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Najla Kharrat, Rahil Boumellasa, Sabrine Belmabrouk, Riadh Benmarzoug, Ahmed Rebai
The identification and the screening of Charged Clusters (CCs) residues in proteins is a key analysis to assess any quantitative structure-function correlation in proteins. Here, we present a proteome wide scan for the occurrence of (CCs) in 99292 proteins using a new tool, Finding Clusters Charge in Protein Sequences Program (FCCP). The FCCP has been employed to search CCs in 35 prokaryotic proteomes (7 Psychrophiles, 10 Mesophiles, 9 thermophiles and for 9 hyperthermophiles). A new repository of 855 CC has been created...
May 18, 2018: Genomics
Hirotake Komatsu, Jeffrey Rawson, Leonard Medrano, Colin A Cook, Alyssa Barriga, Nelson Gonzalez, Mayra Salgado, Keiko Omori, Fouad Kandeel, Yu-Chong Tai, Yoko Mullen
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type-1 diabetes; however, donor shortage is a concern. Even when a pancreas is available, low islet yield limits the success of transplantation. Islet culture enables pooling of multiple low-yield isolations into an effective islet mass, but isolated islets rapidly deteriorate under conventional culture conditions. Oxygen depletion in the islet core, which leads to central necrosis and volume loss, is one of the major reasons for this deterioration...
May 16, 2018: Transplantation
Prabir Khatua, Sanjoy Bandyopadhyay
It is believed that the self-assembly of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain is the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solutions of Aβ protofilaments of different sizes at room temperature have been carried out to explore the dynamic properties of water confined within the core and at the exterior surface of the protofilaments. Attempts have been made to understand how the non-uniform distortion of the protofilaments associated with their structural crossover influences the diffusivity and the hydrogen bonding environment of the confined water molecules...
May 21, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stephen Blowers, Ian Marshall, Michael Thrippleton, Peter Andrews, Bridget Harris, Iain Bethune, Prashant Valluri
Macro-modeling of cerebral blood flow can help determine the impact of thermal intervention during instances of head trauma to mitigate tissue damage. This work presents a bioheat model using a 3D fluid-porous domain coupled with intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vascular porous (VaPor) model resolves both cerebral blood flow and energy equations, including heat generated by metabolism, using vasculature extracted from MRI data and is extended using a tree generation algorithm...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Karol Wysokiński, Dawid Budnicki, Janusz Fidelus, Łukasz Szostkiewicz, Łukasz Ostrowski, Micha Murawski, Marcin Staniszewski, Magdalena Staniszewska, Marek Napierała, Tomasz Nasiłowski
An optical fiber interferometric microprobe for detection of specific proteins is presented in this paper. The microprobe is an all-fiber device, which is based on Michelson interferometer configuration, which allows for detection of protein antigens in an analyzed solution thanks to antibodies immobilized on the sensor surface. The interferometer is made of dual core fiber and has a precisely formed arm length difference, achieved by splicing a fragment of polarization maintaining fiber to one of the cores...
May 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Liewei Qiu, Yiding Shen, Tao Wang, Chen Wang
A series of sulfonated hydroxypropyl guar gum (SHG) samples with different degrees of substitution (DSs) were prepared, and the SHG solution and SHG fracturing fluid were prepared and analyzed. The SHG aqueous solutions with different DSs all exhibit shear thinning behavior, which is well correlated with the Ostwald-deWaele model. Owing to the electrostatic repulsion of SHG molecular chains, SHG solutions with a higher DS will exhibit weaker thixotropic performance and strong anti-salinity ability. In addition, the SHG fracturing fluids, which were formed by interactions between SHG and organic zirconium, exhibit good temperature- and shear-resistant properties, proppant suspension properties, and salt tolerance...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zaishuai Zhou, Feng Guo, Nairong Wang, Meng Meng, Guiying Li
Star-shaped poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD-(PDMAEMA)7 ) was synthesized by means of atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Dual pH-sensitive supramolecular micelles were formed from β-CD-(PDMAEMA)7 and benzimidazole modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (BM-PCL) through the host-guest interactions between β-CD and benzimidazole. The supramolecular micelles have regular spherical structure with hydrophobic β-CD/BM-PCL as the core and pH-sensitive PDMAEMA as the shell...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haggai Schermann, Erin Craig, Einat Yanovich, Itay Ketko, Gary Kalmanovich, Ran Yanovich
CONTEXT:   The heat-tolerance test (HTT) is a screening tool for secondary prevention of exertional heat illness by the Israel Defense Forces. To discern participant tolerance, recruits are exposed to intermediate environmental and exercise stresses, and their physiological responses, core temperature, and heart rate are monitored. When their physiological measures rise at a higher rate or exceed the upper levels of absolute values compared with other participants, heat intolerance (HI) is diagnosed...
April 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Edward F Brown, Andrew Cumming, Farrukh J Fattoyev, C J Horowitz, Dany Page, Sanjay Reddy
We show that the neutron star in the transient system MXB 1659-29 has a core neutrino luminosity that substantially exceeds that of the modified Urca reactions (i.e., n+n→n+p+e^{-}+ν[over ¯]_{e} and inverse) and is consistent with the direct Urca (n→p+e^{-}+ν[over ¯]_{e} and inverse) reaction occurring in a small fraction of the core. Observations of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust following 2.5 yr of accretion allow us to measure the energy deposited into the core during accretion, which is then reradiated as neutrinos, and infer the core temperature...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Y Chang, X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, H J Diao, S S Zhang, Q Q Peng, Y Zhou, M Li, X Li
In order to measure the real-time variations in body temperature with increasing ambient temperature (AT) at different relative humidity (RH) levels, 60 Jinghong laying hens (35-wk-old) were raised in 3 controlled climate chambers (10 cages with 2 birds per chamber). The RH was fixed at one of 3 levels comprising 35, 50, or 85%, and the AT was increased gradually by 1 degree per 0.5 h from 18 to 35°C in the 3 chambers. The core temperature (CT) and surface temperature (ST) of the hens, as well as the AT in the 3 chambers were recorded at 3 min intervals using mini temperature data loggers...
May 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Ye Yang, Luis Antonio Serrano González, Stefan Guldin
While a plethora of protocols exist for the synthesis of sub-10nm gold nanopar- ticles (AuNPs), the independent control over size and surface composition remains restricted. This poses a particular challenge for systematic studies of AuNP structure- function relationships and optimization of crucial design parameters. To this end, we report on a modular 2-step approach based on the synthesis of AuNPs in oleylamine (OAm) followed by the subsequent functionalization with thiol ligands and mixtures thereof. The synthesis of OAm-capped AuNPs enables fine tuning of the core size in the range of 2-7nm by varying the reaction temperature...
May 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xiaoyu Ji, Shanshan Wang, Changwei Shao, Hao Wang
Amorphous SiBCN fibers possessing superior stability against oxidation have become a desirable candidate for the high-temperature aerospace applications. Currently, investigations on the high-temperature corrosion behavior of these fibers for the application in high-heat engines are insufficient. Here, our polymer-derived SiBCN fibers were corroded at 1400 °C in air and simulated combustion environments, respectively. The fibers' structural evolution after corrosion in two different conditions and the potential mechanisms are investigated...
May 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ang Gao, Liang Tan, Lawrence R Pratt, Mangesh I Chaudhari, Susan B Rempe, Dilipkumar Asthagiri, John D Weeks
The role that van der Waals (vdW) attractive forces play in the hydration and association of atomic hydrophobic solutes like argon (Ar) in water is reanalyzed using the local molecular field (LMF) theory of those interactions. In this problem, solute vdW attractive forces can reduce or mask hydrophobic interactions as measured by contact peak heights of the ArAr correlation function compared to reference results for purely repulsive core solutes. Nevertheless, both systems exhibit characteristic hydrophobic inverse temperature behavior in which hydrophobic association become stronger with increasing temperature through a moderate temperature range...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yingna Zhang, Hui Tang, Peiyi Wu
The thermal-induced phase transition behavior of a LCST-type poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) aqueous solution with gemini-cationic structure, poly[(1,8-octanediyl-bis(tri-n-butylphosphonium)4-styrene sulfonate)] (P[SS-P2]), was investigated in this paper. Based on the calorimetric measurements, a unique dependence of transition points on concentration was found in P[SS-P2] aqueous solution compared to its mono-cationic PIL and [SS-P2] aqueous solution. Optical microscopy showed that globular microscopic droplets were formed during the phase transition, suggesting that gemini dications and the possible dynamic ionic bonds may facilitate the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in P[SS-P2] aqueous solution...
May 16, 2018: Soft Matter
Yu Jinsui, Situ Bing, Luo Muhua, Li Yue, Liao Jianyi, Du Meng, Cai Kuan, Yang Chaopin, Zhang Hui, Chen Zhiyi
INTRODUCTION: Although a great many strategies have been proposed for tumor-targeted chemotherapy, current delivery methods of anticancer drugs present limited success with inevitable systemic toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop a new kind of theranostic carrier for targeted tumor therapy. METHODS: Prior to prepare CHC-PFP-DOX, carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) was synthesized by acylation of carboxymethyl chitosan. To develop CHC-PFP, perfluoropentane (PFP), an ultrasound gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into the hydrophobic inner cores of pre-formulated CHC micelle in aqueous phase via using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method...
May 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yuri P Panarin, Sithara P Sreenilayam, Jagdish K Vij, Anne Lehmann, Carsten Tschierske
Two homologue achiral bent-core liquid crystals (LCs), BCN66 and BCN84, in their nematic phases are studied by dielectric spectroscopy in the frequency range 10 Hz-10 MHz. In each of these compounds, two relaxation processes are identified and assigned to (i) collective dynamics of molecules in nanometer-sized cybotactic clusters and (ii) individual molecular relaxations, in the ascending order of frequency of the probe field. The temperature and the bias electric field dependence of the dielectric strength and relaxation frequency for these processes are shown to give rise to sharpness in cluster boundaries, increased size and volume fraction in the LC nematic phase...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Hiroyuki Inoue, Shuji Uemura, Keisuke Harada, Hirotoshi Mizuno, Naofumi Bunya, Kazuhito Nomura, Ryuichiro Kakizaki, Eichi Narimatsu
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic damage is commonly observed as a consequence of accidental hypothermia (core body temperature below 35 °C). We aimed to investigate the risk factors for pancreatic damage and the causal relationship in patients with accidental hypothermia. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center, observational case-control study was conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. We investigated patients who were admitted for accidental hypothermia over a course of ten years (January 2008 to December 2017)...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Qinghua Li, Rongqing Sun, Hongdi Lyu, Dexin Shen, Qing Hu, Haiwei Wang, Nannan Wang, Jin Yan, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different core temperatures (Tc) after heat strike on serum inflammatory cytokines and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in rat. METHODS: 120 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n = 30) and heat strike group (n = 90). The rats in heat strike group were put into simulated thermal climate animal module after adaptive training. The module temperature was raised to 39 centigrade in 30 minutes with 65% humidity...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Fan Wang, Zhiquan Lin, Chongyun Shao, Qinling Zhou, Lei Zhang, Meng Wang, Danping Chen, Guojun Gao, Shikai Wang, Chunlei Yu, Lili Hu
The laser behavior of a centimeter-scale Er3+ /Al3+ codoped silica fiber with core numerical aperture and core diameter of 0.15 and 8 μm, respectively, is reported. The core glass was prepared by the sol-gel method combined with high-temperature sintering; it contained Er3+ ion concentration as high as 1.32×1020   ions/cm3 and an Al/Er mole ratio of 10. The high doping homogeneity of Er3+ ions in the fiber core was confirmed by an electron probe microanalyzer element scanning, long Er3+ :  I13/2 4 emission lifetime of 11...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sangho Yu, Helia Cheng, Marie François, Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Clara Huesing, Yanlin He, Yanyan Jiang, Hong Gao, Yong Xu, Andrea Zsombok, Andrei V Derbenev, Eduardo A Nillni, David H Burk, Christopher D Morrison, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg
The adipokine leptin acts on the brain to regulate energy balance but specific functions in many brain areas remain poorly understood. Among these, the preoptic area (POA) is well known to regulate core body temperature by controlling brown fat thermogenesis, and we have previously shown that glutamatergic, long-form leptin receptor (Lepr)-expressing neurons in the POA are stimulated by warm ambient temperature and suppress energy expenditure and food intake. Here we further investigate the role of POA leptin signaling in body weight regulation and its relationship to body temperature regulation in mice...
May 15, 2018: ELife
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