saluja
In the current study, we have characterized the global miRNA expression profile in mouse pancreatic acinar cells and during acute pancreatitis using next-generation RNA-Sequencing. We identified 324 known and 6 novel miRNAs being expressed in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. At basal state, miR-148a-3p, miR-375-3p, miR-217-5p, miR-200a-3p were among the most abundantly expressed whereas, miR-24-5p and miR-421-3p were least abundant. Treatment of acinar cells with caerulein (100 nM) and taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate [TLC-S (250 μM)] induced numerous changes in miRNA expression profile...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Roberto Catanzaro, Biagio Cuffari, Angelo Italia, Francesco Marotta
After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia...
September 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hui-Yi Feng, Yang-Chao Chen
The role of bile acids in colorectal cancer has been well documented, but their role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this review, we examined the risk factors of pancreatic cancer. We found that bile acids are associated with most of these factors. Alcohol intake, smoking, and a high-fat diet all lead to high secretion of bile acids, and bile acid metabolic dysfunction is a causal factor of gallstones. An increase in secretion of bile acids, in addition to a long common channel, may result in bile acid reflux into the pancreatic duct and to the epithelial cells or acinar cells, from which pancreatic adenocarcinoma is derived...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Nguyen Vo, David W Cohen, Mary E Dillhoff, Ming Jin
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia is categorized by grade, size, and functional status. Neuroendocrine microadenoma (NEMA) is defined as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that measures less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Multiple NEMAs are termed neuroendocrine adenomatosis (NEMAtosis). The surgical pathology and clinical aspects of pancreatic NEMAtosis have been reported, but there has been no report regarding EUS-FNA cytology of NEMAtosis. We report a case of NEMAtosis with cytologic correlation and illustrate the diagnostic challenges and potential pitfalls...
September 27, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Åsa Segerstolpe, Athanasia Palasantza, Pernilla Eliasson, Eva-Marie Andersson, Anne-Christine Andréasson, Xiaoyan Sun, Simone Picelli, Alan Sabirsh, Maryam Clausen, Magnus K Bjursell, David M Smith, Maria Kasper, Carina Ämmälä, Rickard Sandberg
Hormone-secreting cells within pancreatic islets of Langerhans play important roles in metabolic homeostasis and disease. However, their transcriptional characterization is still incomplete. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of thousands of human islet cells from healthy and type 2 diabetic donors. We could define specific genetic programs for each individual endocrine and exocrine cell type, even for rare δ, γ, ε, and stellate cells, and revealed subpopulations of α, β, and acinar cells. Intriguingly, δ cells expressed several important receptors, indicating an unrecognized importance of these cells in integrating paracrine and systemic metabolic signals...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Stephanie Azzopardi, Sharon Pang, David S Klimstra, Yi-Chieh Nancy Du
In human studies and mouse models, the contributions of p53 and p16(Ink4a)/p19(Arf) loss are well established in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Although loss of functional p53 pathway and loss of Ink4a/Arf in human pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) are identified, their direct roles in tumorigenesis of PACC and PanNET remain to be determined. Using transgenic mouse models expressing the viral oncogene polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT), we demonstrate that p53 loss in pancreatic Pdx1+ progenitor cells results in aggressive PACC, whereas Ink4a/Arf loss results in PanNETs...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Anil K Rustgi
Pancreatic stromal fibroblasts provide structural support. Activated fibroblasts are critical in the tumor microenvironment. In this issue of Genes & Development, Liu and colleagues (pp. 1943-1955) unravel the finding that depletion of Smoothened (Smo) in pancreatic stromal fibroblasts results in AKT activation and noncanonical GLI2 activation with subsequent TGFα secretion, activation of EGFR in pancreatic epithelial cells, and augmentation of acinar-ductal metaplasia. Additionally, Smo-mediated signaling has proproliferative effects on pancreatic tumor cells...
September 1, 2016: Genes & Development
Hila Danino, Ronny Peri- Naor, Chen Fogel, Yael Ben-Harosh, Rotem Kadir, Hagit Salem, Ruth Birk
AIM: Pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol lipase EC is an essential enzyme in hydrolysis of dietary fat. Dietary fat, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), regulate pancreatic lipase (PNLIP); however, the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation is mostly unknown. As PUFA are known to regulate expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and as we identified in-silico putative PPARγ binding sites within the putative PNLIP promoter sequence, we hypothesized that PUFA regulation of PNLIP might be mediated by PPARγ...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qingbing Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Rongfang Guo, Guoping Li
Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor that is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. The aim of this study was to evaluate and describe the computed tomography (CT) features of ACC and compare the results with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (DAC) for improving preoperative diagnosis. The control group consisted of 34 patients with DAC collected from the pathology electronic database. The CT imaging from nine patients with pathologically confirmed ACC was retrospectively reviewed. Two radiologists independently assessed the tumor location, size, texture, and enhancement patterns...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Sonia Ortiz-Miranda, Rui Ji, Agata Jurczyk, Ken-Edwin Aryee, Shunyan Mo, Terry Fletcher, Scott A Shaffer, Dale L Greiner, Rita Bortell, Ronald Gregg, Alan Cheng, Leah J Hennings, Ann R Rittenhouse
Knockout technology has proven useful for delineating functional roles of specific genes. Here we describe and provide an explanation for striking pathology that occurs in a subset of genetically engineered mice expressing a rat CaVβ2a transgene under control of the cardiac α-myosin heavy chain promoter. Lesions were limited to mice homozygous for transgene and independent of native Cacnb2 genomic copy number. Gross findings included an atrophied pancreas, decreased adipose tissue, thickened, orange intestines, and enlarged liver, spleen and abdominal lymph nodes...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jason R Pitarresi, Xin Liu, Sudarshana M Sharma, Maria C Cuitiño, Raleigh D Kladney, Thomas A Mace, Sydney Donohue, Sunayana G Nayak, Chunjing Qu, James Lee, Sarah A Woelke, Stefan Trela, Kyle LaPak, Lianbo Yu, Joseph McElroy, Thomas J Rosol, Reena Shakya, Thomas Ludwig, Gregory B Lesinski, Soledad A Fernandez, Stephen F Konieczny, Gustavo Leone, Jinghai Wu, Michael C Ostrowski
Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples relative to normal pancreatic controls...
September 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Hui Zhang, Pengcheng Yu, Shengwei Zhong, Tingting Ge, Shasha Peng, Xiaoquan Guo, Zuohong Zhou
Telocytes (TCs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. However, information about TCs of lower animals remains rare. Herein, pancreatic TCs of the Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) were identified by CD34 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The IHC micrographs revealed CD34(+) TCs with long telopodes (Tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. CD34(+) TCs/Tps were frequently observed between exocrine acinar cells and were close to blood vessels...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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