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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304289/episodic-memory-dysfunction-in%C3%A2-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-a-clinical-and-fdg-pet-study
#1
Marta Fernández-Matarrubia, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, María Nieves Cabrera-Martín, Teresa Moreno-Ramos, María Valles-Salgado, José Luis Carreras, Jorge Matías-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Episodic memory disturbance is still considered as an exclusion criterion for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), but growing evidence suggests that memory can be impaired. OBJECTIVE: Our main purposes were to assess episodic memory in a group of bvFTD patients comparatively with Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and analyze the relationship between episodic memory and brain metabolism measured using positron emission tomography imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269783/modulating-the-balance-of-synaptic-and-extrasynaptic-nmda-receptors-shows-positive-effects-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity
#2
Yan Huang, Wei Shen, Jie Su, Bin Cheng, Dong Li, Gang Liu, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suffer a disturbance in the balance between synaptic (GluN2A, mediating the protective pathway) and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs) (GluN2B, mediating the excitotoxic pathway), and, therefore, restoring the balance of GluN2A and GluN2B should be beneficial for AD. In this study, the GluN2B-selective antagonist, ifenprodil, and the non-selective NMDAR agonist, NMDA, had little effect on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced long-term potentiation deficits. Enhancing the activity of GluN2A had a protective effect against Aβ, and specific activation of GluN2A and inhibition of GluN2B showed a better protective effect...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265571/validation-of-the-italian-version-of-the-caregiver-abuse-screen-among-family-caregivers-of-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Maria Gabriella Melchiorre, Mirko Di Rosa, Francesco Barbabella, Norma Barbini, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Carlos Chiatti
Introduction. Elder abuse is often a hidden phenomenon and, in many cases, screening practices are difficult to implement among older people with dementia. The Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) is a useful tool which is administered to family caregivers for detecting their potential abusive behavior. Objectives. To validate the Italian version of the CASE tool in the context of family caregiving of older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Italy. Methods. The CASE test was administered to 438 caregivers, recruited in the Up-Tech study...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245482/neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-alzheimer-disease-vascular-dementia-and-mixed-dementia
#4
Cassandra J Anor, Sean O'Connor, Amardeep Saund, David F Tang-Wai, Ron Keren, Maria Carmela Tartaglia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD), and are distressful to patients and caregivers. NPS are likely related to the underlying pathology. Previous studies suggest that frontal lobe lesions and vascular changes such as white matter hyperintensities (WMH) have a significant association with specific NPS. The current study aimed to compare NPS in patients with AD, VaD, and mixed AD/VaD, and to evaluate the differences in the prevalence of NPS in relation to frontal WMH volume...
March 1, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188358/protective-effect-of-valproic-acid-in-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-possible-involvement-of-the-cholinergic-system
#5
Mirna Ezzat Sorial, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder that is the most common form of dementia. Cholinergic system dysfunction and amyloid beta formation are the two main underlying pathological mechanisms for the disease development. In recent studies, insulin receptor desensitization and disturbances in the downstream effects of insulin receptor signaling were observed in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Currently, intracereberoventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is found to induce behavioral, neurochemical, and structural alterations in animals resembling those found in SAD patients...
February 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124634/buspirone-for-the-treatment-of-dementia-with-behavioral-disturbance
#6
Maria R Santa Cruz, Priscilla C Hidalgo, Meredith S Lee, Cornelius W Thomas, Suzanne Holroyd
Behavioral disturbances are common but serious symptoms in patients with dementia. Currently, there are no FDA approved drugs for this purpose. There have been case reports and small case series of the use of buspirone. In this retrospective study, we review 179 patients prescribed buspirone for treatment of behavioral disturbance in dementia to better characterize the efficacy and potential side effects. All patients prescribed buspirone for behavioral disturbance due to dementia from a geropsychiatric outreach program were reviewed...
January 26, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035933/frontal-lobe-function-correlates-with%C3%A2-one-year-incidence-of-urinary-incontinence-in-elderly-with-alzheimer-disease
#7
Taiki Sugimoto, Masaki Yoshida, Rei Ono, Shunsuke Murata, Naoki Saji, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Takashi Sakurai
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is frequently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although previous works highlight the association between frontal lobe-related function and UI, causal relationship is unclear. OBJECTS: To clarify the longitudinal association between frontal lobe function and the incidence of UI at 1 year in patients with AD. METHODS: The subjects were 215 continent AD patients who attended the Memory Clinic of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from March 2011 to December 2014...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035924/the-effect-of-the-association-between-donepezil-and-choline-alphoscerate-on-behavioral-disturbances-in-alzheimer-s-disease-interim-results-of-the-ascomalva-trial
#8
Anna Carotenuto, Raffaele Rea, Enea Traini, Angiola Maria Fasanaro, Giovanna Ricci, Valentino Manzo, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are a group of psychological reactions, psychiatric symptoms, and behaviors commonly found in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four clusters of BPSD have been described: mood disorders (depression, anxiety, and apathy), psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), aberrant motor behaviors (pacing, wandering, and other purposeless behaviors), and inappropriate behaviors (agitation, disinhibition, and euphoria). Most of them are attributed to acetylcholine deficiency...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017681/exposure-to-short-photoperiod-regime-reduces-ventral-subicular-lesion-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-in-wistar-rats
#9
Duttagupta Subhadeep, B N Srikumar, B S Shankaranarayana Rao, Bindu M Kutty
Neurodegeneration of hippocampal structures is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD exhibit 'sundown syndrome' featuring mood swings and anxiety. Although there are studies demonstrating circadian rhythm disruption associated with sundown phenomenon, the mechanisms underlying the emotional disturbances remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the relationship between subiculum (a key hippocampal output structure) and anxiety. Our study demonstrates that bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) leads to anxiogenic behavior...
December 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012089/orexin-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Claudio Liguori
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent age-related dementia. It prevalently causes cognitive decline, although it is frequently associated with secondary behavioral disturbances. AD neurodegeneration characteristically produces a remarkable destruction of the sleep-wake cycle, with diurnal napping, nighttime arousals, sleep fragmentation, and REM sleep impairment. It was recently hypothesized that the orexinergic system was involved in AD pathology. Accordingly, recent papers showed the association between orexinergic neurotransmission dysfunction, sleep impairment, and cognitive decline in AD...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988490/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-homocysteine-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-by-inhibition-of-reactive-aldehydes-involving-upregulation-of-aldh2
#11
Min Li, Ping Zhang, Hai-Jun Wei, Man-Hong Li, Wei Zou, Xiang Li, Hong-Feng Gu, Xiao-Qing Tang
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, induces cognitive dysfunction. Reactive aldehydes play an important role in cognitive dysfunction. Aldehyde-dehydrogenase 2 detoxifies reactive aldehydes. Hydrogen sulfide, a novel neuromodulator, has neuroprotective effects and regulates learning and memory. Our previous work confirmed that the disturbance of hydrogen sulfide synthesis is invovled in homocysteine-induced defects in learning and memory. Therefore, the present work was to explore whether hydrogen sulfide ameliorates homocysteine-generated cognitive dysfunction and to investigate whether its underlying mechanism is related to attenuating accumulation of reactive aldehydes by upregulation of aldehyde-dehydrogenase 2...
December 19, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940352/gray-matter-network-differences-between-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
E G B Vijverberg, B M Tijms, J Dopp, Y J Hong, C E Teunissen, F Barkhof, P Scheltens, Y A L Pijnenburg
We set out to study whether single-subject gray matter (GM) networks show disturbances that are specific for Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 90) or behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 59), and whether such disturbances would be related to cognitive deficits measured with mini-mental state examination and a neuropsychological battery, using subjective cognitive decline subjects as reference. AD and bvFTD patients had a lower degree, connectivity density, clustering, path length, betweenness centrality, and small world values compared with subjective cognitive decline...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886007/sleep-wake-profile-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-alzheimer-s-disease-and-normal-aging
#13
Annachiara Cagnin, Federica Fragiacomo, Giulia Camporese, Matteo Turco, Cinzia Bussè, Mario Ermani, Sara Montagnese
BACKGROUND: Alterations of the sleep-wake cycle are common features of neurodegenerative dementia. OBJECTIVES: To study differences in sleep-wake profiles in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy controls. METHODS: 30 DLB and 32 AD patients, and 33 healthy elderly participants were studied. Patients were evaluated for global cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal signs, fluctuations of attention, and behavioral disorders...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884130/a-profile-of-the-clinical-course-of-cognition-and-comorbidity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-study-the-4c-study-two-complementary-longitudinal-clinical-cohorts-in-the-netherlands
#14
Weiqi Liao, Renske E G Hamel, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Saskia M Oosterveld, Pauline Aalten, Frans R J Verhey, Philip Scheltens, Nicole Sistermans, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Wiesje M van der Flier, Inez H G B Ramakers, René J F Melis
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous disease trajectories of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are frequently encountered in clinical practice, but there is still insufficient knowledge to understand the reasons and mechanisms causing this heterogeneity. In addition to correlates of the disorder, patient characteristics such as their health status, social environment, comorbidities and frailty may contribute to variability in trajectories over time. The current paper outlines the study design and the study population of and provides an overview of the data collected in the Clinical Course of Cognition and Comorbidity in Mild Cognitive Impairment (4C-MCI cohort, n = 315) and Dementia (4C-Dementia cohort, n = 331) Study...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866729/molecular-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-disorders
#15
REVIEW
L Koric, E Guedj, M O Habert, F Semah, P Branger, P Payoux, F Le Jeune
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its related disorders rely on clinical criteria. There is, however, a large clinical overlap between the different neurodegenerative diseases affecting cognition and, frequently, there are diagnostic uncertainties with atypical clinical presentations. Current clinical practices can now regularly use positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) molecular imaging to help resolve such uncertainties...
December 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806872/all-trans-retinoic-acid-atra-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-amyloidogenesis-and-memory-impairment-in-aged-rats
#16
Nassima Behairi, Mourad Belkhelfa, Hayet Rafa, Moussa Labsi, Nahla Deghbar, Nora Bouzid, Hamida Mesbah-Amroun, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
We aimed to investigate preventive effects of All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aged neuroinflammation model. We analyzed behavior, systemic nitric oxide (NO) production, cerebral NO synthase (NOS2) and β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 expression and tissue integrity in the neuroinflammation model pretreated with ATRA (150μg/ml/rat/day) for 30days. Our results showed that LPS treatment (500μg/kg/day) for 7days disturbed memory, enhanced systemic NO production, NOS2 and Aβ 1-42 cerebral expression and generated an Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuronal degeneration...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755003/modeling-alzheimer-s-disease-through-functional-independence-and-participation
#17
Chiara Zucchella, Michelangelo Bartolo, Sara Bernini, Marta Picascia, Paola Malinverni, Elena Sinforiani
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between cognitive and functional impairment in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) at the earliest stages of the disease is not well characterized. This study aimed at investigating such relationships along AD evolution by means of the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). METHODS: Consecutive pairs of AD outpatients and their primary informal caregivers were enrolled. Patients were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and neuropsychological tests...
October 17, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732893/two-cholinesterase-inhibitors-trigger-dissimilar-effects-on-behavior-and-body-weight-in-c57bl-6-mice-the-case-of-chlorpyrifos-and-rivastigmine
#18
Pia Basaure, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Maria Cabré, Ingrid Reverte, Maria Teresa Colomina
Cholinesterases (ChE) are common targets of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and play a critical role in the pathology of some dementias. While chlorpyrifos (CPF) remains one of the most commonly used OPs in the world, numerous investigations have reported its neurotoxic potential and highlighted behavioral disturbances upon its administration. Rivastigmine currently serves to treat Alzheimer's disease, but it may induce cholinergic overstimulation in non-demented individuals. The present investigation aimed to compare the acute and delayed effects caused by both ChE inhibitors in adult C57BL/6 male mice...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632159/neuropsychiatric-symptom-clusters-in-stroke-and-transient-ischemic-attack-by-cognitive-status-and-stroke-subtype-frequency-and-relationships-with-vascular-lesions-brain-atrophy-and-amyloid
#19
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Jie Yang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Lin Shi, Defeng Wang, Winnie C W Chu, Yun-Yun Xiong, Eugene S K Lo, Lorraine S N Law, Thomas W H Leung, Linda C W Lam, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie O Y Soo, Eric Y L Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are 1) to examine the frequencies of neuropsychiatric symptom clusters in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) by cognitive level and stroke subtype; and 2) to evaluate effect of demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging measures of chronic brain changes and amyloid upon neuropsychiatric symptom clusters. METHODS: Hospital-based, cross-sectional study. 518 patients were administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) 3-6 months post index admission...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598965/anxiety-and-depression-with-neurogenesis-defects-in-exchange-protein-directly-activated-by-camp-2-deficient-mice-are-ameliorated-by-a-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-prozac
#20
L Zhou, S L Ma, P K K Yeung, Y H Wong, K W K Tsim, K F So, L C W Lam, S K Chung
Intracellular cAMP and serotonin are important modulators of anxiety and depression. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) also known as Prozac, is widely used against depression, potentially by activating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through protein kinase A (PKA). However, the role of Epac1 and Epac2 (Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors, RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, respectively) as potential downstream targets of SSRI/cAMP in mood regulations is not yet clear...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
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