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Julia Wukovits, Patrick Bukenberger, Annekatrin Julie Enge, Maximillian Gerg, Wolfgang Wanek, Margarete Watzka, Petra Heinz
Ammonia tepida is a common and abundant benthic foraminifer in intertidal mudflats. Benthic foraminifera are primary consumers and detritivores and act as key players in sediment nutrient fluxes.In this study, laboratory feeding experiments using isotope labeled phytodetritus were carried out with A. tepida collected at the German Wadden Sea to investigate the response of A. tepida to varying food supply. Feeding mode (single pulse, constant feeding; different incubation temperatures) caused strong variations in cytoplasmic carbon and nitrogen cycling, suggesting generalistic adaptations to variations in food availability...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Tochukwu C Okwuosa, Cindy Soares, Verena Golwitzer, Rober Habashy, Peter Timmins, Mohamed A Alhnan
A method for the production of liquid capsules with the potential of modifying drug dose and release is presented. For the first time, the co-ordinated use of fused deposition modelling (FDM), 3D printing and liquid dispensing to fabricate individualised dosage form on demand in a fully automated fashion has been demonstrated. Polymethacrylate shells (Eudragit EPO and RL) for immediate and extended release were fabricated using FDM 3D printing and simultaneously filled using a computer-controlled liquid dispenser loaded with model drug solution (theophylline) or suspension (dipyridamole)...
March 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christian Hassager, Ken Nagao, David Hildick-Smith
The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has improved in the past few decades because of advances in interventions used outside and in hospital. About half of patients who have OHCA with initial ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are admitted to hospital in coma after return of spontaneous circulation will survive to discharge with a reasonable neurological status. In this Series paper we discuss in-hospital management of patients with post-cardiac-arrest syndrome. In most patients, the most important in-hospital interventions other than routine intensive care are continuous active treatment (in non-comatose and comatose patients and including circulatory support in selected patients), cooling of core temperature to 32-36°C by targeted temperature management for at least 24 h, immediate coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention, and delay of final prognosis until at least 72 h after OHCA...
March 10, 2018: Lancet
Alfonso Reimúndez, Carlos Fernández-Peña, Guillermo García, Rubén Fernández, Purificación Ordás, Rosalía Gallego, José L Pardo-Vazquez, Victor Arce, Félix Viana, Rosa Señarís
The coupling of energy homeostasis to thermoregulation is essential to maintain homeothermy in changing external environments. We studied the role of the cold thermoreceptor TRPM8 in this interplay in mice of both sexes. We demonstrate that TRPM8 is required for a precise thermoregulation in response to cold, in fed and fasting. Trpm8-/- mice exhibited a fall of 0.7 °C in core body temperature (Tc) when housed at cold temperatures, and a deep hypothermia (below 30 °C) during food deprivation. In both situations TRPM8-deficiency induced an increase in tail heat loss...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
K Jeannet Oyen, Michael E Dillon
Critical thermal limits often determine species distributions for diverse ectotherms and have become a useful tool for understanding past and predicting future range shifts in response to changing climates. Despite recently documented population declines and range shifts of bumble bees (genus Bombus ), the few measurements of thermal tolerance available for the group have relied on disparate measurement approaches. We describe a novel stereotypical behavior expressed by bumble bee individuals during entry into chill coma...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lee-Hwa Tai, Abhirami A Ananth, Rashmi Seth, Almohanad Alkayyal, Jiqing Zhang, Christiano Tanese de Souza, Phillip Staibano, Michael A Kennedy, Rebecca C Auer
BACKGROUND: Cancer surgery can promote tumour metastases and worsen prognosis, however, the effect of perioperative complications on metastatic disease remains unclear. In this study we sought to evaluate the effect of common perioperative complications including perioperative blood loss, hypothermia, and sepsis on tumour metastases in a murine model. METHODS: Prior to surgery, pulmonary metastases were established by intravenous challenge of CT26LacZ colon cancer cells in BALB/c mice...
March 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Peter Šušnjar, Vid Agrež, Rok Petkovšek
Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the photodarkening effect as a heat source in ytterbium doped fibers is presented. An additional non-radiative decay channel that opens after photodarkening the fiber is identified via fluorescence lifetime reduction and as an additional heat source proportional to inversion. It is included in the heat source model which was tested on a core-pumped fiber amplifiers. High temperature elevation at low pump powers shows potential heat-related problems in high inversion systems that are more susceptible to photodarkening...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Kristian Tølbøl Sørensen, Charlotte Bonde Ingvorsen, Line Hagner Nielsen, Anders Kristensen
A photonic crystal slab (PCS) sensor is a universal refractive index sensor with possibilities and performance very similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which represents the gold standard of biosensing. Cheap PCS sensors can be made vacuum-free entirely out of polymers, but come with additional challenges, besides those relating to temperature-variations, which must be considered in any refractive index based method: The polymeric waveguide core was found to swell by ∼0.3% as water absorbed into the waveguide core over ∼1...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Pengcheng Chen, Xuewen Shu
An optical fiber Fabry-Perot probe sensor for high-temperature measurement is proposed and demonstrated, which is fabricated by inducing a refractive-index-modified-dot (RIMD) in the fiber core near the end of a standard single mode fiber (SMF) using a femtosecond laser. The RIMD and the SMF end faces form a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) with a high-quality interference fringe visibility (>20dB). As a high-temperature sensor, such an FPI exhibits a sensitivity of 13.9pm/°C and 18.6pm/°C in the range of 100-500°Cand 500-1000°C,respectively...
March 5, 2018: Optics Express
Ouyang Wang, Lei Wang, Zhaohan Li, Qiulei Xu, Qingli Lin, Hongzhe Wang, Zuliang Du, Huaibin Shen, Lin Song Li
We report a facile and robust synthesis of ZnCdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with thick Cdx Zn1-x S (x = constant) uniform alloys as an intermediate shell which can provide effective confinement of excitons within the ZnCdS cores and ultrathin ZnS outermost shell to improve the stability by epitaxial growth at a relatively high temperature. The resulting nearly monodisperse ZnCdS/Cdx Zn1-x S/ZnS core/shell QDs have high photoluminescence quantum yield (near to 100%) and high color purity (full width at half maximum (FWHM) < 18 nm)...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Sebastian B Mueller, Ulrich Kueppers, Matthew S Huber, Kai-Uwe Hess, Gisela Poesges, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Donald B Dingwell
Aggregation is a common process occurring in many diverse particulate gas mixtures (e.g. those derived from explosive volcanic eruptions, meteorite impact events, and fluid bed processing). It results from the collision and sticking of particles suspended in turbulent gas/air. To date, there is no generalized model of the underlying physical processes. Here, we investigate aggregates from 18 natural deposits (16 volcanic deposits and two meteorite impact deposits) as well as aggregates produced experimentally via fluidized bed techniques...
2018: Bulletin of Volcanology
Cuicui Mu, Lili Li, Xiaodong Wu, Feng Zhang, Lin Jia, Qian Zhao, Tingjun Zhang
Deep carbon pool in permafrost regions is an important component of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. However, the greenhouse gas production from deep permafrost soils is not well understood. Here, using soils collected from 5-m deep permafrost cores from meadow and wet meadow on the northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), we investigated the effects of temperature on CO2 and N2 O production under aerobic incubations and CH4 production under anaerobic incubations. After a 35-day incubation, the CO2, N2 O and CH4 production at -2 °C to 10 °C were 0...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mostafa Hossein Beyki, Mohammad Hadi Ghasemi
Owe to unique advantages of heterogeneous catalytic reactions, there is increasing interest to use this type of chemical transformations in organic synthesis. Among various heterogeneous catalytic systems, magnetic supported ionic liquids are emerging ones in the chemical synthesis. As a result, this research focuses on developing an efficient magnetically recyclable catalytic system for Michael-type addition reaction based on quaternized γ-Fe2 O3 @cellulose ionomer. Core-shell structured magnetite cellulose nanosphere was synthesized by one step precipitation route and further modified with epichlorohydrin and hexamethylenetetramine...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hongli Wan, Jean Pierre Mwizerwa, Xingguo Qi, Xin Liu, Xiaoxiong Xu, Hong Li, Yong-Sheng Hu, Xiayin Yao
High ionic conductivity electrolyte and intimate interfacial contact are crucial factors to realize high performance all-solid-state sodium batteries. Na2.9PS3.95Se0.05 electrolyte with reduced particle size of 500 nm is firstly synthesized by a simple liquid-phase method and exhibits a high ionic conductivity of 1.21×10-4 S cm-1, which is comparable with that synthesized with a solid-state reaction. Meanwhile, a general interfacial architecture, i.e. Na2.9PS3.95Se0.05 electrolyte uniformly anchored on Fe1-xS nanorods, is designed and successfully prepared by an in situ liquid-phase coating approach, forming a core-shell structured Fe1-xS@Na2...
March 8, 2018: ACS Nano
Encarni Montoya, Hayley F Keen, Carmen X Luzuriaga, William D Gosling
Tropical ecosystems play a key role in many aspects of Earth system dynamics currently of global concern, including carbon sequestration and biodiversity. To accurately understand complex tropical systems it is necessary to parameterise key ecological aspects, such as rates of change (RoC), species turnover, dynamism, resilience, or stability. To obtain a long-term (>50 years) perspective on these ecological aspects we must turn to the fossil record. However, compared to temperate zones, collecting continuous sedimentary archives in the lowland tropics is often difficult due to the active landscape processes, with potentially frequent volcanic, tectonic, and/or fluvial events confounding sediment deposition, preservation, and recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ryu Uemura, Hideaki Motoyama, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jean Jouzel, Kenji Kawamura, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Shuji Fujita, Takayuki Kuramoto, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Takayuki Miyake, Hiroshi Ohno, Koji Fujita, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Yoshinori Iizuka, Shinichiro Horikawa, Makoto Igarashi, Keisuke Suzuki, Toshitaka Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Fujii
The δD temperature proxy in Antarctic ice cores varies in parallel with CO2 through glacial cycles. However, these variables display a puzzling asynchrony. Well-dated records of Southern Ocean temperature will provide crucial information because the Southern Ocean is likely key in regulating CO2 variations. Here, we perform multiple isotopic analyses on an Antarctic ice core and estimate temperature variations at this site and in the oceanic moisture source over the past 720,000 years, which extend the longest records by 300,000 years...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Sean T Hunt, Yuriy Román-Leshkov
Conspecuts Commercial and emerging renewable energy technologies are underpinned by precious metal catalysts, which enable the transformation of reactants into useful products. However, the noble metals (NMs) comprise the least abundant elements in the lithosphere, making them prohibitively scarce and expensive for future global-scale technologies. As such, intense research efforts have been devoted to eliminating or substantially reducing the loadings of NMs in various catalytic applications. These efforts have resulted in a plethora of heterogeneous NM catalyst morphologies beyond the traditional supported spherical nanoparticle...
March 6, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
J D Adams, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Hyun-Gyu Suh, Adam D Seal, Cameron A Sprong, Tracie W Kirkland, Stavros A Kavouras
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dehydration on exercise performance independently of thirst with subjects blinded of their hydration status. METHODS: Seven male cyclists (weight: 72±9 kg, body fat: 14±6%, VO2peak: 59.4±6 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg·min) exercised for 2 hours on a cycle ergometer at 55% VO2peak, in a hot-dry environment (35°C, 30% rh), with a nasogastric (NG) tube under euhydrated - non-thirst (EUH-NT) and dehydrated - non-thirst (DEH-NT) conditions...
March 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jacqueline S Silva-Cavalcanti, Monica F Costa, Luis H B Alves
Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767) evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil). Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C). Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm). Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0-1,129 g m-2 ) differed seasons (rainy and dry), with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231...
2018: PeerJ
Xiao-Yu Jin, Nan Song, Xu Wang, Chun-Yu Wang, Yan Wang, Ying-Wei Yang
A pillar[5]arene derivative with a hydrophilic sulfonic group, i.e., monosulfonicpillar[5]arene (MSP5), has been successfully synthesized for the first time, which exhibited strong binding affinity towards alcohol analogs. Significantly, fluorescent supramolecular ensemble was fabricated from the supramolecular complexation of MSP5 and a neutral guest with tetraphenylethene core. Enhanced fluorescent emission of this system can be detected both in dilute solution and the solid state, and its temperature and competitive guest multi-responsive properties suggest its promising application as a chemical sensor towards alcohol analogs, ethylenediamine, and temperature variations...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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