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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789049/the-impact-of-cholinesterase-inhibitors-with-or-without-memantine-on-antipsychotic-prescribing
#1
Amie Taggart Blaszczyk, Belinda Hong Mang, Hennie Garza, Monica Mathys
Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) medications have been suggested to positively affect behavior, though not universally in all studies. Their impact on antipsychotic use is not well-defined. Methods This cross-sectional, retrospective study evaluated residents with AD on cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, both, or neither throughout multiple long-term care facilities during July 2014. Patients were included if they: were between 65 and 89 years of age, had a diagnosis of AD, and had a cognitive assessment within three months of the study period...
May 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782905/pathology-of-nnos-expressing-gabaergic-neurons-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Seungho Choi, Je-Seong Won, Steven L Carroll, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Inderjit Singh, Avtar K Singh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia that is often accompanied by mood and emotional disturbances and seizures. There is growing body of evidence that neurons expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in regulation of cognition, mood, and emotion as well as seizure susceptibility, but participation of GABAergic neuronal pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not understood well at present. Here, we report that transgenic mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein Swedish-Deutch-Iowa mutant (APPSweDI ) exhibit early loss of neurons expressing GAD67, a GABA synthesizing enzyme, in advance to the loss of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA1 region...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770579/cholinesterase-targeting-by-polyphenols-a-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Nasimudeen R Jabir, Fayaz Rahman Khan, Shams Tabrez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder characterized by excessive deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), comprising of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. The cholinergic system has been suggested as the earliest and most affected molecular mechanism that describes AD pathophysiology. Moreover, cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are the potential class of drugs that can amplify cholinergic activity to improve cognition and global performance and reduce psychiatric and behavioral disturbances...
May 16, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758948/argyrophilic-grain-pathology-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-demographic-clinical-neuropathological-and-genetic-features
#4
María José Gil, María Sagrario Manzano, María Luz Cuadrado, Cristina Fernández, Elena Góméz, Carmen Matesanz, Miguel Calero, Alberto Rábano
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically, and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. FTLD classification distinguishes three main neuropathological groups: FTLD-tau, FTLD-TDP, and FTLD-FUS. As a four-repeat tauopathy, argyrophilic grain disease (AGD) is included in the FTLD-tau group. AGD may also appear in association with other neuropathological disorders. We describe the demographic, clinical, neuropathological, and genetic characteristics of a series of FTLD cases presenting with AGD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741750/longitudinal-effects-of-activities-social-environment-and-psychotropic-medication-use-on-behavioral-symptoms-of-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-nursing-homes
#5
Ben R Inventor, Carol J Farran, Olimpia Paun, Fawn Cothran, Kumar Rajan, Sandra S Swantek, Judith J McCann
A secondary data analysis of 25,560 minutes of structured clinical observations from a longitudinal study examined the impact of time-varying background factors, social environment, and psychotropic medication use on behavioral symptoms of nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data were collected at baseline (N = 177), 12 months (N = 138), and 24 months (N = 111). Mixed-effects regression modeling showed that at 24 months: (a) higher cognitive and physical function and having a private bedroom/bathroom had the most positive influence on resident positive behaviors; (b) use of antipsychotic medications and solitary activities had the most negative influence on resident positive behaviors; (c) higher cognitive function significantly decreased negative behaviors; and (d) care-related activities and total number of psychotropic medications significantly increased negative behaviors...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729344/new-cholinesterase-inhibitors-for-alzheimer-s-disease-structure-activity-relationship-kinetics-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-1-butanoyl-3-arylthiourea-derivatives
#6
Fayaz Ali Larik, Muhammad Shakil Shah, Aamer Saeed, Hamid Saeed Shah, Pervaiz Ali Channar, Michael Bolte, Jamshed Iqbal
Highly progressive neurodegenerative disorder generally known as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a type of dementia, which is very common in elderly. The most common symptoms may include loss of memory along with disturbed behavioral and cognitive functions. Until now, only 4 cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors are approved by FDA for symptomatic treatment of AD. Aroyl thiourea derivatives are well known bioactive organic molecules containing carbonyl and thiocarbonyl functional groups. Here, total 14 different thiourea derivatives (3a-3n) were synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR and X-ray crystallographic techniques...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710717/behavioral-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Nicole Cortés, Víctor Andrade, Ricardo B Maccioni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia in the elderly, severely affecting functional and executive skills of subjects suffering from this disease. Moreover, the distress of caregivers as well as the social implications constitute a critical issue for families. Furthermore, cognitive impairment, along with behavioral disorders and neuropsychiatric symptoms are characteristics of AD. Although these are present with variations in prevalence, intensity, and progression, an important core of them is visible before cognitive impairment, especially depression and apathy, which affect at least 50% of patients...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710716/brain-inflammation-connects-cognitive-and-non-cognitive-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
M Clara Selles, Mauricio M Oliveira, Sergio T Ferreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main form of dementia in the elderly and affects greater than 47 million people worldwide. Care for AD patients poses very significant personal and economic demands on individuals and society, and the situation is expected to get even more dramatic in the coming decades unless effective treatments are found to halt the progression of the disease. Although AD is most commonly regarded as a disease of the memory, the entire brain is eventually affected by neuronal dysfunction or neurodegeneration, which brings about a host of other behavioral disturbances...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689719/the-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-down-syndrome-bpsd-ds-scale-comprehensive-assessment-of-psychopathology-in-down-syndrome
#9
Alain D Dekker, Silvia Sacco, Angelo Carfi, Bessy Benejam, Yannick Vermeiren, Gonny Beugelsdijk, Mieke Schippers, Lyanne Hassefras, José Eleveld, Sharina Grefelman, Roelie Fopma, Monique Bomer-Veenboer, Mariángeles Boti, G Danielle E Oosterling, Esther Scholten, Marleen Tollenaere, Laura Checkley, André Strydom, Gert Van Goethem, Graziano Onder, Rafael Blesa, Christine Zu Eulenburg, Antonia M W Coppus, Anne-Sophie Rebillat, Juan Fortea, Peter P De Deyn
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626648/abnormal-circadian-locomotor-rhythms-and-per-gene-expression-in-six-month-old-triple-transgenic-mice-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Meina Wu, Fang Zhou, Xiuli Cao, Junting Yang, Yu Bai, Xudong Yan, Jimin Cao, Jinshun Qi
Circadian rhythm disturbance (CRD) is one of the iconic manifestations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease tightly associated with age, but the characteristics and gender difference of CRD occurred in AD have not been well demonstrated. Using 6-month-old triple transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD) without obvious brain pathological changes, we demonstrated the gender difference of CRD at this age. We further showed abnormal Per gene expression in the central clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the 3xTg-AD mice...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609959/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-neurological-diseases
#11
REVIEW
H Duclos, B Desgranges, F Eustache, M Laisney
Social cognition is impaired in a large number of neurological afflictions, including neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodevelopmental syndromes, and has become a significant element in differential diagnoses. This report describes the different processes involved in social cognition and the way in which they work together to allow adapted behaviors. This is then followed by the numerous clinical symptoms of social behavioral disturbances and social cognition performance in different neurological afflictions such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia...
March 30, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554838/caregiver-reported-sleep-disturbances-are-associated-with-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-in-an-asian-elderly-cohort-with-cognitive-impairment-no-dementia
#12
Xin Xu, Cheuk Ni Kan, Tien Yin Wong, Ching-Yu Cheng, M Kamran Ikram, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances were found to be associated with more behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPS) in early patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, data on preclinical stages of dementia are lacking. Hence, the present study sought to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and BPS in dementia-free elderly with varying severity of cognitive impairment in an Asian sample. METHODS: Community-living elderly were recruited and administered a comprehensive cognitive battery (vascular dementia battery [VDB]) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess symptoms of sleep disturbances and BPS...
March 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491396/a-key-role-for-mam-in-mediating-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-disease
#13
REVIEW
Estela Area-Gomez, Ad de Groof, Eduardo Bonilla, Jorge Montesinos, Kurenai Tanji, Istvan Boldogh, Liza Pon, Eric A Schon
In the last few years, increased emphasis has been devoted to understanding the contribution of mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAM) to human pathology in general, and neurodegenerative diseases in particular. A major reason for this is the central role that this subdomain of the ER plays in metabolic regulation and in mitochondrial biology. As such, aberrant MAM function may help explain the seemingly unrelated metabolic abnormalities often seen in neurodegeneration. In the specific case of Alzheimer disease (AD), besides perturbations in calcium and lipid homeostasis, there are numerous documented alterations in mitochondrial behavior and function, including reduced respiratory chain activity and oxidative phosphorylation, increased free radical production, and altered organellar morphology, dynamics, and positioning (especially perinuclear mitochondria)...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432500/large-animals-as-potential-models-of-human-mental-and-behavioral-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405032/the-multisystem-degeneration-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-neuropathological-staging-and-clinical-translation
#15
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376861/the-progression-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-s-disease-during-a-five-year-follow-up-kuopio-alsova-study
#16
Ilona Hallikainen, Kristiina Hongisto, Tarja Välimäki, Tuomo Hänninen, Janne Martikainen, Anne M Koivisto
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the role of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently emerged. NPS lead to hospitalization and caregiver stress, but are more variable during the course of the disease than other symptoms. Knowledge about the role of specific NPS in disease progression and prognosis is especially limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between specific NPS and AD severity during a 5-year follow-up period, and to determine which baseline NPS predict AD progression...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376859/dysregulation-and-dislocation-of-sfpq-disturbed-dna-organization-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
Jing Lu, Runzhe Shu, Yan Zhu
SFPQ (Splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich) is a DNA and RNA binding protein involved in transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and DNA damage repair. SFPQ was found dysregulated in a few tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In addition, knock-down of SFPQ induced FTD-like behavior in mouse. To confirm the role of SFPQ in AD and FTD, we analyzed the brain sections from the AD and FTD brain samples with SFPQ upregulation and dislocation. Specifically, we observed SFPQ dislocated to the cytoplasm and nuclear envelopes, and DNA structures and organizations were associated with these dislocation phenotypes in AD and FTD brains...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370822/slowly-progressive-dementia-caused-by-mapt-r406w-mutations-longitudinal-report-on-a-new-kindred-and-systematic-review
#18
Emil Ygland, Danielle van Westen, Elisabet Englund, Rosa Rademakers, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Karin Nilsson, Christer Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Irina Alafuzoff, Oskar Hansson, Lars Gustafson, Andreas Puschmann
BACKGROUND: The MAPT c.1216C > T (p.Arg406Trp; R406W) mutation is a known cause of frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 tau with Alzheimer's disease-like clinical features. METHODS: We compiled clinical data from a new Swedish kindred with R406W mutation. Seven family members were followed longitudinally for up to 22 years. Radiological examinations were performed in six family members and neuropathological examinations in three...
January 9, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332049/free-heme-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-a-fatal-liaison-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Elisabeth Chiziane, Henriette Telemann, Martin Krueger, Juliane Adler, Jürgen Arnhold, A Alia, Jörg Flemmig
While the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown, an increased formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and oxidative processes are major pathological mechanism of the disease. The interaction of Aβ with free heme leads to the formation of peroxidase-active Aβ-heme complexes. However, enzyme-kinetic data and systematic mutational studies are still missing. These aspects were addressed in this study to evaluate the role of Aβ-heme complexes in AD. The enzyme-kinetic measurements showed peroxidase-specific pH- and H2O2-dependencies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277879/trigonelline-insulates-against-oxidative-stress-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-restores-bdnf-levels-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-adult-mice
#20
Amrita A Chowdhury, Nitin B Gawali, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
Neuroinflammation is said to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Trigonelline (TRG) is a naturally occurring alkaloid, commonly isolated from fenugreek and coffee beans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRG exerts neuroprotective action against LPS mediated cognitive impairment. Mice pretreated with TRG (50 and 100 mg/kg po) were administered with LPS (250 μg/kg ip) for 7 days. Memory was assessed in the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y maze...
December 26, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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