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Intracellular calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913425/cd36-mediates-h2o2-induced-calcium-influx-in-lung-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Karthik Suresh, Laura Servinsky, Jose Reyes, Clark Undem, Joel Zaldumbide, Otgonchimeg Rentsendorj, Sruti Modekurty, Jeffrey M Dodd-O, Alan L Scott, David B Pearse, Larissa A Shimoda
Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular Ca2+ play a key role in endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury (ALI). We previously showed that H2O2-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in LMVECs involve the membrane Ca2+ channel, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and that inhibiting this channel attenuated H2O2-induced barrier disruption in vitro. We also showed that phosphorylation of TRPV4 by the Src family kinase, Fyn, contributes to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx in LMVEC...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911714/regulation-of-the-phosphatase-pp2b-by-protein-protein-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Patrick J Nygren, John D Scott
Protein dephosphorylation is important for regulating cellular signaling in a variety of contexts. Protein phosphatase-2B (PP2B), or calcineurin, is a widely expressed serine/threonine phosphatase that acts on a large cross section of potential protein substrates when activated by increased levels of intracellular calcium in concert with calmodulin. PxIxIT and LxVP targeting motifs are important for maintaining specificity in response to elevated calcium. In the present study, we describe the mechanism of PP2B activation, discuss its targeting by conserved binding motifs and review recent advances in the understanding of an A-kinase anchoring protein 79/PP2B/protein kinase A complex's role in synaptic long-term depression...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908723/oxidation-inhibits-pth-receptor-signaling-and-trafficking
#3
Juan A Ardura, Verónica Alonso, Pedro Esbrit, Peter A Friedman
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) increase during aging, potentially affecting many tissues including brain, heart, and bone. ROS alter signaling pathways and constitute potential therapeutic targets to limit oxidative damaging effects in aging-associated diseases. Parathyroid hormone receptors (PTHR) are widely expressed and PTH is the only anabolic therapy for osteoporosis. The effects of oxidative stress on PTHR signaling and trafficking have not been elucidated. Here, we used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based cAMP, ERK, and calcium fluorescent biosensors to analyze the effects of ROS on PTHR signaling and trafficking by live-cell imaging...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907088/silver-nanoparticle-directed-mast-cell-degranulation-is-mediated-through-calcium-and-pi3k-signaling-independent-of-the-high-affinity-ige-receptor
#4
Nasser B Alsaleh, Indushekhar Persaud, Jared M Brown
Engineered nanomaterial (ENM)-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#5
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#6
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904901/effect-of-ticagrelor-on-endothelial-calcium-signalling-and-barrier-function
#7
Dursun Gündüz, Christian Tanislav, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, Rainer Schulz, Christian Hamm, Muhammad Aslam
The P2Y12 receptor is a Gi-coupled receptor whose activation inhibits adenylyl cyclase and thereby reduces the concentration of intracellular cAMP. Here the hypothesis was tested whether AR-C 66096 or ticagrelor, two direct-acting and reversibly binding P2Y12 receptor antagonists, protect endothelial cell (EC) barrier function by raising intracellular cAMP in ECs. The study was carried out on primary human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and human pulmonary microvascular ECs (hPMECs). AR-C66096 (10 µM) induced a 50 % increase in cAMP in ECs whereas ticagrelor (2-10 µM) had no effect...
December 1, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903111/electric-stimulation-enhances-cardiac-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-myocardial-infarction-therapy
#8
Ruilian Ma, Jialiang Liang, Wei Huang, Linlin Guo, WenFeng Cai, Lei Wang, Christian Paul, Huang-Tian Yang, Ha Won Kim, Yigang Wang
AIM: Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS as compared to control treatment...
November 30, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902841/dynamical-effects-of-calcium-sensitive-potassium-currents-on-voltage-and-calcium-alternans
#9
Matthew Kennedy, Donald M Bers, Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, Daisuke Sato
Cardiac alternans is a precursor to life-threatening arrhythmias. Alternans can be caused by instability of the membrane voltage (Vm ), instability of the intracellular Ca (Cai ) cycling, or both. Vm dynamics and Cai dynamics are coupled via Ca-sensitive currents. In cardiac myocytes, there are several Ca-sensitive potassium (K) currents such as the slowly activating delayed rectifier current (IKs ) and the small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) current (ISK ). However, the role of these currents in the development of arrhythmias is not well understood...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900635/somatostatin-and-dopamine-receptor-regulation-of-pituitary-somatotroph-adenomas
#10
REVIEW
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Ning-Ai Liu, Shlomo Melmed
Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are expressed in normal and tumoral somatotroph cells. Upon receptor stimulation, somatostatin and the somatostatin receptor ligands octreotide, lanreotide, and pasireotide, and to a lesser extent, dopamine and the dopamine analogs bromocriptine and cabergoline, suppress growth hormone (GH) secretion from a GH-secreting pituitary somatotroph adenoma. Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are Gαi-protein coupled that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP production and reduce intracellular calcium concentration and calcium flux oscillations...
November 29, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#11
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899046/chili-pepper-as-a-body-weight-loss-food
#12
Sharon Varghese, Peter Kubatka, Luis Rodrigo, Katarina Gazdikova, Martin Caprnda, Julia Fedotova, Anthony Zulli, Peter Kruzliak, Dietrich Büsselberg
Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897225/calmodulin-interacts-with-rab3d-and-modulates-osteoclastic-bone-resorption
#13
Sipin Zhu, Shek Man Chim, Taksum Cheng, Estabelle Ang, Benjamin Ng, Baysie Lim, Kai Chen, Heng Qiu, Jennifer Tickner, Huazi Xu, Nathan Pavlos, Jiake Xu
Calmodulin is a highly versatile protein that regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis and is involved in a variety of cellular functions including cardiac excitability, synaptic plasticity and signaling transduction. During osteoclastic bone resorption, calmodulin has been reported to concentrate at the ruffled border membrane of osteoclasts where it is thought to modulate bone resorption activity in response to calcium. Here we report an interaction between calmodulin and Rab3D, a small exocytic GTPase and established regulator osteoclastic bone resorption...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896815/how-and-why-are-calcium-currents-curtailed-in-the-skeletal-muscle-voltage-gated-calcium-channels
#14
Bernhard E Flucher, Petronel Tuluc
Voltage-gated calcium channels represent the sole mechanism converting electrical signals of excitable cells into cellular functions such as contraction, secretion, and gene regulation. Specific voltage-sensing domains detect changes in membrane potentials and control channel gating. Calcium ions entering through the channel function as second messengers regulating cell functions; with the exception of skeletal muscle, where CaV 1.1 is essentially not functioning as channel but activates calcium release from intracellular stores...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#15
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895534/an-automated-perifusion-system-for-modifying-cell-culture-conditions-over-time
#16
Nicholas B Whitticar, Elisha W Strahler, Parthiban Rajan, Savas Kaya, Craig S Nunemaker
BACKGROUND: Cells are continuously exposed to changes in their environment. Endocrine systems, in particular, communicate by rhythms and feedback loops. In this study, we developed an automated system to produce such conditions for cultured cells in a precisely timed manner. We utilized a programmable pair of syringe pumps for inflow and a peristaltic pump for outflow to create rhythmic pulses at 5-min intervals in solutions that mimic the endogenous patterns of insulin produced by pancreatic islets as a test case...
2016: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895169/critical-role-of-ltb4-blt1-in-il-23-induced-synovial-inflammation-and-osteoclastogenesis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#17
Laura Bouchareychas, Eva M Grössinger, Mincheol Kang, Hong Qiu, Iannis E Adamopoulos
IL-23 activates the synthesis and production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in myeloid cells, which modulate inflammatory arthritis. In this study we investigated the role of LTB4 and its receptor LTB4R1 (BLT1) in synovial inflammation and osteoclast differentiation. Specifically, we used IL-23 in vivo gene transfer to induce arthritis in mice and showed that elevated serum LTB4 and synovial expression of 5-lipoxygenase correlated with increased disease severity by histological evaluation and paw swelling compared with GFP gene transfer controls...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894841/in%C3%A2-vitro-investigation-of-ultrasound-induced-oxidative-stress-on-human-lens-epithelial-cells
#18
Patrick Rwei, Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong, Li-Jyuan Luo, Meng-Bo Lin, Jui-Yang Lai, Hao-Li Liu
The effect of ultrasound exposure on human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) was investigated in vitro, specifically on the generation of oxidative stress upon ultrasound application using various clinically-relevant settings. In addition to ultrasound-induced heat effects, oxidative stress has been recently proposed as one of the main mechanisms for ultrasound-induced effects on human cells. In this work, the levels of biocompatibility and generation of oxidative stress by exposure of ultrasound to HLE-B3 were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium level...
November 26, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894086/the-anti-tumor-drug-2-hydroxyoleic-acid-minerval-stimulates-signaling-and-retrograde-transport
#19
Maria L Torgersen, Tove Irene Klokk, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Christian Klose, Kai Simons, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
2-hydroxyoleic acid (OHOA, Minerval®) is an example of a substance used for membrane lipid therapy, where the cellular membranes rather than specific proteins constitute the therapeutical target. OHOA is thought to mediate its anti-tumor effect by affecting the biophysical properties of membranes, which leads to altered recruitment and activation of amphitropic proteins, altered cellular signaling, and eventual cell death. Little is known about the initial signaling events upon treatment with OHOA, and whether the altered membrane properties would have any impact on the dynamic intracellular transport system...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891609/role-of-trpm7-in-cerebral-ischaemia-and-hypoxia
#20
Hong-Shuo Sun
Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) channel, a calcium-permeable non-selective divalent cation channel, is broadly expressed in various cells and tissues, including the brain. TRPM7 is thought to be coupled to the metabolic state and regulate calcium homeostasis in the cell. TRPM7 takes part in a wide range of cell biology processes that affect cell growth and proliferation, as well as in embryonic development and skeleton formation. TRPM7 plays a significant role in ischaemic and hypoxic brain injury and neuronal cell death...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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