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Intracellular calcium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781984/mitochondrial-ca2-retention-capacity-assay-and-ca2-triggered-mitochondrial-swelling-assay
#1
Wei Li, Chen Zhang, Xiulian Sun
The production of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation is the primary function of mitochondria. Mitochondria in higher eukaryotes also participate in cytosolic Ca2+ buffering, and the ATP production in mitochondrial can be mediated by intramitochondrial free Ca2+ concentration. Ca2+ retention capacity can be regarded as the capability of mitochondria to retain calcium in the mitochondrial matrix. Accumulated intracellular Ca2+ leads to the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, termed the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), which leads to the leakage of molecules with a molecular weight less than 1...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779467/calcium-sodium-and-trp-channel-expression-in-human-fetal-midbrain-derived-neural-progenitor-cells
#2
Nancy Stanslowsky, Salini Tharmarasa, Selma Staege, Norman Kalmbach, Martin Klietz, Sigrid Schwarz, Andreas Leffler, Florian Wegner
Voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels as well as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are expressed during the differentiation of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and are likely to be involved in regulating neurogenesis. However, the molecular composition of these ion channels in proliferating and differentiating hNPCs is largely unknown. Here, we investigated fetal mesencephalic hNPCs in respect to their sodium, calcium, and TRP channel subunit expression and function. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant upregulation of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channel subunits in hNPCs after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro...
May 19, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778900/hereditary-sensory-neuropathy-type-1-associated-deoxysphingolipids-cause-neurotoxicity-acute-calcium-handling-abnormalities-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-vitro
#3
Emma R Wilson, Umaiyal Kugathasan, Andrey Y Abramov, Alex J Clark, David L H Bennett, Mary M Reilly, Linda Greensmith, Bernadett Kalmar
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is a peripheral neuropathy most frequently caused by mutations in the SPTLC1 or SPTLC2 genes, which code for two subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). SPT catalyzes the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis. Mutations in SPT result in a change in enzyme substrate specificity, which causes the production of atypical deoxysphinganine and deoxymethylsphinganine, rather than the normal enzyme product, sphinganine. Levels of these abnormal compounds are elevated in blood of HSN-1 patients and this is thought to cause the peripheral motor and sensory nerve damage that is characteristic of the disease, by a largely unresolved mechanism...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777058/gpr40-is-a-low-affinity-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-receptor-in-vascular-cells
#4
Sang Kyu Park, Anja Herrnreiter, Sandra L Pfister, Kathryn M Gauthier, Benjamin A Falck, John R Falck, William B Campbell
Endothelium-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) have numerous vascular activities mediated by G protein--coupled receptors. Long-chain free fatty acids and EETs activate GPR40, prompting us to investigate the role of GPR40 in some vascular EET activities. 14,15-EET, 11,12-EET, arachidonic acid, and the GPR40 agonist GW9508 increase intracellular calcium concentrations in human GPR40-overexpressing HEK293 cells (EC50 = 0.58 ± 0.08 μM, 0.91 ± 0.08 μM, 3.9 ± 0.06 μM and 19 ± 0.37 nM, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775864/exogenous-hydrogen-peroxide-inhibits-primary-root-gravitropism-by-regulating-auxin-distribution-during-arabidopsis-seed-germination
#5
Lina Zhou, Hongzhou Hou, Tao Yang, Yuke Lian, Yan Sun, Zhiyuan Bian, Chongying Wang
Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is the key factor in many physiological and metabolic processes in plants. During seed germination, exogenous H2 O2 application influences gravitropism and induces curvature of the primary root in grass pea and pea seedlings. However, it remains unclear whether and how this happens in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In the present study, the effect of exogenous H2 O2 on the gravitropic response of primary roots during Arabidopsis seed germination was studied using histology and molecular biology approaches...
May 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775742/ryanodine-receptor-ca-2-release-channel-post-translational-modification-central-player-in-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-disease
#6
Amanda Denniss, Angela F Dulhunty, Nicole A Beard
Calcium release from internal stores is a quintessential event in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel is embedded in the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ into the cytoplasm, enabling contraction. Ryanodine receptors form the hub of a macromolecular complex extending from the extracellular space to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Ryanodine receptor activity is influenced by the integrated effects of associated co-proteins, ions, and post-translational phosphor and redox modifications...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774408/possible-association-of-cag-repeat-polymorphism-in-kcnn3-encoding-the-potassium-channel-sk3-with-oxaliplatin-induced-neurotoxicity
#7
Benjamin Anon, Bérenger Largeau, Alban Girault, Aurélie Chantome, Morgane Caulet, Clémence Perray, Driffa Moussata, Christophe Vandier, Chantal Barin-Le Guellec, Thierry Lecomte
INTRODUCTION: Data suggest a role of the potassium channel SK3 (KCNN3 gene) in oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity (OIN). Length variations in the polymorphic CAG repeat of the KCNN3 gene may be associated with the risk of OIN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed patch-clamp experiments on HEK293 cell lines, expressing SK3 channel isoforms with short (11) or long (24) CAG repetitions, to measure intracellular calcium concentrations to test the effects of oxaliplatin on current density...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773582/activation-of-large-conductance-calcium-activated-k-channels-by-nitric-oxide-mediates-apelin-induced-relaxation-of-coronary-arteries
#8
Amreen Mughal, Chengwen Sun, Stephen T O'Rourke
Apelin increases coronary blood flow, cardiac contractility and cardiac output. Based on these favorable hemodynamic effects, apelin and apelin-like analogs are being developed for treating heart failure and related disorders; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying apelin-induced coronary vasodilation are unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the signaling pathways by which apelin causes smooth muscle relaxation in coronary arteries. Receptors for apelin (APJ receptors) were expressed in coronary arteries, as determined by Western blot and PCR analyses...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773195/measuring-zinc-in-biological-nanovesicles-by-multiple-analytical-approaches
#9
Francesco Piacenza, Antje Biesemeier, Marco Farina, Francesco Piva, Xin Jin, Eleonora Pavoni, Lorenzo Nisi, Maurizio Cardelli, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, James C M Hwang, Antonio Morini, Andrea di Donato, Marco Malavolta
Exosomes are nanovesicles known to mediate intercellular communication. Although it is established that zinc ions can act as intracellular signaling factors, the measurement of zinc in circulating nanovesicles has not yet been attempted. Providing evidence of the existence of this zinc fraction and methods for its measurement might be important to advance our knowledge of zinc status and its relevance in diseases. Exosomes from 0.5 ml of either fresh or frozen human plasma were isolated by differential centrifugation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772547/role-of-alpha1-adrenergic-receptor-antibodies-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Peter Karczewski, Petra Hempel, Marion Bimmler
Agonistic autoantibodies (agAAB) for alpha-1 adrenoceptor were found in approx. 50% of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These antibodies activate the receptor and trigger the signal cascades similarly to how natural agonists do. The agAAB bond to the receptor is persistent and prolonged. This results in a non-physiological elevation of intracellular calcium. An animal model has shown that agAAB causes macrovascular and microvascular impairment in the vessels of the brain. Reduction in blood flow and the density of intact vessels was significantly demonstrated...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771636/subcellular-topography-modulates-actin-dynamics-and-signaling-in-b-cells
#11
Christina M Ketchum, Xiaoyu Sun, Alexandra Suberi, John T Fourkas, Wenxia Song, Arpita Upadhyaya
B cell signaling activation is most effectively triggered by the binding of B cell receptors (BCRs) to membrane-bound antigens.  In vivo, B cells encounter antigen on antigen presenting cells (APC), which possess complex surfaces with convoluted topographies, a fluid membrane and deformable cell bodies. However, whether and how the physical properties of antigen presentation affect B cell activation is not well understood. Here, we use nanotopographic surfaces that allow systematic variation of geometric parameters to show that surface features on a subcellular scale influence B cell signaling and actin dynamics...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769426/effect-of-the-intracellular-calcium-concentration-chelator-bapta-acetoxy-methylester-on-action-potential-duration-in-canine-ventricular-myocytes
#12
B Horvath, N Szentandrassy, R Veress, D Baranyai, K Kistamas, J Almassy, A Toth, J Magyar, T Banyasz, P P Nanasi
Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) is often buffered by using the cell-permeant acetoxy-methylester form of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (BAPTA-AM) under experimental conditions. This study was designed to investigate the time-dependent actions of extracellularly applied BAPTA-AM on action potential duration (APD) in cardiac cells. Action potentials were recorded from enzymatically isolated canine ventricular myocytes with conventional sharp microelectrodes. The effect of BAPTA-AM on the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr ) was studied using conventional voltage clamp and action potential voltage clamp techniques...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769092/mineralization-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-inclusion-bodies-in-mmalton-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#13
Francesco Callea, Isabella Giovannoni, Paola Francalanci, Renata Boldrini, Gavino Faa, Daniela Medicina, Valerio Nobili, Valeer J Desmet, Kamal Ishak, Kuniaki Seyama, Emanuele Bellacchio
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) of Z, Mmalton, Siiyama type is associated with liver storage of the mutant proteins and liver disease. The Z variant can be diagnosed on isoelectric focusing (IEF) while Mmalton and Siiyama may be missed or misdiagnosed with this technique. Therefore, molecular analysis is mandatory for their characterization. In particular, that holds true for the Mmalton variant as on IEF profile it resembles the wild M2 subtype. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis involving review of medical records and of liver biopsy specimens from a series of Mmalton, Z and Siiyama Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency patients...
May 16, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768676/ccl19-with-ccl21-tail-displays-enhanced-glycosaminoglycan-binding-with-retained-chemotactic-potency-in-dendritic-cells
#14
Astrid S Jørgensen, Pontian E Adogamhe, Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler, Christopher T Veldkamp, Mette M Rosenkilde, Gertrud M Hjortø
CCL19 is more potent than CCL21 in inducing chemotaxis of human dendritic cells (DC). This difference is attributed to 1) a stronger interaction of the basic C-terminal tail of CCL21 with acidic glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the environment and 2) an autoinhibitory function of this C-terminal tail. Moreover, different receptor docking modes and tissue expression patterns of CCL19 and CCL21 contribute to fine-tuned control of CCR7 signaling. Here, we investigate the effect of the tail of CCL21 on chemokine binding to GAGs and on CCR7 activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767757/the-contribution-of-organelles-to-plant-intracellular-calcium-signalling
#15
Alex Costa, Lorella Navazio, Ildiko Szabo
Calcium (Ca2+) is among the most important intracellular messengers in living organisms. Understanding of the players and dynamics of Ca2+ signalling pathways in plants may help to unravel the molecular basis of their exceptional flexibility to respond and to adapt to different stimuli. In the present review we focus on new tools that have recently revolutionized our view of organellar Ca2+ signalling as well as on the current knowledge regarding the pathways mediating Ca2+ fluxes across intracellular membranes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767557/polycystin-1-dysfunction-impairs-electrolyte-and-water-handling-in-a-renal-pre-cystic-mouse-model-for-adpkd
#16
Eric H J Verschuren, Sami G Mohammed, Wouter N Leonhard, Caro Overmars-Bos, Kimberly A M Veraar, Joost G J Hoenderop, René J M Bindels, Dorien J M Peters, Francisco J Arjona
The PKD1 gene encodes polycystin-1 (PC1), a mechanosensor triggering intracellular responses upon urinary flow sensing in kidney tubular cells. Mutations in PKD1 lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The involvement of PC1 in renal electrolyte handling remains unknown since renal electrolyte physiology in ADPKD patients has only been characterized in cystic ADPKD. We thus studied the renal electrolyte handling in inducible kidney-specific Pkd1 knockout (iKsp-Pkd1-/-) mice manifesting a pre-cystic phenotype...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765331/high-ph-sensitive-store-operated-ca-2-entry-mediated-by-ca-2-release-activated-ca-2-channels-in-rat-odontoblasts
#17
Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Asuka Higashikawa, Sadao Ohyama, Kaoru Sakurai, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
Odontoblasts play a crucial role in dentin formation and sensory transduction following the application of stimuli to the dentin surface. Various exogenous and endogenous stimuli elicit an increase in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) in odontoblasts, which is mediated by Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and/or Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the depletion of Ca2+ stores in odontoblasts activated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), a Ca2+ influx pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764972/separate-functional-properties-of-nmdars-regulate-distinct-aspects-of-spatial-cognition
#18
Erin M Sanders, Akua O Nyarko-Odoom, Kevin Zhao, Michael Nguyen, Hong Hong Liao, Matthew Keith, Jane Pyon, Alyssa Kozma, Mohima Sanyal, Daniel G McHail, Theodore C Dumas
N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses are central to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. NMDARs act as ionotropic and metabotropic receptors by elevating postsynaptic calcium concentrations and by direct intracellular protein signaling. In the forebrain, these properties are controlled largely by the auxiliary GluN2 subunits, GluN2A and GluN2B. While calcium conductance through NMDAR channels and intracellular protein signaling make separate contributions to synaptic plasticity, it is not known if these properties individually influence learning and memory...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764938/redistribution-of-serca-calcium-pump-conformers-during-intracellular-calcium-signaling
#19
Olga N Raguimova, Nikolai Smolin, Elisa Bovo, Siddharth Bhayani, Joseph M Autry, Aleksey V Zima, Seth L Robia
The conformational changes of a calcium transport A TPase were investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to determine the significance of a discrete structural element for regulation of the conformational dynamics of the transport cycle. Previous MD simulations indicated that a loop in the cytosolic domain of the SERCA calcium transporter facilitates an open-to-closed structural transition. To investigate the significance of this structural element, we performed additional MD simulations and new biophysical measurements of SERCA structure and function...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761964/-real-time-investigation-of-dynamic-morphology-of-live-platelets-and-generation-of-platelet-microparticles-using-hopping-probe-ion-conductance-microscopy
#20
Xiao Liu, Yufu Luo, Yanjun Zhang
Platelets are rapidly activated by activators and produce a large number of platelet microparticles (PMPs) with high coagulation activity, resulting in coagulation dysfunction. However, the generation mechanism of PMPs is still not clear. Hopping probe ion conductance microscopy (HPICM) has special technical advantages in non-contact, real-time, high-resolution imaging of living cells under physiological conditions. Using HPICM, this study monitored the processes of platelet activation and generation of PMPs in real time in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187 and cytochalasin D (CD), respectively...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
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